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1.
Acta Biomed ; 90(3): 394-397, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: An increase of vaccine hesitancy has spread worldwide and lead to reduction in coverage rates. The trivalent Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine has been one of the most targeted leading due to possible (but never proven) adverse effects. This resulted in an increase of measles cases. The aim of the study is to analyze the 24-months coverage rates for the MMR vaccine in Emilia-Romagna Region (RER) between 2007 and 2018 and to correlate any significant changes to index events. METHODS: Official aggregate data on vaccination coverage at 24-month provided by the RER and the Italian Ministry of health were analyzed and discussed. RESULTS: From 2012 to 2015 a significant reduction in vaccination rates has been registered. In the following years an increase was recorded temporarily related to national and regional laws. CONCLUSION: The mandatory vaccination strategies seem to be in the short period effective in RER to counteract the growing population neegative attitudes towards vaccination and mitigate vaccine hesitancy.

2.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 374, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of hip, knee and shoulder arthroplasties continues to rise worldwide. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development has launched an initiative (called PaRIS Initiative) for the systematic collection of Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) in patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty. The Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute (IOR) was selected as a pilot center for the launch of the Initiative in Italy given that IOR hosts the Registry of Orthopedic Prosthetic Implants (RIPO), a region-wide registry which collects joint implant data from all the hospitals in the Emilia-Romagna Region. In this specific geographic area information related to PROMs after joint replacement is unknown. This paper describes the protocol of a study (PaRIS-IOR) that aims to implement the collection of a set of PROMs within an existing implant registry in Italy. The study will also investigate the temporal trend of PROMs in relation to the type of prosthesis and the type of surgical intervention. METHODS: The PaRIS-IOR study is a prospective, single site, cohort study that consists of the administration of PROMs questionnaires to patients on the list for elective arthroplasty. The questionnaires will be administered to the study population within 30 days before surgery, and then at 6 and 12 months following surgery. The study population will consist of consecutive adult patients undergoing either hip, knee or shoulder arthroplasty. The collected data will be linked with those routinely collected by the RIPO in order to assess the temporal trend of PROMs in relation to the type of prosthesis and the type of surgical intervention. DISCUSSION: The PaRIS-IOR study could have important implications in targeting the factors influencing functional outcomes and quality of life reported by patients after hip, knee and shoulder arthroplasty, and will also represent the first systematic collection of PROMs related to arthroplasty in Italy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Protocol version (1.0) and trial registration data are available on the platform www.clinicaltrial.gov with the identifier NCT03790267 , first posted on December 31, 2018.

3.
Pharmacoecon Open ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many studies and systematic reviews have estimated the healthcare costs of diabetes using a cost-of-illness approach. However, in the studies based on this approach patients' heterogeneity is rarely taken into account. The aim of this study was to stratify patients with type 2 diabetes into homogeneous cost groups based on demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cost-of-illness study by linking individual data on health services utilization retrieved from the administrative databases of Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy). Direct medical costs (either all-cause or diabetes-related) were calculated from the perspective of the regional health service, using tariffs for hospitalizations and outpatient services and the unit costs of prescriptions for drugs. The determinants of costs identified in a generalized linear regression model were used to characterize subgroups of patients with homogeneous costs in a classification and regression tree analysis. RESULTS: The study population consisted of a cohort of 101,334 patients with type 2 diabetes, followed up for 1 year, with a mean age of 70.9 years. Age, gender, complications, comorbidities and living area accounted significantly for cost variability. The classification tree identified ten patient subgroups with different costs, ranging from a median of €483 to €39,578. The two subgroups with highest costs comprised dialysis patients, and the largest subgroup (57.9%) comprised patients aged ≥ 65 years without renal, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: Classification of patients into homogeneous cost subgroups can be used to improve the management of, and budget allocation for, patients with type 2 diabetes.

4.
BMJ Open ; 9(5): e027909, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122996

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the trends of amenable mortality rates (AMRs) in children over the period 2001-2015. DESIGN: Time trend analysis. SETTING: Thirty-four member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). PARTICIPANTS: Midyear estimates of the resident population aged ≤14 years. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Using data from the WHO Mortality Database and Nolte and McKee's list, AMRs were calculated as the annual number of deaths over the population/100 000 inhabitants. The rates were stratified by age groups (<1, 1-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years). All data were summarised by presenting the average rates for the years 2001/2005, 2006/2010 and 2011/2015. RESULTS: There was a significant decline in children's AMRs in the <1 year group in all 34 OECD countries from 2001/2005 to 2006/2010 (332.78 to 295.17/100 000; %Δ -11.30%; 95% CI -18.75% to -3.85%) and from 2006/2010 to 2011/2015 (295.17 to 240.22/100 000; %Δ -18.62%; 95% CI -26.53% to -10.70%) and a slow decline in the other age classes. The only cause of death that was significantly reduced was conditions originating in the early neonatal period for the <1 year group. The age-specific distribution of causes of death did not vary significantly over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The low decline in amenable mortality rates for children aged ≥1 year, the large variation in amenable mortality rates across countries and the insufficient success in reducing mortality from all causes suggest that the heath system should increase its efforts to enhance child survival. Promoting models of comanagement between primary care and subspecialty services, encouraging high-quality healthcare and knowledge, financing universal access to healthcare and adopting best practice guidelines might help reduce amenable child mortality.

5.
JAMA ; 321(17): 1702-1715, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063572

RESUMO

Importance: Both low and high gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant outcomes, but optimal gestational weight gain remains uncertain and not well defined for all prepregnancy weight ranges. Objectives: To examine the association of ranges of gestational weight gain with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes and estimate optimal gestational weight gain ranges across prepregnancy body mass index categories. Design, Setting, and Participants: Individual participant-level meta-analysis using data from 196 670 participants within 25 cohort studies from Europe and North America (main study sample). Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were estimated for each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category by selecting the range of gestational weight gain that was associated with lower risk for any adverse outcome. Individual participant-level data from 3505 participants within 4 separate hospital-based cohorts were used as a validation sample. Data were collected between 1989 and 2015. The final date of follow-up was December 2015. Exposures: Gestational weight gain. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome termed any adverse outcome was defined as the presence of 1 or more of the following outcomes: preeclampsia, gestational hypertension, gestational diabetes, cesarean delivery, preterm birth, and small or large size for gestational age at birth. Results: Of the 196 670 women (median age, 30.0 years [quartile 1 and 3, 27.0 and 33.0 years] and 40 937 were white) included in the main sample, 7809 (4.0%) were categorized at baseline as underweight (BMI <18.5); 133 788 (68.0%), normal weight (BMI, 18.5-24.9); 38 828 (19.7%), overweight (BMI, 25.0-29.9); 11 992 (6.1%), obesity grade 1 (BMI, 30.0-34.9); 3284 (1.7%), obesity grade 2 (BMI, 35.0-39.9); and 969 (0.5%), obesity grade 3 (BMI, ≥40.0). Overall, any adverse outcome occurred in 37.2% (n = 73 161) of women, ranging from 34.7% (2706 of 7809) among women categorized as underweight to 61.1% (592 of 969) among women categorized as obesity grade 3. Optimal gestational weight gain ranges were 14.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for women categorized as underweight; 10.0 kg to less than 18.0 kg for normal weight; 2.0 kg to less than 16.0 kg for overweight; 2.0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 1; weight loss or gain of 0 kg to less than 4.0 kg for obesity grade 2; and weight gain of 0 kg to less than 6.0 kg for obesity grade 3. These gestational weight gain ranges were associated with low to moderate discrimination between those with and those without adverse outcomes (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.55-0.76). Results for discriminative performance in the validation sample were similar to the corresponding results in the main study sample (range for area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.51-0.79). Conclusions and Relevance: In this meta-analysis of pooled individual participant data from 25 cohort studies, the risk for adverse maternal and infant outcomes varied by gestational weight gain and across the range of prepregnancy weights. The estimates of optimal gestational weight gain may inform prenatal counseling; however, the optimal gestational weight gain ranges had limited predictive value for the outcomes assessed.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , Peso ao Nascer , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Gestacional , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Obesidade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro
7.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 18(5): 559-574, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in high-income countries usually occurs sporadically with low incidence and occasionally as small clusters or outbreaks. The WHO guidelines (GLs) for IMD outbreak applies only to African countries with high endemic incidence. Several high-income countries developed their own GLs on IMD outbreak, and we compare their terminology, classification, definitions, and public health interventions. METHODS: National IMD outbreak GLs of the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member states were compared. Due to linguistic barriers, 17 out of forty-one countries were selected, and the GLs on the websites of the national health authorities were independently screened by two researchers. RESULTS: National GLs on IMD outbreak were available for 12 countries. All GLs classify IMD outbreak into organization and community based using different terminology (cluster, epidemic, etc.). Two GLs introduce also a third condition of hyperendemic. Definitions, thresholds, and countermeasures vary among countries. CONCLUSIONS: Different definitions of organization and community-based outbreaks and countermeasures are expected because of uncertainties about their effectiveness, and differences between countries in health-care systems and public health policy approaches. Nevertheless, variations in terminology, definitions and countermeasures are confusing and reflect the need for an international standardization.

8.
PLoS Med ; 16(2): e1002744, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30742624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain may have persistent effects on offspring fat development. However, it remains unclear whether these effects differ by severity of obesity, and whether these effects are restricted to the extremes of maternal body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain. We aimed to assess the separate and combined associations of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain with the risk of overweight/obesity throughout childhood, and their population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis of data from 162,129 mothers and their children from 37 pregnancy and birth cohort studies from Europe, North America, and Australia. We assessed the individual and combined associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain, both in clinical categories and across their full ranges, with the risks of overweight/obesity in early (2.0-5.0 years), mid (5.0-10.0 years) and late childhood (10.0-18.0 years), using multilevel binary logistic regression models with a random intercept at cohort level adjusted for maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle-related characteristics. We observed that higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain both in clinical categories and across their full ranges were associated with higher risks of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects in late childhood (odds ratios [ORs] for overweight/obesity in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively: OR 1.66 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.78], OR 1.91 [95% CI: 1.85, 1.98], and OR 2.28 [95% CI: 2.08, 2.50] for maternal overweight; OR 2.43 [95% CI: 2.24, 2.64], OR 3.12 [95% CI: 2.98, 3.27], and OR 4.47 [95% CI: 3.99, 5.23] for maternal obesity; and OR 1.39 [95% CI: 1.30, 1.49], OR 1.55 [95% CI: 1.49, 1.60], and OR 1.72 [95% CI: 1.56, 1.91] for excessive gestational weight gain). The proportions of childhood overweight/obesity prevalence attributable to maternal overweight, maternal obesity, and excessive gestational weight gain ranged from 10.2% to 21.6%. Relative to the effect of maternal BMI, excessive gestational weight gain only slightly increased the risk of childhood overweight/obesity within each clinical BMI category (p-values for interactions of maternal BMI with gestational weight gain: p = 0.038, p < 0.001, and p = 0.637 in early, mid, and late childhood, respectively). Limitations of this study include the self-report of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain for some of the cohorts, and the potential of residual confounding. Also, as this study only included participants from Europe, North America, and Australia, results need to be interpreted with caution with respect to other populations. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight/obesity, with the strongest effects at later ages. The additional effect of gestational weight gain in women who are overweight or obese before pregnancy is small. Given the large population impact, future intervention trials aiming to reduce the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity should focus on maternal weight status before pregnancy, in addition to weight gain during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise de Dados , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
9.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105318817356, 2018 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30574793

RESUMO

Impacts of type 1 diabetes and relationship factors on health and wellbeing of both persons with diabetes and partners (T1D partners) have not been investigated. Integrative review methods evaluated the evidence. From 323 titles, we included 24 studies involving 16,083 persons with diabetes and 1020 T1D partners. Studies were quantitative ( n = 13), qualitative ( n = 9) and mixed methods ( n = 2). Maintaining resilient, good quality, intimate relationships optimises physical and psychological outcomes for persons with diabetes. Partners experience disturbed sleep and while general psychological health is maintained, distress surrounding hypoglycaemia is overwhelming for over a third of partners. Nurturing quality relationships could reap significant health benefits.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1236, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to analyse participation trajectories in organised breast and cervical cancer screening programmes and the association between socioeconomic variables and participation. METHODS: A pooled, cross-sectional, time series analysis was used to evaluate secondary data from 17 European countries in 2004-2014. RESULTS: The results show that the mammographic screening trend decreases after an initial increase (coefficient for the linear term = 0.40; p = 0.210; 95% CI = - 0.25, 1.06; coefficient for the quadratic term = - 0.07; p = 0.027; 95% CI = - 0.14, - 0.01), while the cervical screening trend is essentially stable (coefficient for the linear term = 0.39, p = 0.312, 95% CI = - 0.42, 1.20; coefficient for the quadratic term = 0.02, p = 0.689, 95% CI = - 0.07, 0.10). There is a significant difference among the country-specific slopes for breast and cervical cancer screening (SD = 16.7, p < 0.001; SD = 14.4, p < 0.001, respectively). No association is found between participation rate and educational level, income, type of employment, unemployment and preventive expenditure. However, participation in cervical cancer screening is significantly associated with a higher proportion of younger women (≤ 49 years) and a higher Gini index (that is, higher income inequality). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion three messages: organized cancer screening programmes may reduce the socioeconomic inequalities in younger people's use of preventive services over time; socioeconomic variables are not related to participation rates; these rates do not reach a level of stability in several countries. Therefore, without effective recruitment strategies and tailored organizations, screening participation may not achieve additional gains.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395208

RESUMO

Objective: To analyse the trajectories of hip-fracture surgery rates within 2 days of admission to the hospital and the ratios of procedures initiated within the same day (Day 0) and the following day (Days 0-1) to procedures performed on the 2nd day. To study the association between socioeconomic, health input variables and early surgery. Design: A pooled, cross-sectional, time-series analysis was used to evaluate secondary data from 15 European countries, during 2000-13. Results: The rate of patients aged ≥65 years that were operated on within 2 days of hip-fracture has changed over time with an EU average annual increase of 0.42% (95% CI = 0.25, 0.59; P < 0.001) and with a significant linear trend. Multiple slopes from all the countries compete with this result. In contrast, the ratios of procedures initiated within the same day (Day 0) and the following day (Days 0-1) compared to procedures performed on the 2nd day are constant. No association was found between the rate of patients treated within 2 days of admission and demographic structure, health expenditure, health resources. However, the rate of patients treated within 2 days of admission is significantly associated with surgical volumes. Conclusions: As the early surgery rate is growing, policy makers should be encouraged to undertake further policies to support the quality of care, and the providers should be driven to improve their organizational effectiveness by taking actions aimed at acting on specific organizational and logistical causes that represent a barrier to early surgery.

12.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 201, 2018 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies. METHODS: We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape. RESULTS: We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4-17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5-17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1-17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0-15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3-13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9-11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications. CONCLUSIONS: Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351340

RESUMO

International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) project. The harmonization process followed six steps: organization of the harmonization panel; identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable to its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classifications of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and data preparation and delivery through a knowledge management portal. We agreed on 137 reference definitions. The inferential equivalence of 3,551 cohort variables to their corresponding reference definition was classified as complete, partial and impossible for 70%, 15% and 15% of the variables, respectively. A harmonized database was delivered. In birth cohorts of asthma and allergies, the harmonization of data for pooled analyses is feasible and may achieve high inferential comparability. The MeDALL harmonization approach can be used in other collaborative projects.

14.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105318804866, 2018 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295514

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the correlations and relevance of self-efficacy items in 411 patients with diabetes using network analysis. We found that the self-efficacy items structure is consistent between genders and types of diabetes. However, the strength of item correlations was significantly higher in type 2 diabetes. The items central to the network were following a regular diet in type 2 diabetes and adjusting diet when ill in type 1 diabetes. No significant gender differences were found. Knowledge of the most central aspects of self-efficacy and their interconnections can help clinicians to target psychoeducational interventions aimed at empowering patients.

15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 701, 2018 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30200950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip fracture in elderly patients is a rising global public health concern because of population ageing, and increasing frailty. Long-term morbidity related to poor management of hip fracture is associated with decreased quality of life, survival, and increase in healthcare costs. Receiving postoperative rehabilitation is associated with better outcomes and a higher likelihood of returning to pre-existing level of functioning. However little is known about which postoperative rehabilitation pathways are more effective to optimize patient outcomes. Few studies have analyzed postoperative rehabilitation pathways in a universal healthcare system. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of post-acute rehabilitation pathways on mortality and readmission in elderly patients undergoing surgery for hip fracture in a large metropolitan area in Italy. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 6-month mortality from admission and 6-month readmission after hospital discharge in patients who underwent surgical repair for hip fracture in the hospitals of the Bologna metropolitan area between 1.1.2013 and 30.6.2014. Data were drawn from the regional hospital discharge records database. Kaplan-Meier estimates and multiple Cox regression were used to analyze mortality as a function of rehabilitation pathways. Multiple logistic regression determined predictors of readmission. RESULTS: The study population includes 2208 patients, mostly women (n = 1677, 76%), with a median age of 83.8 years. Hospital rehabilitation was provided to 519 patients (23.5%), 907 (41.1%) received rehabilitation in private inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRF) accredited by the National Health System, and 782 (35.4%) received no post-acute rehabilitation. Compared with patient receiving hospital rehabilitation, the other groups showed significantly higher mortality risks (no rehabilitation, Hazard Ratio (HR) = 2.19, 95%CI = 1.54-3.12, p < 0.001; IRF rehabilitation, HR = 1.66, 95%CI = 1.54-1.79, p < 0.001). The risk of readmission did not differ significantly among rehabilitation pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive hospital rehabilitation was significantly associated with a lower risk of mortality compared to IRF rehabilitation and no rehabilitation. Our results may help in the development of evidence-based recommendations aimed to improve resource utilization and quality of care in hip fracture patients. Further research is warranted to investigate the impact of the rehabilitation pathway on other outcomes, such as patients' functional status and quality of life.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/reabilitação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Hospitais Privados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 671, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157828

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After 2008 global economic crisis, Italian governments progressively reduced public healthcare financing. Describing the time trend of health outcomes and health expenditure may be helpful for policy makers during the resources' allocation decision making process. The aim of this paper is to analyze the trend of mortality and health spending in Italy and to investigate their correlation in consideration of the funding constraints experienced by the Italian national health system (SSN). METHODS: We conducted a 20-year time-series study. Secondary data has been extracted from a national, institution based and publicly accessible retrospective database periodically released by the Italian Institute of Statistics. Age standardized all-cause mortality rate (MR) and health spending (Directly Provided Services - DPS, Agreed-Upon Services - TAUS, and private expenditure) were reviewed. Time trend analysis (1995-2014) through OLS and Multilayer Feed-forward Neural Networks (MFNN) models to forecast mortality and spending trend was performed. The association between healthcare expenditure and MR was analyzed through a fixed effect regression model. We then repeated MFNN time trend forecasting analyses on mortality by adding the spending item resulted significantly related with MR in the fixed effect analyses. RESULTS: DPS and TAUS decreased since 2011. There was a mismatch in mortality rates between real and predicted values. DPS resulted significantly associated to mortality (p < 0.05). In repeated mortality forecasting analysis, predicted MR was found to be lower when considering the pre-constraints health spending trend. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2011 and 2014, Italian public health spending items showed a reduction when compared to prior years. Spending on services directly provided free of charge appears to be the financial driving force of the Italian public health system. The overall mortality was found to be higher than the predicted trend and this scenario may be partially attributable to the healthcare funding constraints experienced by the SSN.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Previsões , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Saúde Pública/economia , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0199436, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29933377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study analyzes the trajectories of antibiotic consumption using different indicators of patients' socioeconomic status, category and age-group of physicians. METHODS: This study uses a pooled, cross-sectional, time series analysis. The data focus on 22 European countries from 2000 to 2014 and were obtained from the European Center for Disease and Control, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Eurostat and Global Economic Monitor. RESULTS: There are large variations in community and hospital use of antibiotics in European countries, and the consumption of antibiotics has remained stable over the years. This applies to the community (b = 0.07, p = 0.267, 95% -0.06, 0.19, b-squared <0.01, p = 0.813, 95% = -0.01, 0.02) as well as the hospital sector (b = -0.02; p = 0.450; CI 95% = -0.06, 0.03; b-squared <0.01; p = 0.396; CI95% = > -0.01, <0.01). Some socioeconomic variables, such as level of education, income, Gini index and unemployment, are not related to the rate of antibiotic use. The age-group of physicians and general practitioners is associated with the use of antibiotics in the hospital. An increase in the proportion of young doctors (<45 years old) leads to a significant increase in antibiotics consumption, and as the percentage of generalist practitioners increases, there use of antibiotics in hospitals decreases by 0.04 DDD/1000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding that age-groups and categories (general/specialist practitioners) of physicians may predict antibiotic consumption is potentially useful in defining more effective health care policies to reduce the inappropriate antibiotic use while promoting rational use.

18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 16(1): 71, 2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29685153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being highly self-efficacious is a key factor in successful chronic disease self-management. In the context of measuring self-efficacy in type 2 diabetes management, the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) is the most widely used scale. The aim of this study was to adapt the English version of the scale to Italian and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of DMSES in type 2 diabetes (IT-DMSES). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of people with type 2 diabetes attending the Endocrine-Metabolic Disease Care Unit of the Internal Medicine Department of San Marino State Hospital between October 2016 and February 2017. Patients completed a socio-demographic and clinical data form, the IT-DMSES and 3 self-report questionnaires measuring diabetes distress (PAID-5), psychological well-being (WHO-5) and depression (PHQ-9). Psychometric testing included construct validity (principal component analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient) and convergent/discriminant validity (Spearman's correlation coefficient). Decision tree analysis was performed to classify patients into homogeneous subgroups of self-efficacy based on their demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Participants were 110 males and 55 females, mean age of 65.2 years (SD ± 9), 56.9% had been diagnosed for 1-15 years, 63% had HbA1c level > 53 mmol/mol. Two main factors underlain the construct of self-efficacy in diabetes management: 'Disease Management' and "Lifestyles Management". Disease Management had a good reliability (α = .849) and Lifestyle Management had an excellent reliability (α = .902) indicating that the instrument is internally consistent. A negative and weak correlation was found between Lifestyle management, PAID-5 (r = - 0.258, p = < 0.01) and PHQ-9 (r = - 0.274, p = < 0.01) and a positive one with WHO-5 (r = 0.325, p < 0.01) supporting convergent validity. Disease management was uncorrelated with PAID-5 (r = - 0.142, p = 0.083), PHQ-9 (r = - 0.145, p = 0.076) and weekly correlated with WHO-5 (r = 0.170, p = 0.037) confirming discriminant validity. Higher levels of self-efficacy in lifestyle management were found in patients diagnosed for at least 1 year up to 15 years and aged > 65 years and the poorest self-efficacy was found in males < 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the validity and reliability of IT-DMSES. The scale can be used in research and clinical practice to monitor type 2 diabetes self-management over time.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Traduções , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Autoavaliação
19.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192620, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29489834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze trajectories of cataract surgery rates and to confirm the switch between inpatient cases and day surgery or outpatient cases. DESIGN: Pooled, cross-sectional, time series analysis. METHODS: Data on 20 European countries from 2004 to 2014 retrieved from the OECD. RESULTS: The number of cataract surgery cases per 100,000 population has increased since 2004 (b = 31.1, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 26.7, 35.6). A reversal of the inpatient cases and same-day cases was found: the first ones decreased (b = -14.7, p < 0.001, 95% CI = -17.7, -11.8) while day surgery and outpatient cases increased (b = 37.5, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 31.6, 43.4, and b = 8.3, p = 0.001, 95% CI = 3.6, 13.1, respectively). Since 2004, the ratio of day surgery and outpatient cases to inpatient cases has grown significantly (b = 3.3, p < 0.001, 95% CI = 2.5, 4.0), reaching a share of 31.7 in 2014. However, this slope of 3.3 was not constant and slowed over the years: from 4.5 per year during the first five years to 1.9 in the second five. No association was found between cataract surgery rate and two regressors: elderly people, and health care expenditure per capita. CONCLUSION: EU countries have preserved cataract surgery, and this preservation is probably affected by the switch from inpatient to same-day surgery, thanks to the decrease in the cost and equivalent clinical outcomes. However, the slope of the switch slowed over time. Consequently, health care systems must support this process of change especially through reforms in financial and organizational fields.


Assuntos
Extração de Catarata , Estudos Transversais , União Europeia , Humanos
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(5): 379-388, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496485

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma. METHODS: We did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4-5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4-16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2-56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1-79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. FINDINGS: 27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p<1·14 × 10-7) after meta-analysis. Consistently lower methylation levels were observed at all associated loci across childhood from age 4 to 16 years in participants with asthma, but not in cord blood at birth. All 14 CpG sites were significantly associated with asthma in the second replication study using whole-blood DNA, and were strongly associated with asthma in purified eosinophils. Whole-blood transcriptional signatures associated with these CpG sites indicated increased activation of eosinophils, effector and memory CD8 T cells and natural killer cells, and reduced number of naive T cells. Five of the 14 CpG sites were associated with asthma in respiratory epithelial cells, indicating cross-tissue epigenetic effects. INTERPRETATION: Reduced whole-blood DNA methylation at 14 CpG sites acquired after birth was strongly associated with childhood asthma. These CpG sites and their associated transcriptional profiles indicate activation of eosinophils and cytotoxic T cells in childhood asthma. Our findings merit further investigations of the role of epigenetics in a clinical context. FUNDING: EU and the Seventh Framework Programme (the MeDALL project).


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Ilhas de CpG , Metilação de DNA , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Epigênese Genética , Asma/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/sangue , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos
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