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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082473

RESUMO

Gonadal impairment is an important late effect with a significant impact on quality of life of transplanted patients. The aim of this study was to compare gonadal function after busulfan (Bu) or treosulfan (Treo) conditioning regimens in pre- and postpubertal children. This retrospective, multicenter study included children transplanted in pediatric European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) centers between 1992 and 2012 who did not receive gonadotoxic chemoradiotherapy before the transplant. We evaluated 137 patients transplanted in 25 pediatric EBMT centers. Median age at transplant was 11.04 years (range, 5 to 18); 89 patients were boys and 48 girls. Eighty-nine patients were prepubertal at transplant and 48 postpubertal. One hundred eighteen children received Bu and 19 Treo. A higher proportion of girls treated with Treo in the prepubertal stage reached spontaneous puberty compared with those treated with Bu (P = .02). Spontaneous menarche was more frequent after Treo than after Bu (P < .001). Postpubertal boys and girls treated with Treo had significantly lower luteinizing hormone levels (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively) compared with the Bu group. Frequency of gonadal damage associated with Treo was significantly lower than that observed after Bu. These results need to be confirmed in a larger population.

3.
BMC Med Genomics ; 12(1): 49, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The onset of acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (aGvHD) has been correlated with the gut microbiota (GM) composition, but experimental observations are still few, mainly involving cohorts of adult patients. In the current scenario where fecal microbiota transplantation has been used as a pioneer therapeutic approach to treat steroid-refractory aGvHD, there is an urgent need to expand existing observational studies of the GM dynamics in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). Aim of the present study is to explore the GM trajectory in 36 pediatric HSCT recipients in relation to aGvHD onset. METHODS: Thirty-six pediatric patients, from four transplantation centers, undergoing HSCT were enrolled in the study. Stools were collected at three time points: before HSCT, at time of engraftment and > 30 days following HSCT. Changes in the GM phylogenetic structure were studied by 16S rRNA gene Illumina sequencing and phylogenetic assignation. RESULTS: Children developing gut aGvHD had a dysbiotic GM layout before HSCT occurred. This putative aGvHD-predisposing ecosystem state was characterized by (i) reduced diversity, (ii) lower Blautia content, (iii) increase in Fusobacterium abundance. At time of engraftment, the GM structure underwent a deep rearrangement in all patients but, regardless of the occurrence of aGvHD and its treatment, it reacquired a eubiotic configuration from day 30. CONCLUSIONS: We found a specific GM signature before HSCT predictive of subsequent gut aGvHD occurrence. Our data may open the way to a GM-based stratification of the risk of developing aGvHD in children undergoing HSCT, potentially useful also to identify patients benefiting from prophylactic fecal transplantation.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 110: 86-97, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772657

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Advances in paediatric oncology led to the increase in long-term survival, revealing the burden of therapy-related long-term side effects. We evaluated overall and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort of Italian childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and adolescent cancer survivors identified through the off-therapy registry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CCSs alive 5 years after cancer diagnosis occurring between 1960 and 1999 were eligible; the last follow-up was between 2011 and 2014. Outcomes were reported as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs). RESULTS: Among 12,214 CCSs, 1113 (9.1%) deaths occurred. Survival at 35 years since diagnosis was 87% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 86-88) and at 45 years was 81% (95% CI: 77-84). CCSs had an 11-fold increased risk of death (SMR 95% CI: 10.7-12), corresponding to an AER of 48 (95% CI: 45-51). Mortality decreased by 60% for survivors treated most recently (1990-1999). The most frequent causes of death were recurrence of the original cancer (56%), a subsequent neoplasm (19%) and cardiovascular diseases (5.8%). Among those who survived at least 15 years after diagnosis, a secondary malignancy was the leading cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the impact of recent advances in anticancer therapy in reducing mortality, mainly attributable to recurrence but also to other causes. However, overall mortality continues to be higher than in the general population. A long-term follow-up is needed to prevent late mortality due to secondary neoplasms and non-neoplastic causes in CCSs.

5.
Am J Transplant ; 19(6): 1798-1805, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586230

RESUMO

We report data obtained from a retrospective multicenter pediatric survey on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Information on solid organ transplantation (SOT) performed in pediatric recipients of either autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1984 and 2016 was collected in 20 pediatric EBMT Centers (25.6%). Overall, we evaluated data on 44 SOTs following HSCT including 20 liver (LTx), 12 lung (LuTx), 6 heart (HTx), and 6 kidney (KTx) transplantations. The indication for SOT was organ failure related to intractable graft-vs-host disease in 16 children (36.3%), acute or chronic HSCT-related toxicity in 18 (40.9%), and organ dysfunction related to the underlying disease in 10 (22.8%). The median follow-up was 10.9 years (95% confidence interval: 1.7-29.5). The overall survival rate at 1 and 5 years after SOT was 85.7% and 80.4%, respectively: it was 74% and 63.2% after LTx, 83.2% after HTx, and 100% equally after LuTx and KTx. This multicenter survey confirms that SOT represents a promising option in children with severe organ failure occurring after HSCT. Additional studies are needed to further establish the effectiveness of SOT after HSCT and to better understand the mechanism underlying this encouraging success.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471340

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Corticosteroids are the standard of care for first line treatment of patients who develop grades II-IV of acute Graft-versus-Host Disease (a-GvHD), but the optimal second-line treatment has not been determined yet. We prospectively evaluated the use of anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody Etanercept (ET) as second line treatment in children with steroid-refractory a-GvHD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five children with either malignant or non malignant diseases experiencing grade II-IV steroid-refractory (SR)-a-GvHD received ET as second line treatment. ET was administered after a median of 14 days (5-135 days) from onset of a-GvHD. RESULTS: Seventeen out of 25 patients (68%) developed complete or partial response (CR or PR) to ET. Overall response rate (ORR) (CR or PR) was 78% of patients with cutaneous SR-a-GvHD, 78% with gastro-intestinal a-GvHD, and 57% with hepatic a-GvHD. On day +100 after the start of ET, 52% of children were in CR, 16% in PR, while the remaining 32% failed to respond. Overall Survival (OS) in responders was 76.5% and 16.7% in non- responders (p=0.004). Transplant-related mortality (TRM) at 5 years was 34.1% (95% CI; 18.6%- 57.1%). CONCLUSION: In our experience, ET proved to be effective as second line treatment in children with SR-a-GvHD.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361500

RESUMO

Transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This study evaluated clinical and morphological practices of TA-TMA diagnosis in EBMT centers. Two questionnaires, one for transplant physician and one for morphologist, and also a set of electronic blood slides from 10 patients with TA-TMA and 10 control patients with various erythrocyte abnormalities, were implemented for evaluation. Seventeen EBMT centers participated in the study. Regarding criteria used for TA-TMA diagnosis, centers reported as follows: 41% of centers used the International Working Group (IWG) criteria, 41% used "overall TA-TMA" criteria and 18% used physician's decision. The threshold of schistocytes to establish TA-TMA diagnosis in the participating centers was significantly associated with morphological results of test cases evaluations (p = 0.002). The mean number of schistocytes reported from blood slide analyses were 4.3 ± 4.5% for TA-TMA cases (range 0-19.6%, coefficient of variation (CV) 0.7) and 1.3 ± 1.6% for control cases (range 0-8.3%, CV 0.8). Half of the centers reported schistocyte levels below 4% for 7/10 TA-TMA cases. The intracenter variability was low, indicating differences in the institutional practices of morphological evaluation. In conclusion, the survey identified the need for the standardization of TA-TMA morphological diagnosis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30266674

RESUMO

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD), is a potentially life-threatening complication that may develop after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The aims of this retrospective multicenter study were to evaluate the incidence of SOS/VOD in a large cohort of children transplanted in centers across Italy by applying the new European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) criteria and to analyze the risk factors underlying this complication. We retrospectively reviewed data of pediatric HSCTs performed in 13 AIEOP (Associazione Italiana di Ematologia e Oncologia Pediatrica)-affiliated centers between January 2000 and April 2016. The new pediatric EBMT criteria were retrospectively applied for diagnoses of SOS/VOD and severity grading. Among 5072 transplants considered at risk for SOS/VOD during the study period, 103 children (2%) developed SOS/VOD, and the grade was severe or very severe in all patients. The median time of SOS/VOD occurrence was 17 days after HSCT (range, 1 to 104). Sixty-nine patients (67%) were treated with defibrotide for a median time of 16 days (range, 4 to 104). In multivariable analysis age < 2 years, use of busulfan during the conditioning regimen, female gender, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were risk factors statistically associated with the development of SOS/VOD. The overall mortality directly related to SOS/VOD was 15.5%. Overall survival at 1 year was worse in patients with SOS/VOD (P = .0033), and this difference disappeared 5 years after HSCT. Nonrelapse mortality was significantly higher 1 and 5 years after transplantation in patients who developed SOS/VOD (P < .001). Based on the application of new EBMT criteria, the overall incidence of SOS/VOD recorded in this large Italian pediatric retrospective study was 2%. Nonrelapse mortality was significantly higher in patients who developed SOS/VOD. Identifying the risk factors associated with SOS/VOD can lead to more effective early treatment strategies of this potentially fatal HSCT complication in childhood.

9.
Br J Haematol ; 183(1): 110-118, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984823

RESUMO

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a genetic multisystem disorder with frequent involvement of the bone marrow. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only definitive cure to restore haematopoiesis, even though it cannot correct other organ dysfunctions. We collected data on the outcome of HSCT in the largest cohort of DC (n = 94) patients ever studied. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) at 3 years after HSCT were 66% and 62%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed better outcomes in patients aged less than 20 years and in patients transplanted from a matched, rather than a mismatched, donor. OS and EFS curves tended to decline over time. Early lethal events were infections, whereas organ damage and secondary malignancies appeared afterwards, even a decade after HSCT. A non-myeloablative conditioning regimen appeared to be most advisable. Organ impairment present before HSCT seemed to favour the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease and T-B immune deficiency appeared to enhance pulmonary fibrosis. According to the present data, HSCT in DC is indicated in cases of progressive marrow failure, whereas in patients with pre-existing organ damage, this should be carefully evaluated. Further efforts to investigate treatment alternatives to HSCT should be encouraged.

11.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(5): 1088-1093, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29292059

RESUMO

It is recognized that chimerism following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a dynamic process. The aims of this study were to describe the evolution of chimerism in children with nonmalignant diseases who underwent allogeneic HSCT, and to analyze the risk factors influencing chimerism status. A total of 101 HSCTs were performed in 85 patients with nonmalignant diseases. The donor was unrelated in 62.4% of HSCTs. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen was administered in 48.5% of patients. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) occurred in 51.7% and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in 39.7% of patients. Analysis of chimerism was performed through amplification of 9 specific short tandem repeats by polymerase chain reaction at engraftment and 1, 6, and 12 months after HSCT. Upon first evaluation, complete chimerism (CC) was detected in 34.7% and mixed chimerism (MC) in 55.4%, whereas graft failure occurred in 9.9% of patients. Severe aGVHD was associated with CC (P = .031). The last chimerism evaluation showed CC in 72.1%, stable MC in 12.8%, and progressive MC in 3.5%. CC was associated with a higher incidence of aGVHD (P = .016) and cGVHD (P = .022), whereas the RIC regimen was associated with graft failure (P = .026). One- and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 87.4% and 80.5%, respectively, with a lower OS at 3 years in patients with CC compared with those with MC (P = .008). aGVHD and cGVHD represent factors favoring CC, thus close, careful follow-up of chimerism is recommended in patients affected by nonmalignant disease.

12.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 43(2): 173-181, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this report is to describe the experience in the management of busulphan-based conditioning regimen administered before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in children. METHODS: We report the values of the first dose AUC (area under the concentration-time curve, normal target between 3600 and 4800 ng·h/mL) in children treated with oral and intravenous busulphan, and we analyze the impact of some clinical variables in this cohort of patients. RESULTS: 82 children treated with busulphan before HSCT were eligible for the study: 57 received oral busulphan with a mean AUC of 3586 ng·h/mL, while 25 received intravenous busulphan with a mean AUC of 4158 ng·h/mL. Dose adjustment was based on first dose AUC. The dose was increased in 36 children (43.9%) and decreased in 26 patients (31.7%). Age at HSCT (P = 0.015), cumulative dose of busulphan as mg/m2 (P < 0.001), busulphan dose prescribed as mg/Kg (P = 0.001), intravenous busulphan administration (P < 0.001), type of stem source cells (P = 0.016), and type of HSCT (P = 0.03) were associated with AUC levels. No statistically significant differences were found between transplant-related toxicity, acute and chronic graft versus host disease, engraftment, and AUC levels. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that older age at HSCT, intravenous administration of busulphan, cumulative, and prescribed dose of busulphan are associated with higher AUC levels. The absence of significant correlations between toxic events, graft failure, and AUC suggests the efficacy of busulphan concentrations monitoring in our patients.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/sangue , Bussulfano/farmacocinética , Imunossupressores/sangue , Imunossupressores/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/sangue , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos
15.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969530

RESUMO

Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare congenital telomeropathy characterized by cutaneous and nail dystrophy, oral leukoplakia, and bone marrow failure. Pulmonary fibrosis and cancers are late manifestations. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant represents the only cure for those with bone marrow failure with this disease, but outcomes reported are overall poor, with organ toxicities, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease as main issues. Although reduced intensity conditioning regimens seem to be related to better outcomes, a standard regimen for dyskeratosis congenita has never been defined. Here, we report a successful long-term outcome of an 8-year-old girl with dyskeratosis congenita who received 2 consecutive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants from different unrelated donors, because of rejection after the first one, both conditioned with fludarabine-based reduced intensity conditioning regimen. The second transplant was complicated by severe hemorrhagic cystitis and acute grade IV graft-versus-host disease in the early phase and mild chronic graft-versus-host disease and ureteral stenosis in the late phase. This experience confirms that dyskeratosis congenita is at high risk for transplant-related morbidity but that a fludarabine-based reduced intensity conditioning regimen is a safe and feasible option as a preparative regimen, as shown here in a second transplant after first graft rejection. To reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease, more effective prophylaxis schedules should be chosen in cases of unrelated donor, and haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplant with in vitro α/ ß + and CD19+ depletion should be considered.

16.
Mycoses ; 60(12): 789-795, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28833726

RESUMO

Plasma 1,3-ß-D-glucan (BDG) is indicated as a tool for early diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFD). However, data on its diagnostic value are scarce in children. Therefore, definition of BDG test performance in paediatrics is needed. BDG was evaluated in children admitted to "Istituto Giannina Gaslini," Genoa, Italy, who developed clinical conditions at risk for IFD. Results were analysed for sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios, accuracy, informedness and probability of missing one case by a negative test. A total of 1577 BDG determinations were performed on 255 patients (49% males, median age 5.4 years). Overall 46 IFD were diagnosed, 72% proven/probable. The test performance was evaluated for 80 pg/mL, 120 pg/mL, 200 pg/mL, 350 pg/mL, 400 pg/mL cut offs. Sensitivity was always <0.80 and specificity > 0.90 only for cut offs ≥200 pg/mL. Negative predictive value was ≥0.90 for all the cut offs evaluated, while positive predictive value resulted barely 0.50 (8% IFD prevalence). Accuracy was never >0.90, and informedness was at best 0.50. The risk of missing one IFD by a negative result was < 10%. Analyses in haemato-oncological or newborn patients did not show major differences. Detection of serum BDG does not appear a valuable adjunctive diagnostic tool for IFD in paediatrics.


Assuntos
Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , beta-Glucanas/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/sangue , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/microbiologia , Itália , Masculino , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Pediatr Transplant ; 21(6)2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649784

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the treatment of choice for a variety of congenital disorders. We report the experience of children affected by congenital diseases other than bone marrow failure syndromes who received allo-HSCT over a period of 25 years at G. Gaslini Paediatric Research Institute. HSCTs were performed in 57 children with congenital diseases (25 with congenital immunodeficiencies, 10 with severe combined immunodeficiencies, and 22 with metabolic diseases). Overall survival rate at 3 years in the whole group of patients was 76.9%, with a trend in favor of better outcome in children with metabolic diseases and in those who received cord blood cells (85.9%) vs bone marrow cells (72.4%).


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/congênito , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/mortalidade , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 10(6): 543-550, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28471695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Febrile neutropenia (FN) represents a life-threatening complication in hematological malignancies. Its etiology is most often due to infections even though FN of other origins, such as tumor-related fever and non-infectious inflammation, should rapidly be ruled out. Initially, C-reactive protein and, more recently, procalcitonin (PCT) have been proposed as useful biomarkers for differential diagnosis. PCT was shown to be a good biomarker of bacterial infections and their clinical outcomes. Definition of standard cut-offs and design of PCT-guided treatment protocols remain however to be defined. Areas covered: In this review, highlights on the current clinical use of PCT and its potential role as a diagnostic tool have been discussed by a panel of physicians from different areas of expertise. We provide current clinical evidence that PCT has been shown to be a reliable biomarker to differentiate fever of bacterial origin from other causes. Moreover, the Authors convened to a round-table to discuss their 'real-life experience' and offer their recommendations by a Delphi survey. Expert commentary: PCT has an important clinical role in FN. Issues such as the validation of a specific decision algorithm that includes PCT to monitor antibiotic choice and treatment duration will be addressed in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Calcitonina/sangue , Neutropenia Febril/sangue , Neutropenia Febril/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos
19.
Mycoses ; 60(8): 517-520, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28429862

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in children undergoing autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auHSCT) for solid tumours (ST). Retrospective study on auHSCT was performed in children with ST (January 2006-December 2015). Data on the number of patient-days at risk (pdr) during the first 30 and 90 days after auHSCT and cases of proven/probable IFDs were collected. Infection rate (IR, episodes/1000 pdr) and proportions and cumulative risk (CR) of IFD were evaluated. In 186 patients, 270 auHSCT were performed, for a total of 8327 pdr during the first 30 days and 24 366 up to day 90. Median age was 5 years (interquartile range 2;8), 63% were male. At day 30, seven procedures were complicated by IFD, with an IR of 0.84 (95% CI 0.66-1.02) and aCR of 2.6% (95% CI 1.4-5.4) at 18 days after HSCT. Within day 90, two further IFDs were detected with an IR of 0.37 (95% CI -0.49 to 1.23) and a CR of 3.3% (95% CI 1.7-6.3) at day 69. Children undergoing auHSCT for ST have a low incidence of IFDs in the first 90 days after the procedure.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Transplante Autólogo
20.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 39(4): 254-258, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28267083

RESUMO

This study report clinical course, etiology, management, and long-term outcome of children who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis-like reaction (TEN-LR) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We retrospectively collected children with TEN-LR occurring after allo-HSCT performed in 2 pediatric bone marrow units between 2005 and 2014. We identified 6 cases of TEN-LR of 322 patients (1.8%). Possible triggers of TEN included antibiotics, antiepileptics, antimycotics, and Mycoplasma infection. In 3 patients TEN-LR occurred concurrently with severe multiorgan acute graft versus host disease. The management of TEN included administration of high doses of intravenous immunoglobulins and steroids (n=6), anti-tumor necrosis factor (n=3), and plasmapheresis (n=3) and whenever possible, discontinuation of the potentially causative drugs. Four patients (66%) reached a complete clinical response of TEN-LR after a median of 11.2 days. Two children (34%) are presently alive, 1 with long-term ocular sequelae. TEN-LR is a potentially lethal complication that may occur after HSCT also in pediatric patients. In our experience, TEN-LR and acute graft versus host disease probably coexisted and an overlap between the 2 forms is suggested. The multidisciplinary approaches involving specialized nurses, hematologists, dermatologists, burn surgeons, and infectious disease specialists is crucial to treat these patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/etiologia , Síndrome de Stevens-Johnson/terapia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Plasmaferese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
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