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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 896685, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924243

RESUMO

Cell therapy is a distinguished targeted immunotherapy with great potential to treat solid tumors in the new era of cancer treatment. Cell therapy products include genetically engineered cell products and non-genetically engineered cell products. Several recent cell therapies, especially chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapies, have been approved as novel treatment strategies for cancer. Many clinical trials on cell therapies, in the form of cell therapy alone or in combination with other treatments, in solid tumors, have been conducted or ongoing. However, there are still challenges since adverse events and the limited efficacy of cell therapies have also been observed. Here, we concisely summarize the clinical milestones of the conducted and ongoing clinical trials of cell therapy, introduce the evolution of CARs, discuss the challenges and limitations of these therapeutic modalities taking CAR-T as the main focus, and analyze the disparities in the regulatory policies in different countries.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Humanos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/genética , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética , Linfócitos T
2.
J Transl Med ; 20(1): 349, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918758

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the second cancer and the leading cause of tumor-related mortality worldwide. Angiogenesis is a crucial hallmark of cancer development and a promising target in lung cancer. However, the anti-angiogenic drugs currently used in the clinic do not achieve long-term efficacy and are accompanied by severe adverse reactions. Therefore, the development of novel anti-angiogenic therapeutic approaches for lung cancer is urgently needed. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) participate in multiple biological processes in cancers, including tumor angiogenesis. Many studies have demonstrated that ncRNAs play crucial roles in tumor angiogenesis. This review discusses the regulatory functions of different ncRNAs in lung cancer angiogenesis, focusing on the downstream targets and signaling pathways regulated by these ncRNAs. Additionally, given the recent trend towards utilizing ncRNAs as cancer therapeutics, we also discuss the tremendous potential applications of ncRNAs as biomarkers or novel anti-angiogenic tools in lung cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , RNA Longo não Codificante , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
3.
Int J Clin Pract ; 2022: 7581110, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910069

RESUMO

Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Hypertension is often accompanied by osteoporosis. However, the relationship between ACEI/ARB and fractures remains controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to update the potential relationship between ACEI/ARB and fractures. Methods: This meta-analysis was identified through PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Related studies about ACEI/ARB with the risk of fracture were published from inception to June 2022. Results: Nine qualified prospective designed studies, involving 3,649,785 subjects, were included in this analysis. Overall, the RRs of ACEI compared with the nonusers were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.88, 1.10; P < 0.001) for composite fractures and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.05; P=0.048) for hip fractures; the RRs of ARB compared to the nonusers were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.91; P < 0.001) for composite fractures and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.97; P=0.028) for hip fractures. Furthermore, in the subgroup analysis, male may benefit from ARB (RR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.89, P=0.028), and the European may also benefit from ARB (RR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.80, 0.93, P=0.015). Conclusions: ACEI usage will not decrease the risk of osteoporosis fracture. On the contrary, ARB usage can decrease the risk of total fracture and hip fracture, especially for males and Europeans. Compared with ACEI, for patients at higher risk of fracture in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, the protective effect of ARB should be considered.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Hipertensão , Osteoporose , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929594

RESUMO

The complement cascade plays a "complementing" role in human immunity. However, the potential roles of complement system in impacting molecular and clinical features of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, eleven public datasets are analyzed to compare the complement status between normal and cancerous samples based on 18 classical complement-associated genes. The complement scores are constructed to quantify complement signatures of individual tumors. HCC patients in the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort are focused to perform systematical analyses between complement status and immune infiltration, miRNA expression, DNA methylation, clinicopathological features, and drug response. The results show that the complement scores in normal tissues are dramatically higher than those of tumor tissues. Tumor samples in the TCGA cohort are classified into complement score-low and score-high groups. Pathway analysis reveals that tumor-promoting pathways are typically inhibited in complement score-high group. This study also shows that tumor-killing immune cells, such as CD8 T cells and natural killer cells are abundant and tumor-suppressing miRNAs are upregulated in complement score-high samples. In addition, we identify that complement scores are negatively correlated with certain clinical features, including pathological grade, clinical-stage, and portal vein invasion. Moreover, various molecular features together with complement scores are found to be correlated with response to anti-cancer drugs. This study provides a comprehensive and multidimensional analysis conducive to understanding the role of complement in cancer.

5.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922376

RESUMO

The seroprevalence of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is high in Xinjiang, China. But the seroprevalence of KSHV and risk factors are still unknown in Gansu which is adjacent to Xinjiang. 678 serum samples of general population and 87 serum samples of syphilis patients from Jiuquan, Gansu were tested for antibodies against KSHV including one latent protein (ORF73) and two lytic proteins (ORF65 and K8.1) using the ELISA. The total KSHV-seropositive rate was 15.9% in 678 serum samples of Jiuquan area, the KSHV-seropositive rate of males was higher than females (18.0% VS 14.6%, P > 0.05). The Uygur, Kazakh, Hui, Manchu and Mongolian population had a higher seroprevalence of KSHV than the Han population (43.8%, 40.0%, 34.5%, 30.3%, 35.0% VS 11.0%, respectively) among the ethnic groups in Jiuquan. Compared to the Han, Uygur, Kazak, Hui, Manchu and Mongolian people had an increase in the risk of KSHV of 528.9%, 439.1%, 325.6%, 251.6%, 335.4% (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.002, P = 0.003, respectively). The serum prevalence of KSHV in subjects aged < 20 years, 20-50 years and > 50 years was 13.8%, 14.7% and 20.1%, respectively. Compared to the subjects aged < 20 years, 20-50 years and > 50 years had an increase in the risk of KSHV of 7.4% and 56.9% (P = 0.829 and P = 0.204, respectively). Compared to the positive rate of KSHV in the general population of Anhui, the positive rate of KSHV was significantly higher in the general population of Jiuquan area (15.9% VS 9%, P < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the positive rate of KSHV between the Han population of Jiuquan and the Han population of Anhui (P > 0.05). In the population of syphilis patients of Jiuquan area, the positive rate of KSHV was 30.7%, which was higher than that of the general population in Gansu area (P < 0.05). This study indicates that Gansu has a high seroprevalence of KSHV. Ethnicity and syphilis are risk factors for KSHV infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Curr Eye Res ; : 1-7, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924323

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) constitutes a class of common inherited retinal dystrophies. Patients with RP and comorbid primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) have been described, but the relationship between the diseases remains unclear. This study investigated the clinical and genetic characteristics of Chinese patients with RP and comorbid PACG. METHODS: Of 1356 patients with RP, we analyzed the genetic features of 39 RP patients with PACG using next-generation sequencing and reviewed their clinical characteristics. RESULTS: In total, 18 patients with acute PACG and 21 patients with chronic PACG were included in this study; their age at examination was 50.54 ± 12.99 years (range, 25.0-71.0 years), and their age at PACG onset was 46.04 ± 14.50 years (range, 24.9-68.0 years). Additionally, the mean lens thickness (LT) was 4.49 ± 0.44 µm, and the mean axial length (AL) was 22.63 ± 1.17 mm. Notably, the prevalence of PACG in patients with RP was 2.88%; this was higher than the prevalence in the general population. This could be explained by nanophthalmos, thickened lentis, ectopia lentis, or zonular insufficiency. Furthermore, patients with a shorter AL, a greater LT, iridociliary cysts, or nanophthalmos exhibited earlier development of PACG. Overall, 30 disease-causing variants spanning 17 genes were identified in 56.41% of the patients, and PRPH2 was the most common mutation gene. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that there is a strong association between RP and PACG. Furthermore, intraocular pressure (IOP) should be measured in patients with RP to protect them from the aggravated damage of an elevated IOP.

7.
Crit Rev Microbiol ; : 1-14, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924947

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease with a high mortality rate and a poor prognosis. The human microbiota has been confirmed to participate in oncogenesis and may influence the treatment response to both chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Evidence for the association of the microbiota with PDAC risk, tumorigenesis, treatment response, and survival period is rapidly emerging. The oral microbiota and gut microbiota have the potential to be used in early diagnosis and risk stratification. Intratumor microbiota-targeted intervention strategies may be used as adjuvants to current treatments to improve therapeutic efficacy and overall survival. Here, we summarize the effect and association of the oral, gut and intratumor microbiota on the oncogenesis, progression and treatment of PDAC, as well as the potential of the microbiota to serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of PDAC, as well as a therapeutic target.

8.
Psychol Trauma ; 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35925691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma and stressful life events have been identified as risk factors for the development of depression. However, little is known about the potential cognitive mechanisms underlying these associations. This study aims to investigate the associations among childhood trauma, stressful life events, and depression and to test a mediating model to examine the roles of cognitive flexibility in these associations. METHOD: First-year university students (n = 2627; Mage = 18.29, SDage = .86) were recruited from a medical university in Guangzhou, China. A total of 1,600 (60.9%) females and 1,027 (39.1%) males participated in the survey. Participants were administered self-report measures assessing childhood trauma, stressful life events, cognitive flexibility, and depression. RESULTS: Childhood trauma and stressful life events were both negative predictors of cognitive flexibility (ß = -.32, ß = -.19, respectively; ps < .01), which in turn was a negative predictor of depression (ß = -.50, p < .01). Cognitive flexibility partially mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and depression (with the indirect effect = .161, 95% confidence interval, CI [.139, .185]) as well as the relationship between stressful life events and depression (with the indirect effect = .097, 95% CI [.078, .118]). CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that childhood trauma and stressful life events not only have a direct effect on depression but also increase individuals' risk of depression by decreasing their cognitive flexibility. These findings shed light on the possible potential mechanism underlying the suicide process and highlight the important role of cognitive flexibility in suicide prevention and intervention. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

9.
Biomater Adv ; 138: 212951, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35913242

RESUMO

Hypertrophic scar (HS) is the manifestation of pathological wound healing, which affects the beauty of patients, and even affects the normal physical functions of patients. We aimed to develop a 3D printing layer membranous nanofiber scaffold similar to skin structure. Among them, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymer (PLGA) nanofibers were used as the "epidermis" layer above, and a decellular dermis matrix (dECM) nanofiber scaffold was used as the "dermis" layer below. In vitro, experimental results showed that PLGA and dECM nanofiber scaffolds had good biocompatibility. In vivo experiments showed that BLM nanofiber scaffolds could inhibit collagen fiber deposition and angiogenesis, to inhibit the formation of hypertrophic scars. This study shows a simple and effective method for preventing and inhibiting the formation of hypertrophic scars.


Assuntos
Cicatriz Hipertrófica , Nanofibras , Cicatriz Hipertrófica/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Nanofibras/uso terapêutico , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Impressão Tridimensional , Tecidos Suporte/química
10.
Endocrine ; 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921062

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Early-onset, multigenerational diabetes is a heterogeneous disease, which is often simplistically classified as type 1 diabetes (T1D) or type 2 diabetes(T2D). However, its clinical and genetic characteristics have not been clearly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the clinical features of early-onset diabetes involving three consecutive generations (eDia3) in a Chinese diabetes cohort. METHODS: Of 6470 type 2 diabetic patients, 105 were identified as eDia3 (1.6%). After a case-control match on age, we compared the clinical characteristics of 89 eDia3 patients with 89 early-onset T2D patients without a family history of diabetes (eDia0). WES was carried out in 89 patients with eDia3. We primarily focused on 14 known maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes. Variants were predicted by ten tools (SIFT, PolyPhen2_HDIV, PolyPhen2_HVAR, LRT, Mutation Assessor, Mutation Taster, FATHMM, GERP++, PhyloP, and PhastCons). All suspected variants were then validated by Sanger sequencing and further investigated in the proband families. RESULTS: Compared to age-matched eDia0, eDia3 patients had a younger age at diagnosis (26.5 ± 5.8 vs. 29.4 ± 5.3 years, P = 0.001), lower body mass index (25.5 ± 3.9 vs. 27.4 ± 4.6 kg/m2, P = 0.003), lower systolic blood pressure (120 ± 15 vs. 128 ± 18 mmHg, P = 0.003), and better metabolic profiles (including glucose and lipids). Of the 89 eDia3 patients, 10 (11.2%) carried likely pathogenic variants in genes (KLF11, GCK, ABCC8, PAX4, BLK and HNF1A) of MODY. CONCLUSIONS: eDia3 patients had unique clinical features. Known MODY genes were not common causes in these patients.

11.
J Oncol ; 2022: 9514697, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35813857

RESUMO

Our previous study has indicated that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a crucial role in regulating gemcitabine resistance through transferring exosomal miRNA-106b to cancer cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are recently verified to facilitate gemcitabine resistance. However, the effect of CAFs in regulating TAMs function in pancreatic cancer (PCa) remains unclear. Here, primary CAFs were extracted from tumor tissues of PCa patients, and CAFs-derived exosomes (CAFs-Exo) were acquired and authenticated by transmission electron microscopy, qNano, and western blot analysis. The role of exosomal miRNA-320a in facilitating macrophage M2 polarization was investigated in vitro. We found that CAFs-derived conditioned medium (CM) possessed a higher potential to promote macrophage M2 polarization compared with normal fibroblasts (NFs) or PCa cell-derived CM. Furthermore, CAFs-Exo treatment polarized macrophage to M2 phenotype. miRNA-320a levels were remarkably increased in CAFs-Exo versus NFs-Exo. More important, miRNA-320a could be transferred from CAFs to macrophages through exosomes, and miRNA-320a overexpression in macrophages facilitated its M2 polarization. Functionally, miRNA-320a-overexpressed macrophages facilitated PCa cell proliferation and invasion. CAFs pretreated with miRNA-320a inhibitor reduced miRNA-320a expression in CAFs-Exo and led to decreased M2 macrophage polarization. Finally, we verified that miRNA-320a polarized macrophage to M2 phenotype by regulating PTEN/PI3Kγ signaling. Taken together, the current data demonstrated that CAFs-derived exosomal miRNA-320a facilitated macrophage M2 polarization to accelerate malignant behavior of PCa cells.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 883958, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35783634

RESUMO

Introduction: Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis (IGN) is a rare condition with enteric involvement. Herein, we report a case series of pediatric IGN with a novel phenotypic and genotypic profile. Methods: The clinical presentation, histopathology, immunochemistry, molecular features, treatment, and prognosis of 3 cases of IGN were assessed. Results: The cases involved 3 boys with an age range of 1 year and 4 months to 8 years, mimicking juvenile polyps or pseudomembranous enteritis. One patient carried a novel germline mutation in RTEL1 (c.296C > T/p.Pro99Leu) along with variants in F11 (c.1489C > T/p.Arg497Xaa), NBAS (c.1514delC/p.Pro505Hisfs*15), and FECH (c.315-48T > C/splicing), who died due to intractable inflammation. The other two patients underwent recurrence without significant signs of systemic syndrome or malignant progression. Conclusion: This case series added to the phenotypic and genotypic spectrum of pediatric IGN, which requires the accumulation of more cases and research for in-depth understanding.

13.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2022 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900687

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Return to work (RTW) is important for survivors of head and neck cancer (HNC). The purposes of the study were to investigate the RTW ratio among HNC survivors and identify factors significantly affecting RTW in this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted in a medical center in Taiwan, with 111 patients with HNC who had completed major treatments within 5 years and were employed before their cancer diagnosis enrolled as participants. Cervical range of motion (CROM) functionality, handgrip and hip flexor strength, maximal mouth opening (MMO), selected symptoms, depression, and disease/treatment-related factors were assessed. All of the factors were analyzed using t-test, chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: Less than half (44.1%, n = 49) of the participants had returned to work. The t-test/chi-square test results showed the RTW group to be younger in age and better educated; have better handgrip/hip flexor strength, MMO, and CROM; have less speech difficulty and pain; and have less-advanced cancer than the non-RTW group. Further analysis of the above significant variables by logistic regression revealed early cancer stage, dominant handgrip strength, and less speech difficulty were the robust factors related to RTW. CONCLUSIONS: The RTW ratio is low in HNC survivors. RTW in HNC survivors is a multifactorial and complicated issue and needs to be further examined. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: Assessing the factors related to RTW systematically and developing comprehensive interventions and rehabilitation programs to reduce related dysfunctions are necessary to enhance RTW ability in HNC survivors.

14.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 69(4): 27-32, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893334

RESUMO

New, science-based cancer treatments have proliferated in recent years. Immunotherapy provides new hope for prolonging survival in patients with advanced-stage cancers. However, patients with cancer must not only face their disease progression, physical, and psychological symptoms, but also deal with the side effects and efficacy of immunotherapy. Patients with cancer may experience complex emotions such as fear, anxiety, depression, or uncertainty relatively frequently and may have many unmet care needs specific to immunotherapy. However, articles on the physical and psychological impacts and supportive care needs experienced by patients with advanced-stage cancers undergoing immunotherapy and their family caregivers are limited in the literature. Thus, this paper was developed to present (1) a brief introduction to cancer immunotherapy; (2) the physical and psychological impacts experienced by patients with cancer undergoing immunotherapy and their caregivers; (3) the status of the supportive care needs of patients and family caregivers during the immunotherapy process; and (4) an assessment of and intervention to address the supportive care needs of these patients with cancer and their caregivers. We hope this article will help clinical healthcare providers understand the physical and psychological impacts and supportive care needs of advanced patients with cancer and their family caregivers during the immunotherapy process. Furthermore, we suggest that appropriate medical care be provided or developed in the future to improve their quality of life during the immunotherapy process and to enhance clinical practices.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias , Cuidadores/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Imunoterapia/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
FASEB J ; 36(8): e22454, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839067

RESUMO

The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (TSPO/PBR) is highly conserved among different species but with perplexing biochemical functions. Multiple ligands of TSPO show commendable regulatory activities in lots of biological functions, such as neuro-protection, cholesterol transport, and so on. These researches support that TSPO may be a potential target for disease treatment and drug development. Previous studies have shown that its ligands benzodiazepines show a satisfactory effect on melanogenic promotion. However, the potential application of TSPO in drug development for pigmentary disorder needs further investigation. In this study, we confirmed the melanogenesis induction of TSPO ligand, Ro5-4864 in mouse melanoma cell lines, human skin tissue, and zebrafish embryos by inducing melanin synthesis and melanosome transport. Molecular genetics and pharmacological studies showed that TSPO deficiency did not affect melanin production in B16F10 cells and zebrafish embryos, nor did it affect the melanin promotion effect of Ro5-4864. Whether or not TSPO exists, the expression of lots of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as TYR, TRP-1, DCT, Mlph, and Rab27 was upregulated with the Ro5-4864 administration. These results indicated that Ro5-4864 induces melanogenesis in a TSPO-independent manner, which is inconsistent with previous research. This research is a reminder that we need to be very careful during target validation in drug development.


Assuntos
Melaninas , Receptores de GABA , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Benzodiazepinonas/farmacologia , Benzodiazepinonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ligantes , Melaninas/biossíntese , Melaninas/metabolismo , Melanoma , Camundongos , Receptores de GABA/genética , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-A/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 794045, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35847781

RESUMO

Purpose: To develop artificial intelligence (AI)-based deep learning (DL) models for automatically detecting the ischemia type and the non-perfusion area (NPA) from color fundus photographs (CFPs) of patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 274 CFPs from patients diagnosed with BRVO. All DL models were trained using a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) based on 45 degree CFPs covering the fovea and the optic disk. We first trained a DL algorithm to identify BRVO patients with or without the necessity of retinal photocoagulation from 219 CFPs and validated the algorithm on 55 CFPs. Next, we trained another DL algorithm to segment NPA from 104 CFPs and validated it on 29 CFPs, in which the NPA was manually delineated by 3 experienced ophthalmologists according to fundus fluorescein angiography. Both DL models have been cross-validated 5-fold. The recall, precision, accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the DL models in comparison with three types of independent ophthalmologists of different seniority. Results: In the first DL model, the recall, precision, accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC) were 0.75 ± 0.08, 0.80 ± 0.07, 0.79 ± 0.02, and 0.82 ± 0.03, respectively, for predicting the necessity of laser photocoagulation for BRVO CFPs. The second DL model was able to segment NPA in CFPs of BRVO with an AUC of 0.96 ± 0.02. The recall, precision, and accuracy for segmenting NPA was 0.74 ± 0.05, 0.87 ± 0.02, and 0.89 ± 0.02, respectively. The performance of the second DL model was nearly comparable with the senior doctors and significantly better than the residents. Conclusion: These results indicate that the DL models can directly identify and segment retinal NPA from the CFPs of patients with BRVO, which can further guide laser photocoagulation. Further research is needed to identify NPA of the peripheral retina in BRVO, or other diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886266

RESUMO

The excessive nutrients in freshwater have been proven to promote eutrophication and harmful algae blooms, which have become great threats to water quality and human health. To elucidate the responses of the plankton community structure and function to total phosphorus (TP) at environmental concentrations in the freshwater ecosystem, a microcosm study was implemented. The results showed that plankton communities were significantly affected by the TP concentration ≥ 0.1 mg/L treatments. In terms of community structure, TP promoted the growth of Cyanophyta. This effect was transmitted to the zooplankton community, resulting in the promotion of Cladocera growth from day 42. The community diversities of phytoplankton and zooplankton had been continuously inhibited by TP. The principal response curve (PRC) analysis results demonstrated that the species composition of phytoplankton and zooplankton community in TP enrichment treatments significantly (p ≤ 0.05) deviated from the control. For community function, TP resulted in the decline in phytoplankton photosynthesis. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were significantly inhibited when TP concentration reached 0.4 mg/L. In TP ≥ 0.1 mg/L treatments, the reductions in total phytoplankton abundances led to a continuous decrease in pH. This study can directly prove that the plankton community changes significantly when TP concentrations are greater than 0.1 mg/L and can help managers to establish specific nutrient management strategies for surface water.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Plâncton , Animais , Ecossistema , Eutrofização , Humanos , Fósforo/análise , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Zooplâncton/fisiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35904601

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and project the epidemiological trends and the burden of lung cancer in China. METHODS: We extracted incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and age-standardized rates of lung cancer in China, between 1990 and 2019, from the Global Burden of Disease Study (2019). The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) was applied to quantify the trends of lung cancer burden. Furthermore, we used the Bayesian age-period-cohort model to project the incidence and mortality in the next decade. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2019, the estimated national number of lung cancer incident cases increased by 224.0% to 832,920, deaths increased by 195.4% to 757,170 and DALYs increased by 146.1% to 17,128,580, respectively. Meanwhile, the ASIR, ASMR and ASDR showed an upward trend (EAPC of 1.33, 0.94 and 0.42, respectively). The ASIR and ASMR among males were about 2 times more than females, but the increase in ASIR in females (EAPC = 2.24) was more obvious than those in males (EAPC = 0.10) from 2020 to 2030. In China, smoking remained responsible for the highest burden of lung cancer, but the contribution of ambient particulate matter pollution to DALYs increased from 10.6% in 1990 to 22.5% in 2019 in total population. Moreover, we predicted that the number of deaths from lung cancer will increase by 42.7% in China by 2030. CONCLUSION: In China, the burden of lung cancer has been increasing over the past three decades, which highlights more targeted intervention measures are needed to reduce the burden of lung cancer.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35893817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: mRNA-based cancer vaccines have been considered a promising anticancer therapeutic approach against various cancers, yet their efficacy for malignant mesothelioma (MESO) is still not clear. The present study is designed to identify MESO antigens that have the potential for mRNA vaccine development, and to determine the immune subtypes for the selection of suitable patients. METHODS: A total of 87 MESO datasets were used for the retrieval of RNA sequencing and clinical data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) databases. The possible antigens were identified by a survival and a genome analysis. The samples were divided into two immune subtypes by the application of a consensus clustering algorithm. The functional annotation was also carried out by using the DAVID program. Furthermore, the characterization of each immune subtype related to the immune microenvironment was integrated by an immunogenomic analysis. A protein-protein interaction network was established to categorize the hub genes. RESULTS: The five tumor antigens were identified in MESO. FAM134B, ALDH3A2, SAV1, and RORC were correlated with superior prognoses and the infiltration of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), while FN1 was associated with poor survival and the infiltration of APCs. Two immune subtypes were identified; TM2 exhibited significantly improved survival and was more likely to benefit from vaccination compared with TM1. TM1 was associated with a relatively quiet microenvironment, high tumor mutation burden, and enriched DNA damage repair pathways. The immune checkpoints and immunogenic cell death modulators were also differentially expressed between two subtypes. Finally, FN1 was identified to be the hub gene. CONCLUSIONS: FAM134B, ALDH3A2, SAV1, RORC, and FN1 are considered as possible and effective mRNA anti-MESO antigens for the development of an mRNA vaccine, and TM2 patients are the most suitable for vaccination.

20.
Front Surg ; 9: 935048, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35903259

RESUMO

Introduction: Cowden syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disease associated with PTEN mutation and is mainly shown as systemic multisystem lesions. The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the duodenum with Cowden syndrome in Asian males is rare. We hereby describe the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of a patient with duodenal carcinoma and Cowden syndrome. Case Description: A 40-year-old Chinese man was hospitalized because of gastrointestinal hemorrhage and anemia due to infiltrating adenocarcinoma of the descending part of the duodenum. He also had typical signs of Cowden syndrome, such as multiple polyps of the gastrointestinal tract, macrocephaly, papilloma of the tongue, soles hyperkeratosis, and melanosis spots. After the pancreaticoduodenectomy (classic Whipple), the lesions revealed the presence of hamartomatoid polyps, and some of them mutated into non-mucinous adenocarcinoma (80%) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (20%). Further investigation showed a lack of PTEN protein expression in the duodenal neoplasm, and genetic analysis showed the mutation of p.E242fs in PTEN. The patient was followed up for 1 year. There was no appearance of recurrence or distant metastasis. Conclusion: It is suggested that we should pay more attention to the differential diagnosis of duodenal carcinoma combined with gastrointestinal polyps. If multiple gastrointestinal polyps with gastrointestinal bleeding are encountered, Cowden syndrome should be considered, and timely diagnosis and treatment should be implemented.

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