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1.
Ann Hematol ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036421

RESUMO

A survey within hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) centers of the Gruppo Italiano Trapianto Midollo Osseo (GITMO) was performed in order to describe current antiemetic prophylaxis in patients undergoing HSCT. The multicenter survey was performed by a questionnaire, covering the main areas on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV): antiemetic prophylaxis guidelines used, antiemetic prophylaxis in different conditioning regimens, and methods of CINV evaluation. The survey was carried out in November 2016, and it was repeated 6 months after the publication of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC)/European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) specific guidelines on antiemetic prophylaxis in HSCT. The results show a remarkable heterogeneity of prophylaxis among the various centers and a significant difference between the guidelines and the clinical practice. In the main conditioning regimens, the combination of a serotonin3 receptor antagonist (5-HT3-RA) with dexamethasone and neurokin1 receptor antagonist (NK1-RA), as recommended by MASCC/ESMO guidelines, increased from 0 to 15% (before the publication of the guidelines) to 9-30% (after the publication of the guidelines). This study shows a lack of compliance with specific antiemetic guidelines, resulting mainly in under-prophylaxis. Concerted strategies are required to improve the current CINV prophylaxis, to draft shared common guidelines, and to increase the knowledge and the adherence to the current recommendations for CINV prophylaxis in the specific field of HSCT.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996791

RESUMO

Patients given allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) present an increased incidence of long-term toxicities that can be attributed to the preparative regimen. We retrospectively analyzed in a population of 670 children receiving allo-HSCT for acute leukemia the occurrence of different late effects in function of the choice made between total body irradiation (TBI) and busulfan, as part of the preparative regimen. In univariable analysis, we found that patients treated with TBI developed cataract in 24% of the cases compared with 4% in patients treated with BU (p = 0.0001) and that the incidence of secondary malignant neoplasia (SMN) was higher in patients treated with TBI (18%) as compared with those prepared to the allograft with a Bu-based regimen (0%) (p = 0.019). Conditioning regimen did not show a statistically significant correlation with the occurrence of all the other investigated late effects. In multivariable analysis, TBI remained associated with the occurrence of cataracts (Relative Risk: 0.33 p = 0.012) and secondary malignancies (Relative Risk 3.96 × 10e-6 p < 0.001); however, other variables, as GvHD and disease type, were also correlated with these long-term sequels, indicating that in our study population the preparative regimen is not the only factor influencing the incidence of these complications.

3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(3): 631-637, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951682

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The onset of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) as a pulmonary manifestation of chronic graft vs host disease dramatically changes the prognosis of children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). This study aimed to evaluate the overall survival (OS) of children with BO treated with imatinib mesylate (IM). METHODS: This study included children who underwent allo-HSCTs between January 2000 and December 2016. RESULTS: Among 345 patients who underwent HSCTs, 293 were evaluable for BO and 26 (8.9%) developed BO. The cumulative incidence of BO was 4.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-7.5) at 1 year and 7.7% (95% CI, 5.1-11.1) at 3 years after transplantation. In the group of HSCTs (n = 67) complicated by chronic GvHD (c-GVHD), the incidence rate of BO was 38.8%. In total, 96.1% of patients with BO had c-GvHD worse than moderate grade, which was present in 70.7% of patients without BO (P = .011). The mortality rates were 46.1% in the BO group and 27.4% in the group without BO. Half of the patients with BO (n = 13) received IM, and the overall response rate was 76.9%. Four years after HSCT, OS was 42.6% (95% CI, 18.2-65.3) in the group without IM and 83.3% (95% CI, 27.3-97.5) in the group with IM. CONCLUSIONS: BO after HSCT in the pediatric population has a high incidence and mortality rate. In terms of overall response and tolerability, this study showed relevant improvements in the prognosis of children with BO after the introduction of IM. Further prospective studies among children are needed to confirm these results.

4.
J Neurol ; 267(2): 430-439, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664549

RESUMO

We performed a prospective study to evaluate the types and characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) disorders in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study included 163 episodes of CNS disorders of which 58 (36%) were infections. Proven or probable infections were documented in 34 patients and included fungi (n = 10, 29%), viruses (n = 12, 35%), Toxoplasma spp. (n = 9, 27%) and bacteria (n = 3, 9%). Non-infectious neurological disorders (n = 105, 64%) frequently encompassed metabolic/drug-induced abnormalities (n = 28, 27%) or cerebral vascular events (n = 22, 21%). Median onset times were later for infectious (day + 101) vs non-infectious neurological disorders (day + 50, p = 0.009). An unremarkable cranial CT scan was found in 33% of infection episodes. Absence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis despite a normal or increased peripheral blood white blood cell count occurred in 26% of infections. Day-30 mortality rates were significantly higher for fungal (87%) vs non-fungal infections (40%, p < 0.001). Significantly higher mortality rates were also documented for cerebral vascular events than for other non-infectious disorders (86% vs 34%, p < 0.001). Our prospective study shows that diagnostic findings in CNS infections might differ between hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and immunocompetent hosts. Special awareness and timely initiation of adequate diagnostics are crucial to improve the prognosis of these patients.

5.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 22(1): e13231, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846143

RESUMO

Once-a-week cotrimoxazole is an effective prophylaxis for pneumocystosis during antineoplastic chemotherapy or autologous stem cell transplant. Following allogeneic stem cell transplant, this schedule is at risk of pneumocystosis or neurotoxoplasmosis, as demonstrated by these case reports. Therefore, a 3-times-a-week schedule must be adopted in these patients.

7.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(9): 1786-1791, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082473

RESUMO

Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.

8.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 49, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The onset of acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (aGvHD) has been correlated with the gut microbiota (GM) composition, but experimental observations are still few, mainly involving cohorts of adult patients. In the current scenario where fecal microbiota transplantation has been used as a pioneer therapeutic approach to treat steroid-refractory aGvHD, there is an urgent need to expand existing observational studies of the GM dynamics in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Aim of the present study is to explore the GM trajectory in 36 pediatric HSCT recipients in relation to aGvHD onset. METHODS: Thirty-six pediatric patients, from four transplantation centers, undergoing HSCT were enrolled in the study. Stools were collected at three time points: before HSCT, at time of engraftment and > 30 days following HSCT. Changes in the GM phylogenetic structure were studied by 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing and phylogenetic assignation. RESULTS: Children developing gut aGvHD had a dysbiotic GM layout before HSCT occurred. This putative aGvHD-predisposing ecosystem state was characterized by (i) reduced diversity, (ii) lower Blautia content, (iii) increase in Fusobacterium abundance. At time of engraftment, the GM structure underwent a deep rearrangement in all patients but, regardless of the occurrence of aGvHD and its treatment, it reacquired a eubiotic configuration from day 30. CONCLUSIONS: We found a specific GM signature before HSCT predictive of subsequent gut aGvHD occurrence. Our data may open the way to a GM-based stratification of the risk of developing aGvHD in children undergoing HSCT, potentially useful also to identify patients benefiting from prophylactic fecal transplantation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/microbiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/imunologia , Doenças Hematológicas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 110: 86-97, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advances in paediatric oncology led to the increase in long-term survival, revealing the burden of therapy-related long-term side effects. We evaluated overall and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort of Italian childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and adolescent cancer survivors identified through the off-therapy registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCSs alive 5 years after cancer diagnosis occurring between 1960 and 1999 were eligible; the last follow-up was between 2011 and 2014. Outcomes were reported as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs). RESULTS: Among 12,214 CCSs, 1113 (9.1%) deaths occurred. Survival at 35 years since diagnosis was 87% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86-88) and at 45 years was 81% (95% CI: 77-84). CCSs had an 11-fold increased risk of death (SMR 95% CI: 10.7-12), corresponding to an AER of 48 (95% CI: 45-51). Mortality decreased by 60% for survivors treated most recently (1990-1999). The most frequent causes of death were recurrence of the original cancer (56%), a subsequent neoplasm (19%) and cardiovascular diseases (5.8%). Among those who survived at least 15 years after diagnosis, a secondary malignancy was the leading cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the impact of recent advances in anticancer therapy in reducing mortality, mainly attributable to recurrence but also to other causes. However, overall mortality continues to be higher than in the general population. A long-term follow-up is needed to prevent late mortality due to secondary neoplasms and non-neoplastic causes in CCSs.

10.
Med Mycol Case Rep ; 23: 65-67, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656133

RESUMO

Magnusiomyces clavatus is an ascomycetous fungus causing invasive disease in immuno-compromised patients. Neutropenia, contaminated venous catheters, previous antifungal treatment are risk factors for this infection. We report a case of Magnusiomyces clavatus fungemia with pulmonary, renal and skin localizations in a 6-year-old boy with prolonged neutropenia because of three allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations. The infection was controlled by aggressive and strictly monitored combination therapy with voriconazole and liposomial-ampthotericine-B along with durable recover from neutropenia.

11.
Am J Transplant ; 19(6): 1798-1805, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586230

RESUMO

We report data obtained from a retrospective multicenter pediatric survey on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Information on solid organ transplantation (SOT) performed in pediatric recipients of either autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1984 and 2016 was collected in 20 pediatric EBMT Centers (25.6%). Overall, we evaluated data on 44 SOTs following HSCT including 20 liver (LTx), 12 lung (LuTx), 6 heart (HTx), and 6 kidney (KTx) transplantations. The indication for SOT was organ failure related to intractable graft-vs-host disease in 16 children (36.3%), acute or chronic HSCT-related toxicity in 18 (40.9%), and organ dysfunction related to the underlying disease in 10 (22.8%). The median follow-up was 10.9 years (95% confidence interval: 1.7-29.5). The overall survival rate at 1 and 5 years after SOT was 85.7% and 80.4%, respectively: it was 74% and 63.2% after LTx, 83.2% after HTx, and 100% equally after LuTx and KTx. This multicenter survey confirms that SOT represents a promising option in children with severe organ failure occurring after HSCT. Additional studies are needed to further establish the effectiveness of SOT after HSCT and to better understand the mechanism underlying this encouraging success.

12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(4): 743-748, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471340

RESUMO

Corticosteroids are the standard of care for first-line treatment of patients who develop grade II-IV of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), but the optimal second-line treatment has not yet been determined. We prospectively evaluated the use of the anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody etanercept (ET) as second-line treatment in children with steroid-refractory (SR) aGVHD. Twenty-five children with either malignant or nonmalignant diseases experiencing grade II-IV SR aGVHD received ET as second-line treatment. ET was administered after a median of 14days (range, 5 to 135 days) from the onset of aGVHD. Seventeen out of 25 patients (68%) developed a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) to ET. The overall response rate (CR plus PR) was 78% in patients with cutaneous SR aGVHD, 78% in those with gastrointestinal aGVHD, and 57% in those with hepatic aGVHD. On day +100 after the start of ET, 52% of the children were in CR, 16% were in PR, and the remaining 32% failed to respond. Overall survival was 76.5% in responders and 16.7% in nonresponders (P = .004). Transplantation-related mortality at 5years was 34.1% (95% confidence interval, 18.6% to 57.1%). In our experience, ET has proven to be effective as second-line treatment in children with SR aGVHD.

13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(2): 313-320, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266674

RESUMO

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD), is a potentially life-threatening complication that may develop after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aims of this retrospective multicenter study were to evaluate the incidence of SOS/VOD in a large cohort of children transplanted in centers across Italy by applying the new European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria and to analyze the risk factors underlying this complication. We retrospectively reviewed data of pediatric HSCTs performed in 13 AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica)-affiliated centers between January 2000 and April 2016. The new pediatric EBMT criteria were retrospectively applied for diagnoses of SOS/VOD and severity grading. Among 5072 transplants considered at risk for SOS/VOD during the study period, 103 children (2%) developed SOS/VOD, and the grade was severe or very severe in all patients. The median time of SOS/VOD occurrence was 17 days after HSCT (range, 1 to 104). Sixty-nine patients (67%) were treated with defibrotide for a median time of 16 days (range, 4 to 104). In multivariable analysis age < 2 years, use of busulfan during the conditioning regimen, female gender, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were risk factors statistically associated with the development of SOS/VOD. The overall mortality directly related to SOS/VOD was 15.5%. Overall survival at 1 year was worse in patients with SOS/VOD (P = .0033), and this difference disappeared 5 years after HSCT. Nonrelapse mortality was significantly higher 1 and 5 years after transplantation in patients who developed SOS/VOD (P < .001). Based on the application of new EBMT criteria, the overall incidence of SOS/VOD recorded in this large Italian pediatric retrospective study was 2%. Nonrelapse mortality was significantly higher in patients who developed SOS/VOD. Identifying the risk factors associated with SOS/VOD can lead to more effective early treatment strategies of this potentially fatal HSCT complication in childhood.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Sistema de Registros , Aloenxertos , Autoenxertos , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/etiologia , Hepatopatia Veno-Oclusiva/mortalidade , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Itália , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
14.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(7): 1022-1028, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361500

RESUMO

Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study evaluated clinical and morphological practices of TA-TMA diagnosis in EBMT centers. Two questionnaires, one for transplant physician and one for morphologist, and also a set of electronic blood slides from 10 patients with TA-TMA and 10 control patients with various erythrocyte abnormalities, were implemented for evaluation. Seventeen EBMT centers participated in the study. Regarding criteria used for TA-TMA diagnosis, centers reported as follows: 41% of centers used the International Working Group (IWG) criteria, 41% used "overall TA-TMA" criteria and 18% used physician's decision. The threshold of schistocytes to establish TA-TMA diagnosis in the participating centers was significantly associated with morphological results of test cases evaluations (p = 0.002). The mean number of schistocytes reported from blood slide analyses were 4.3 ± 4.5% for TA-TMA cases (range 0-19.6%, coefficient of variation (CV) 0.7) and 1.3 ± 1.6% for control cases (range 0-8.3%, CV 0.8). Half of the centers reported schistocyte levels below 4% for 7/10 TA-TMA cases. The intracenter variability was low, indicating differences in the institutional practices of morphological evaluation. In conclusion, the survey identified the need for the standardization of TA-TMA morphological diagnosis.

15.
Br J Haematol ; 183(1): 110-118, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984823

RESUMO

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a genetic multisystem disorder with frequent involvement of the bone marrow. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only definitive cure to restore haematopoiesis, even though it cannot correct other organ dysfunctions. We collected data on the outcome of HSCT in the largest cohort of DC (n = 94) patients ever studied. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years after HSCT were 66% and 62%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed better outcomes in patients aged less than 20 years and in patients transplanted from a matched, rather than a mismatched, donor. OS and EFS curves tended to decline over time. Early lethal events were infections, whereas organ damage and secondary malignancies appeared afterwards, even a decade after HSCT. A non-myeloablative conditioning regimen appeared to be most advisable. Organ impairment present before HSCT seemed to favour the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease and T-B immune deficiency appeared to enhance pulmonary fibrosis. According to the present data, HSCT in DC is indicated in cases of progressive marrow failure, whereas in patients with pre-existing organ damage, this should be carefully evaluated. Further efforts to investigate treatment alternatives to HSCT should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Disceratose Congênita/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doenças da Medula Óssea/etiologia , Disceratose Congênita/complicações , Disceratose Congênita/mortalidade , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Doadores de Tecidos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(5): 1088-1093, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292059

RESUMO

It is recognized that chimerism following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a dynamic process. The aims of this study were to describe the evolution of chimerism in children with nonmalignant diseases who underwent allogeneic HSCT, and to analyze the risk factors influencing chimerism status. A total of 101 HSCTs were performed in 85 patients with nonmalignant diseases. The donor was unrelated in 62.4% of HSCTs. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was administered in 48.5% of patients. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) occurred in 51.7% and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in 39.7% of patients. Analysis of chimerism was performed through amplification of 9 specific short tandem repeats by polymerase chain reaction at engraftment and 1, 6, and 12 months after HSCT. Upon first evaluation, complete chimerism (CC) was detected in 34.7% and mixed chimerism (MC) in 55.4%, whereas graft failure occurred in 9.9% of patients. Severe aGVHD was associated with CC (P = .031). The last chimerism evaluation showed CC in 72.1%, stable MC in 12.8%, and progressive MC in 3.5%. CC was associated with a higher incidence of aGVHD (P = .016) and cGVHD (P = .022), whereas the RIC regimen was associated with graft failure (P = .026). One- and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 87.4% and 80.5%, respectively, with a lower OS at 3 years in patients with CC compared with those with MC (P = .008). aGVHD and cGVHD represent factors favoring CC, thus close, careful follow-up of chimerism is recommended in patients affected by nonmalignant disease.


Assuntos
Quimerismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Doadores de Tecidos , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Transplante Homólogo
19.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 43(2): 173-181, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this report is to describe the experience in the management of busulphan-based conditioning regimen administered before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children. METHODS: We report the values of the first dose AUC (area under the concentration-time curve, normal target between 3600 and 4800 ng·h/mL) in children treated with oral and intravenous busulphan, and we analyze the impact of some clinical variables in this cohort of patients. RESULTS: 82 children treated with busulphan before HSCT were eligible for the study: 57 received oral busulphan with a mean AUC of 3586 ng·h/mL, while 25 received intravenous busulphan with a mean AUC of 4158 ng·h/mL. Dose adjustment was based on first dose AUC. The dose was increased in 36 children (43.9%) and decreased in 26 patients (31.7%). Age at HSCT (P = 0.015), cumulative dose of busulphan as mg/m2 (P < 0.001), busulphan dose prescribed as mg/Kg (P = 0.001), intravenous busulphan administration (P < 0.001), type of stem source cells (P = 0.016), and type of HSCT (P = 0.03) were associated with AUC levels. No statistically significant differences were found between transplant-related toxicity, acute and chronic graft versus host disease, engraftment, and AUC levels. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that older age at HSCT, intravenous administration of busulphan, cumulative, and prescribed dose of busulphan are associated with higher AUC levels. The absence of significant correlations between toxic events, graft failure, and AUC suggests the efficacy of busulphan concentrations monitoring in our patients.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/sangue , Bussulfano/farmacocinética , Imunossupressores/sangue , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/sangue , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
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