Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 71
Filtrar
1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 355, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Induction of labour (IOL), or starting labour artificially, can be a lifesaving intervention for pregnant women and their babies, and rates are rising significantly globally. As rates increase, it becomes increasingly important to fully evaluate all available data, especially that from low income settings where the potential benefits and harms are greater. The goal of this paper is to describe the datasets collected as part of the Induction with Foley OR Misoprostol (INFORM) Study, a randomised trial comparing two of the recommended methods of cervical ripening for labour induction, oral misoprostol and Foley catheter, in women being induced for hypertension in pregnancy, at two sites in India during 2013-15. DATA DESCRIPTION: This dataset includes comprehensive data on 602 women who underwent IOL for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Women were randomly assigned to cervical ripening with oral misoprostol or a transcervical Foley catheter in two government hospitals in India. The main dataset has 367 variables including monitoring during the induction of labour, medications administered, timing and mode of delivery, measures of neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal mortality and morbidity, maternal satisfaction and health economic data. The dataset is anonymised and available on ReShare.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Cateteres , Maturidade Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis protocols in sub-Saharan Africa (sSA) are typically extrapolated from high-income settings, yet sepsis in sSA is likely caused by distinct pathogens and may require novel treatment strategies. Data to guide such strategies are lacking. We aimed to define causes and modifiable factors associated with sepsis outcome in Blantyre, Malawi to inform design of treatment strategies tailored to sSA. METHODS: We recruited 225 adults meeting a sepsis case-definition defined by fever and organ dysfunction, in an observational cohort study at a single tertiary centre. Aetiology was defined using culture, antigen detection, serology and PCR. Effect of treatments on 28-day outcomes were assessed by Bayesian logistic regression. RESULTS: 143/213 (67%) of participants were HIV-infected. We identified a diagnosis in 145/225 (64%) participants: most commonly tuberculosis (34%) followed by invasive bacterial (17%) and arboviral infections (13%) and malaria (9%) Tuberculosis was associated with HIV infection whereas malaria and arboviruses with the absence of HIV infection. Antituberculous chemotherapy was associated with survival (aOR 28-day death 0.17 [95% CrI 0.05-0.49] for receipt of antituberculous therapy). Of those with confirmed aetiology, 83% received the broad-spectrum antibacterial ceftriaxone but it would be expected to be active in only 24%. CONCLUSIONS: Sepsis in Blantyre, Malawi, is caused by a range of pathogens; the majority are not susceptible to the broad-spectrum antibacterials that most patients receive. HIV status is a key determinant of aetiology. Novel antimicrobial strategies for sepsis tailored to sSA - including consideration of empiric antitubercular therapy in the HIV-infected - should be developed and trialed.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 537, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Every year approximately 30,000 women die from hypertensive disease in pregnancy. Magnesium sulphate and anti-hypertensives reduce morbidity, but delivery is the only cure. Low dose oral misoprostol, a prostaglandin E1 analogue, is a highly effective method for labour induction. Usually, once active labour has commenced, the misoprostol is replaced with an intravenous oxytocin infusion if ongoing stimulation is required. However, some studies have shown that oral misoprostol can be continued into active labour, a simpler and potentially more acceptable protocol for women. To date, these two protocols have never been directly compared. METHODS: This pragmatic, open-label, randomised trial will compare a misoprostol alone labour induction protocol with the standard misoprostol plus oxytocin protocol in three Indian hospitals. The study will recruit 520 pregnant women being induced for hypertensive disease in pregnancy and requiring augmentation after membrane rupture. Participants will be randomised to receive either further oral misoprostol 25mcg every 2 h, or titrated intravenous oxytocin. The primary outcome will be caesarean birth. Secondary outcomes will assess the efficacy of the induction process, maternal and fetal/neonatal complications and patient acceptability. This protocol (version 1.04) adheres to the SPIRIT checklist. A cost-effectiveness analysis, situational analysis and formal qualitative assessment of women's experience are also planned. DISCUSSION: Avoiding oxytocin and continuing low dose misoprostol into active labour may have a number of benefits for both women and the health care system. Misoprostol is heat stable, oral medication and thus easy to store, transport and administer; qualities particularly desirable in low resource settings. An oral medication protocol requires less equipment (e.g. electronic infusion pumps) and may free up health care providers to assist with other aspects of the woman's care. The simplicity of the protocol may also help to reduce human errors associated with the delivery of intravenous infusions. Finally, women may prefer to be mobile during labour and not restricted by an intravenous infusion. There is a need, therefore, to assess whether augmentation using oral misoprostol is superior clinically and economically to the standard protocol of intravenous oxytocin. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.gov, NCT03749902 , registered on 21st Nov 2018.

4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(8): 862-871, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data describing the coagulopathy of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever are scarce. We did rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) and conventional coagulation testing in patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever to increase our understanding of the coagulopathy of this infectious disease. METHODS: We did a prospective observational cohort study of adults aged 18 years and older and admitted to hospitals with PCR-confirmed Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Samsun and Tokat, Turkey. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected and blood samples for ROTEM analysis and coagulation testing were drawn at admission and during hospital admission and convalescence (up to 30 days after onset of illness). For the ROTEM analysis we recorded the following extrinsically activated ROTEM (EXTEM S) variables, with normal ranges indicated: clotting time (38-79 s), clot formation time (34-159 s), amplitude at 10 min after clotting time (43-65 mm), maximum clot firmness (50-72 mm), and maximum lysis (>15% at 1 h). The following fibrin-specific ROTEM (FIBTEM S) variables were also recorded: amplitude at 10 min after clotting time (normal range 7-23 mm) and maximum clot firmness (9-25 mm). Disease severity was assessed by Swanepoel criteria, severity grading score (SGS), and the severity scoring index (SSI), with mild disease defined as meeting no Swanepoel criteria, graded mild by SSI, and graded low risk by SGS. FINDINGS: Between May 27, 2015, and Aug 2, 2015, 65 patients with confirmed Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever were recruited and had blood taken at 110 time points. Most were male (40 [62%] of 65) with mild disease (49 [75%] of 65). Haemorrhage occurred in 13 (20%; 95% CI 11·1-31·8) of 65 patients and 23 (35%) of 65 received blood products (15 received fresh frozen plasma and eight received red blood cell concentrates), and 21 patients received platelet transfusions. At admission, the following EXTEM S variables differed significantly between mild cases and moderate to severe cases: median clotting time 56 s (range 42-81; IQR 48-64) versus 69 s (range 48-164; IQR 54-75; p=0·01); mean amplitude at 10 min after clotting time 45·1 mm (SD 7·0) versus 33·9 mm (SD 8·6; p<0·0001); median clot formation time 147 s (range 72-255; IQR 101-171) versus 197 s (range 98-418; IQR 156-296; p=0·006); and maximum clot firmness 54·4 mm (SD 7·2) versus 45·1 mm (SD 12·5; p=0·003). The EXTEM S variables were compared at different time points; maximum clot firmness (p=0·024) and amplitude at 10 min after clotting time (p=0·090) were lowest on days 4-6 of illness. We found no significant differences in FIBTEM variables between mild and moderate to severe cases (median amplitude at 10 min, 13 mm [range 8-20; IQR 11-15] vs 12 mm [range 6-25; IQR 10-15; p=0·68]; and median maximum clot firmness, 15 mm [range 9-60; IQR 13-21] vs 17 mm [range 7-39; IQR 13-23; p=0·21]); and no hyperfibrinolysis (maximum lysis >15%). INTERPRETATION: Coagulopathy of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is related to defects in clot development and stabilisation that are more marked in severe disease than in mild disease. The combination of normal and slightly deranged coagulation screens and FIBTEM results with the absence of hyperfibrinolysis suggests that the coagulopathy of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever relates to platelet dysfunction. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, UK Ministry of Defence, and National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/diagnóstico , Tromboelastografia , Feminino , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Turquia
5.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 19(9): 973-987, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections are important causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Asia-Pacific region. We hypothesised that monthly intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) or intermittent screening and treatment (IST) with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is more effective in reducing malaria in pregnancy than the existing single screening and treatment (SST) strategy, which is used to screen women for malaria infections at the first antenatal visit followed by passive case detection, with management of febrile cases. METHODS: We did an open-label, three-arm, cluster-randomised, superiority trial in Sumba (low malaria transmission site) and Papua (moderate malaria transmission site), Indonesia. Eligible participants were 16-30 weeks pregnant. Clusters (antenatal clinics with at least ten new pregnancies per year matched by location, size, and malaria risk) were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via computer-generated lists to IPT, IST, or SST clusters. In IPT clusters, participants received the fixed-dose combination of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (4 and 18 mg/kg per day). In IST clusters, participants were screened with malaria rapid diagnostic tests once a month, whereas, in SST clusters, they were screened at enrolment only. In all groups, participants with fever were tested for malaria. Any participant who tested positive received dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine regardless of symptoms. The primary outcome was malaria infection in the mother at delivery. Laboratory staff were unaware of group allocation. Analyses included all randomly assigned participants contributing outcome data and were adjusted for clustering at the clinic level. This trial is complete and is registered with ISRCTN, number 34010937. FINDINGS: Between May 16, 2013, and April 21, 2016, 78 clusters (57 in Sumba and 21 in Papua) were randomly assigned to SST, IPT, or IST clusters (26 clusters each). Of 3553 women screened for eligibility, 2279 were enrolled (744 in SST clusters, 681 in IPT clusters, and 854 in IST clusters). At enrolment, malaria prevalence was lower in IST (5·7%) than in SST (12·6%) and IPT (10·6%) clusters. At delivery, malaria prevalence was 20·2% (128 of 633) in SST clusters, compared with 11·6% (61 of 528) in IPT clusters (relative risk [RR] 0·59, 95% CI 0·42-0·83, p=0·0022) and 11·8% (84 of 713) in IST clusters (0·56, 0·40-0·77, p=0·0005). Conditions related to the pregnancy, the puerperium, and the perinatal period were the most common serious adverse events for the mothers, and infections and infestations for the infants. There were no differences between groups in serious adverse events in the mothers or in their infants. INTERPRETATION: IST was associated with a lower prevalence of malaria than SST at delivery, but the prevalence of malaria in this group was also lower at enrolment, making interpretation of the effect of IST challenging. Further studies with highly sensitive malaria rapid diagnostic tests should be considered. Monthly IPT with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a promising alternative to SST in areas in the Asia-Pacific region with moderate or high transmission of malaria. FUNDING: Joint Global Health Trials Scheme of the Medical Research Council, Department for International-Development, and the Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Malária Vivax/epidemiologia , Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/diagnóstico , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Parto , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007269, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986252

RESUMO

The live attenuated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine SA14-14-2 has been used in Nepal for catch-up campaigns and is now included in the routine immunisation schedule. Previous studies have shown good vaccine efficacy after one dose in districts with a high incidence of JE. The first well-documented dengue outbreak occurred in Nepal in 2006 with ongoing cases now thought to be secondary to migration from India. Previous infection with dengue virus (DENV) partially protects against JE and might also influence serum neutralising antibody titres against JEV. This study aimed to determine whether serum anti-JEV neutralisation titres are: 1. maintained over time since vaccination, 2. vary with historic local JE incidence, and 3. are associated with DENV neutralising antibody levels. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three districts of Nepal: Banke, Rupandehi and Udayapur. Udayapur district had been vaccinated against JE most recently (2009), but had been the focus of only one campaign, compared with two in Banke and three in Rupandehi. Participants answered a short questionnaire and serum was assayed for anti-JEV and anti-DENV IgM and IgG (by ELISA) and 50% plaque reduction neutralisation titres (PRNT50) against JEV and DENV serotypes 1-4. A titre of ≥1:10 was considered seropositive to the respective virus. JEV neutralising antibody seroprevalence (PRNT50 ≥ 1:10) was 81% in Banke and Rupandehi, but only 41% in Udayapur, despite this district being vaccinated more recently. Sensitivity of ELISA for both anti-JEV and anti-DENV antibodies was low compared with PRNT50. DENV neutralising antibody correlated with the JEV PRNT50 ≥1:10, though the effect was modest. IgM (indicating recent infection) against both viruses was detected in a small number of participants. We also show that DENV IgM is present in Nepali subjects who have not travelled to India, suggesting that DENV may have become established in Nepal. We therefore propose that further JE vaccine campaigns should be considered in Udayapur district, and similar areas that have had fewer vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Encefalite Japonesa (Espécie)/imunologia , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacinas contra Encefalite Japonesa/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Testes de Neutralização , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ensaio de Placa Viral , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 48, 2019 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Paediatric fever is a common cause of emergency department (ED) attendance. A lack of prompt and definitive diagnostics makes it difficult to distinguish viral from potentially life-threatening bacterial causes, necessitating a cautious approach. This may result in extended periods of observation, additional radiography, and the precautionary use of antibiotics (ABs) prior to evidence of bacterial foci. This study examines resource use, service costs, and health outcomes. METHODS: We studied an all-year prospective, comprehensive, and representative cohort of 6518 febrile children (aged < 16 years), attending Alder Hey Children's Hospital, an NHS-affiliated paediatric care provider in the North West of England, over a 1-year period. Performing a time-driven and activity-based micro-costing, we estimated the economic impact of managing paediatric febrile illness, with focus on nurse/clinician time, investigations, radiography, and inpatient stay. Using bootstrapped generalised linear modelling (GLM, gamma, log), we identified the patient and healthcare provider characteristics associated with increased resource use, applying retrospective case-note identification to determine rates of potentially avoidable AB prescribing. RESULTS: Infants aged less than 3 months incurred significantly higher resource use than any other age group, at £1000.28 [95% CI £82.39-£2993.37] per child, (p < 0.001), while lesser experienced doctors exhibited 3.2-fold [95% CI 2.0-5.1-fold] higher resource use than consultants (p < 0.001). Approximately 32.4% of febrile children received antibiotics, and 7.1% were diagnosed with bacterial infections. Children with viral illnesses for whom antibiotic prescription was potentially avoidable incurred 9.9-fold [95% CI 6.5-13.2-fold] cost increases compared to those not receiving antibiotics, equal to an additional £1352.10 per child, predominantly resulting from a 53.9-h increase in observation and inpatient stay (57.1 vs. 3.2 h). Bootstrapped GLM suggested that infants aged below 3 months and those prompting a respiratory rate 'red flag', treatment by lesser experienced doctors, and Manchester Triage System (MTS) yellow or higher were statistically significant predictors of higher resource use in 100% of bootstrap simulations. CONCLUSION: The economic impact of diagnostic uncertainty when managing paediatric febrile illness is significant, and the precautionary use of antibiotics is strongly associated with increased costs. The use of ED resources is highest among infants (aged less than 3 months) and those infants managed by lesser experienced doctors, independent of clinical severity. Diagnostic advances which could increase confidence to withhold antibiotics may yield considerable efficiency gains in these groups, where the perceived risks of failing to identify potentially life-threatening bacterial infections are greatest.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Febre/economia , Medicina Estatal/normas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Incerteza
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 200(3): 359-369, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625278

RESUMO

Rationale: In the context of rapid antiretroviral therapy rollout and an increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases, there are few contemporary data describing the etiology and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in sub-Saharan Africa.Objectives: To describe the current etiology of CAP in Malawi and identify risk factors for mortality.Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of adults hospitalized with CAP to a teaching hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Etiology was defined by blood culture, Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen detection, sputum mycobacterial culture and Xpert MTB/RIF, and nasopharyngeal aspirate multiplex PCR.Measurements and Main Results: In 459 patients (285 [62.1%] males; median age, 34.7 [interquartile range, 29.4-41.9] yr), 30-day mortality was 14.6% (64/439) and associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio, 2.60 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.78]), symptom duration greater than 7 days (2.78 [1.40-5.54]), tachycardia (2.99 [1.48-6.06]), hypoxemia (4.40 [2.03-9.51]), and inability to stand (3.59 [1.72-7.50]). HIV was common (355/453; 78.4%), frequently newly diagnosed (124/355; 34.9%), but not associated with mortality. S. pneumoniae (98/458; 21.4%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (75/326; 23.0%) were the most frequently identified pathogens. Viral infection occurred in 32.6% (148/454) with influenza (40/454; 8.8%) most common. Bacterial-viral coinfection occurred in 9.1% (28/307). Detection of M. tuberculosis was associated with mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 2.44 [1.19-5.01]).Conclusions: In the antiretroviral therapy era, CAP in Malawi remains predominantly HIV associated, with a large proportion attributable to potentially vaccine-preventable pathogens. Strategies to increase early detection and treatment of tuberculosis and improve supportive care, in particular the correction of hypoxemia, should be evaluated in clinical trials to address CAP-associated mortality.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/mortalidade , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pneumonia/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Lancet ; 392(10147): 569-580, 2018 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in malaria incidence in sub-Saharan Africa have been achieved with massive deployment of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), but pyrethroid resistance threatens control. Burkina Faso is an area with intense malaria transmission and highly pyrethroid-resistant vectors. We assessed the effectiveness of bednets containing permethrin, a pyrethroid, and pyriproxyfen, an insect growth regulator, versus permethrin-only (standard) LLINs against clinical malaria in children younger than 5 years in Banfora, Burkina Faso. METHODS: In this two-group, step-wedge, cluster-randomised, controlled, superiority trial, standard LLINs were incrementally replaced with LLINs treated with permethrin plus pyriproxyfen (PPF) in 40 rural clusters in Burkina Faso. In each cluster, 50 children (aged 6 months to 5 years) were followed up by passive case detection for clinical malaria. Cross-sectional surveys were done at the start and the end of the transmission seasons in 2014 and 2015. We did monthly collections from indoor light traps to estimate vector densities. Primary endpoints were the incidence of clinical malaria, measured by passive case detection, and the entomological inoculation rate. Analyses were adjusted for clustering and for month and health centre. This trial is registered as ISRCTN21853394. FINDINGS: 1980 children were enrolled in the cohort in 2014 and 2157 in 2015. At the end of the study, more than 99% of children slept under a bednet. The incidence of clinical malaria was 2·0 episodes per child-year in the standard LLIN group and 1·5 episodes per child-year in the PPF-treated LLIN group (incidence rate ratio 0·88 [95% CI 0·77-0·99; p=0·04]). The entomological inoculation rate was 85 (95% CI 63-108) infective bites per transmission season in the standard LLIN group versus 42 (32-52) infective bites per transmission season in the PPF-treated LLIN group (rate ratio 0·49, 95% CI 0·32-0·66; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: PPF-treated LLINs provide greater protection against clinical malaria than do standard LLINs and could be used as an alternative to standard LLINs in areas with intense transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and highly pyrethroid-resistant vectors. FUNDING: EU Seventh Framework Programme.


Assuntos
Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida , Inseticidas , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Permetrina , Piridinas , Animais , Anopheles , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Insetos Vetores , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino
10.
BMC Nurs ; 17: 24, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983637

RESUMO

Background: Maternal and Child Health Aides are the largest nursing cadre in Sierra Leone providing maternal and child health care at primary level. Poor healthcare infrastructure and persistent shortage of suitably qualified health care workers have contributed to high maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality. In 2012, 50% of the MCHAides cohort failed their final examination and the Government of Sierra Leone expressed concerns about the quality of teaching within the programmes. Lack of teaching resources and poor standards of teaching led to high failure rates in final examinations reducing the number of newly qualified nurses available for deployment. Methods: A mixed-methods approach using semi-structured observations of teaching sessions and completion of a questionnaire by students was used. Fourteen MCHAide Training Schools across all districts of Sierra Leone, 140 MCHAide tutors and 513 students were included in the study. In each school, teaching was observed by two researchers at baseline, 3 and 6 months after the tutor training programme. Students completed a questionnaire on the quality of teaching and learning in their school at the same time points. Results: A total of 513 students completed the questionnaire, 120 tutors took part in the training and 66 lessons across all schools were observed. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in mean student evaluation of teaching and learning in 12/19 areas tested at follow-up compared to baseline. Observation of 66 teaching sessions demonstrated an increase in the number of student-focused, interactive teaching methods used. Conclusion: Prior to the teaching and learning workshops there was little student-focused learning within the schools. Teaching was conducted predominantly using lectures even for practical sessions. Training tutors to move away from didactic teaching towards a more student-focused approach leads to increased student satisfaction with teaching and learning within the schools.

11.
J Infect Dis ; 218(7): 1099-1109, 2018 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733403

RESUMO

Background: The safety of iron supplementation for young women is uncertain in malaria-endemic settings. Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized controlled noninferiority trial in rural Burkina Faso. Results: A total of 1959 nulliparae were assigned to weekly supplementation (60 mg iron and 2.8 mg folic acid) (n = 980) or 2.8 mg folic acid (n = 979) until first antenatal visit (ANC1), or 18 months if remaining nonpregnant. Three hundred fifteen women attended ANC1, and 916 remained nonpregnant. There was no difference at ANC1 in parasitemia prevalence (iron, 53.4% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 45.7%-61.0%]; control, 55.3% [95% CI, 47.3%-62.9%]; prevalence ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, .79-1.18]; P = .82), anemia (adjusted effect, 0.96 [95% CI, .83-1.10]; P = .52), iron deficiency (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.84 [95% CI, .46-1.54]; P = .58), or plasma iron biomarkers. Outcomes in nonpregnant women were parasitemia (iron, 42.9% [95% CI, 38.3%-47.5%]; control, 39.2% [95% CI, 34.9%-43.7%]; prevalence ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, .93-1.28]; P = .282); anemia (aRR, 0.90 [95% CI, .78-1.05]; P = .17), and iron deficiency (aRR, 0.99 [95% CI, .77-1.28]; P = .96), with no iron biomarker differences. Conclusions: Weekly iron supplementation did not increase malaria risk, improve iron status, or reduce anemia in young, mostly adolescent menstruating women, nor in early pregnancy. World Health Organization Guidelines for universal supplementation for young nulliparous women may need reassessment. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01210040.


Assuntos
Anemia/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Malária/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Gravidez , Organização Mundial da Saúde
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 66(1): 131-133, 2018 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020205

RESUMO

Ebola survivors (21/27 [77.8%]) suffered more disability than their close contacts (6/54 [11.1%]) (adjusted odds ratio, 23.5 [95% confidence interval, 6.5-85.7]; P < .001) when measured by the Washington Group Disability Extended Questionnaire. Major limitations in vision, mobility, cognition, and affect were observed in survivors 1 year following the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak, highlighting the need for long-term rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/complicações , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Limitação da Mobilidade , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0188437, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No community prevalence studies have been done on chronic respiratory symptoms of cough, wheezing and shortness of breath in adult rural populations in Malawi. Case detection rates of tuberculosis (TB) and chronic airways disease are low in resource-poor primary health care facilities. OBJECTIVE: To understand the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and recorded diagnoses of TB in rural Malawian adults in order to improve case detection and management of these diseases. METHODS: A population proportional, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of the population with chronic respiratory symptoms that had a diagnosis of tuberculosis or chronic airways disease in two rural communities in Malawi. Households were randomly selected using Google Earth Pro software. Smart phones loaded with Open Data Kit Essential software were used for data collection. Interviews were conducted with 15795 people aged 15 years and above to enquire about symptoms of chronic cough, wheeze and shortness of breath. RESULTS: Overall 3554 (22.5%) participants reported at least one of these respiratory symptoms. Cough was reported by 2933, of whom 1623 (55.3%) reported cough only and 1310 (44.7%) combined with wheeze and/or shortness of breath. Only 4.6% (164/3554) of participants with chronic respiratory symptoms had one or more of the following diagnoses in their health passports (patient held medical records): TB, asthma, bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms coupled with limited recorded diagnoses in patient-held medical records in these rural communities suggests a high chronic respiratory disease burden and unmet health need.


Assuntos
Bronquite/epidemiologia , População Rural , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
14.
PLoS One ; 12(10): e0186687, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29077720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality from acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in sub-Saharan African adults and adolescents exceeds 50%. We tested if Goal Directed Therapy (GDT) was feasible for adults and adolescents with clinically suspected ABM in Malawi. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sequential patient cohorts of adults and adolescents with clinically suspected ABM were recruited in the emergency department of a teaching hospital in Malawi using a before/after design. Routine care was monitored in year one (P1). In year two (P2), nurses delivered protocolised GDT (rapid antibiotics, airway support, oxygenation, seizure control and fluid resuscitation) to a second cohort. The primary endpoint was composite mean number of clinical goals attained. Secondary endpoints were individual goals attained and death or disability from proven or probable ABM at day 40. RESULTS: 563 patients with suspected ABM were enrolled in the study; 273 were monitored in P1; 290 patients with suspected ABM received GDT in P2. 61% were male, median age 33 years and 90% were HIV co-infected. ABM was proven or probable in 132 (23%) patients. GDT attained more clinical goals compared to routine care: composite mean number of goals in P1 was 0·55 vs. 1·57 in P2 GDT (p<0·001); Death or disability by day 40 from proven or probable ABM occurred in 29/57 (51%) in P1 and 38/60 (63%) in P2 (p = 0·19). CONCLUSION: Nurse-led GDT in a resource-constrained setting was associated with improved delivery of protocolised care. Outcome was unaffected. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.isrctn.com ISRCTN96218197.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Meningites Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0183312, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poor face barriers in accessing services for tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) disease. A cluster randomised trial was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of engaging unpaid informal providers (IPs) to promote access in a rural district. The intervention consisted of training unpaid IPs in TB and HIV disease recognition, sputum specimen collection, appropriate referrals, and raising community awareness. METHODS: In total, six clusters were defined in the study areas. Through a pair-matched cluster randomization process, three clusters (average cluster population = 200,714) were allocated to receive the intervention in the Early arm. Eleven months later the intervention was rolled out to the remaining three clusters (average cluster population = 209,564)-the Delayed arm. Treatment initiation rates for TB and Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) were the primary outcome measures. Secondary outcome measures included testing rates for TB and HIV. We report the results of the comparisons between the Early and Delayed arms over the 23 month trial period. Data were obtained from patient registers. Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to express the effectiveness of the intervention as incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: The Early and Delayed clusters were well matched in terms of baseline monthly mean counts and incidence rate ratios for TB and ART treatment initiation. However there were fewer testing and treatment initiation facilities in the Early clusters (TB treatment n = 2, TB testing n = 7, ART initiation n = 3, HIV testing n = 20) than in the Delayed clusters (TB treatment n = 4, TB testing n = 9, ART initiation n = 6, HIV testing n = 18). Overall there were more HIV testing and treatment centres than TB testing and treatment centres. The IRR was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.903-1.533; p = 0.112) for TB treatment initiation and 1.347 (CI:1.00-1.694; p = 0.049) for ART initiation in the first 12 months and the IRR were 0.552 (95% CI:0.397-0.767; p<0.001) and 0.924 (95% CI: 0.369-2.309, p = 0.863) for TB and ART treatment initiations respectively for the last 11 months. The IRR were 1.152 (95% CI:1.009-1.359, p = 0.003) and 1.61 (95% CI:1.385-1.869, p<0.001) for TB and HIV testing uptake respectively in the first 12 months. The IRR was 0.659 (95% CI:0.441-0.983; p = 0.023) for TB testing uptake for the last 11 months. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that engagement of unpaid IPs increased TB and HIV testing rates and also increased ART initiation. However, for these providers to be effective in promoting TB treatment initiation, numbers of sites offering TB testing and treatment initiation in rural areas should be increased. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127983.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/economia , Pessoal de Saúde/economia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem/economia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/economia , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/economia , Geografia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Malaui/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Lancet ; 390(10095): 669-680, 2017 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Between 62 000 and 77 000 women die annually from pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Prompt delivery, preferably by the vaginal route, is vital for good maternal and neonatal outcomes. Two low-cost interventions-low-dose oral misoprostol tablets and transcervical Foley catheterisation-are already used in low-resource settings. We aimed to compare the relative risks and benefits of these interventions. METHODS: We undertook this multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial in two public hospitals in Nagpur, India. Women (aged ≥18 years) who were at 20 weeks' gestation or later with a live fetus and required delivery as a result of pre-eclampsia or hypertension were randomly assigned (1:1), via computer-generated block randomisation (block sizes of four, six, and eight) with concealment by use of opaque, sequentially numbered, sealed envelopes, to receive labour induction with either oral misoprostol 25 µg every 2 h (maximum of 12 doses) or a transcervical Foley catheter (silicone, size 18 F with 30 mL balloon). Randomisation was stratified by study centre. The catheter remained in place until active labour started, the catheter fell out, or 12 h had elapsed. If the catheter did not fall out within 12 h, induction continued with artificial membrane rupture and oxytocin, administered through a micro-drip gravity infusion set. Fetal monitoring was by intermittent auscultation. The primary outcome was vaginal birth within 24 h. Due to the nature of the interventions, masking of participants, study investigators, and care providers to group allocation was not possible. We analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01801410. FINDINGS: Between Dec 20, 2013, and June 29, 2015, we randomly assigned 602 women to induction with misoprostol (n=302) or the Foley catheter (n=300; intention-to-treat population). Vaginal birth within 24 h was more common in women in the misoprostol group than in the Foley catheter group (172 [57·0%] vs 141 [47·0%] women; absolute risk difference 10·0%, 95% CI 2·0-17·9; p=0·0136). Rates of uterine hyperstimulation were low in both the misoprostol and Foley catheter groups (two [0·7%] vs one [0·3%] cases; absolute risk difference 0·3%, 95% CI -0·8 to 1·5; p=0·566) and neonatal deaths did not differ significantly between groups (six [2·0%] vs three [1·0%] neonatal deaths; 1·0, -1·04 to 2·97; p=0·322). 17 serious adverse events (3%) were reported during the study: one case of intrapartum convulsion and one case of disseminated intravascular coagulation (both in the Foley group); ten perinatal deaths, including two stillbirths (both in the Foley catheter group) and eight neonatal deaths (n=5 in the misoprostol group and n=3 in the Foley catheter group); and five of neonatal morbidity, comprising birth asphyxia (n=3), septicaemia (n=1), and neonatal convulsion (n=1). INTERPRETATION: Oral misoprostol was more effective than transcervical Foley catheterisation for induction of labour in women with pre-eclampsia or hypertension. Future studies are required to assess whether oxytocin augmentation following misoprostol can be replaced by regular doses of oral misoprostol tablets. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust Joint Global Health Trials Scheme.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/terapia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/terapia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/economia , Índia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/economia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/economia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Comprimidos , Cateterismo Urinário/economia , Cateterismo Urinário/estatística & dados numéricos , Vagina , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(4): 413-419, 2017 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27927860

RESUMO

Background: Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) in adults residing in resource-poor countries is associated with mortality rates >50%. To improve outcome, interventional trials and standardized clinical algorithms are urgently required. To optimize these processes, we developed and validated an outcome prediction tool to identify ABM patients at greatest risk of death. Methods: We derived a nomogram using mortality predictors derived from a logistic regression model of a discovery database of adult Malawian patients with ABM (n = 523 [65%] cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] culture positive). We validated the nomogram internally using a bootstrap procedure and subsequently used the nomogram scores to further interpret the effects of adjunctive dexamethasone and glycerol using clinical trial data from Malawi. Results: ABM mortality at 6-week follow-up was 54%. Five of 15 variables tested were strongly associated with poor outcome (CSF culture positivity, CSF white blood cell count, hemoglobin, Glasgow Coma Scale, and pulse rate), and were used in the derivation of the Malawi Adult Meningitis Score (MAMS) nomogram. The C-index (area under the curve) was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, .71-.80) and calibration was good (Hosmer-Lemeshow C-statistic = 5.48, df = 8, P = .705). Harmful effects of adjunctive glycerol were observed in groups with relatively low predicted risk of poor outcome (25%-50% risk): Case Fatality Rate of 21% in the placebo group and 52% in the glycerol group (P < .001). This effect was not seen with adjunctive dexamethasone. Conclusions: MAMS provides a novel tool for predicting prognosis and improving interpretation of ABM clinical trials by risk stratification in resource-poor settings. Whether MAMS can be applied to non-HIV-endemic countries requires further evaluation.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/mortalidade , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meningites Bacterianas/patologia , Nomogramas , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMJ Open ; 6(11): e013229, 2016 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27881530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Conduct a feasibility study on the effect of menstrual hygiene on schoolgirls' school and health (reproductive/sexual) outcomes. DESIGN: 3-arm single-site open cluster randomised controlled pilot study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in rural western Kenya, within a Health and Demographic Surveillance System. PARTICIPANTS: Primary schoolgirls 14-16 years, experienced 3 menses, no precluding disability, and resident in the study area. INTERVENTIONS: 1 insertable menstrual cup, or monthly sanitary pads, against 'usual practice' control. All participants received puberty education preintervention, and hand wash soap during intervention. Schools received hand wash soap. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: school attrition (drop-out, absence); secondary: sexually transmitted infection (STI) (Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea), reproductive tract infection (RTI) (bacterial vaginosis, Candida albicans); safety: toxic shock syndrome, vaginal Staphylococcus aureus. RESULTS: Of 751 girls enrolled 644 were followed-up for a median of 10.9 months. Cups or pads did not reduce school dropout risk (control=8.0%, cups=11.2%, pads=10.2%). Self-reported absence was rarely reported and not assessable. Prevalence of STIs in the end-of-study survey among controls was 7.7% versus 4.2% in the cups arm (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 0.48, 0.24 to 0.96, p=0.039), 4.5% with pads (aPR=0.62; 0.37 to 1.03, p=0.063), and 4.3% with cups and pads pooled (aPR=0.54, 0.34 to 0.87, p=0.012). RTI prevalence was 21.5%, 28.5% and 26.9% among cup, pad and control arms, 71% of which were bacterial vaginosis, with a prevalence of 14.6%, 19.8% and 20.5%, per arm, respectively. Bacterial vaginosis was less prevalent in the cups (12.9%) compared with pads (20.3%, aPR=0.65, 0.44 to 0.97, p=0.034) and control (19.2%, aPR=0.67, 0.43 to 1.04, p=0.075) arm girls enrolled for 9 months or longer. No adverse events were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Provision of menstrual cups and sanitary pads for ∼1 school-year was associated with a lower STI risk, and cups with a lower bacterial vaginosis risk, but there was no association with school dropout. A large-scale trial on menstrual cups is warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17486946; Results.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada , Projetos Piloto , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Evasão Escolar , Estudantes
19.
PLoS Med ; 13(9): e1002124, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27622558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Africa, most plasmodium infections during pregnancy remain asymptomatic, yet are associated with maternal anemia and low birthweight. WHO recommends intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP). However, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) efficacy is threatened by high-level parasite resistance. We conducted a trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of scheduled intermittent screening with malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treatment of RDT-positive women with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) as an alternative strategy to IPTp-SP. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was an open-label, two-arm individually randomized superiority trial among HIV-seronegative women at three sites in Malawi with high SP resistance. The intervention consisted of three or four scheduled visits in the second and third trimester, 4 to 6 wk apart. Women in the IPTp-SP arm received SP at each visit. Women in the intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy with DP (ISTp-DP) arm were screened for malaria at every visit and treated with DP if RDT-positive. The primary outcomes were adverse live birth outcome (composite of small for gestational age, low birthweight [<2,500 g], or preterm birth [<37 wk]) in paucigravidae (first or second pregnancy) and maternal or placental plasmodium infection at delivery in multigravidae (third pregnancy or higher). Analysis was by intention to treat. Between 21 July 2011 and 18 March 2013, 1,873 women were recruited (1,155 paucigravidae and 718 multigravidae). The prevalence of adverse live birth outcome was similar in the ISTp-DP (29.9%) and IPTp-SP (28.8%) arms (risk difference = 1.08% [95% CI -3.25% to 5.41%]; all women: relative risk [RR] = 1.04 [95% CI 0.90-1.20], p = 0.625; paucigravidae: RR = 1.10 [95% CI 0.92-1.31], p = 0.282; multigravidae: RR = 0.92 [95% CI 0.71-1.20], p = 0.543). The prevalence of malaria at delivery was higher in the ISTp-DP arm (48.7% versus 40.8%; risk difference = 7.85%, [95% CI 3.07%-12.63%]; all women: RR = 1.19 [95% CI 1.07-1.33], p = 0.007; paucigravidae: RR = 1.16 [95% CI 1.04-1.31], p = 0.011; multigravidae: RR = 1.29 [95% CI 1.02-1.63], p = 0.037). Fetal loss was more common with ISTp-DP (2.6% versus 1.3%; RR = 2.06 [95% CI 1.01-4.21], p = 0.046) and highest among non-DP-recipients (3.1%) in the ISTp-DP arm. Limitations included the open-label design. CONCLUSIONS: Scheduled screening for malaria parasites with the current generation of RDTs three to four times during pregnancy as part of focused antenatal care was not superior to IPTp-SP in this area with high malaria transmission and high SP resistance and was associated with higher fetal loss and more malaria at delivery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201103000280319; ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN69800930.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Pirimetamina/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Sulfadoxina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Infect Dis ; 213(11): 1809-19, 2016 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26810369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral vaccination with live-attenuated Salmonella Typhi strain Ty21a is modestly efficacious, but the mechanisms of protection are currently unknown. While humoral and cellular immune responses are well described in peripheral blood, the cellular response at the intestinal mucosa has never been directly assessed. METHODS: We vaccinated healthy adults with Ty21a and assessed humoral and cellular immunity in vaccinated volunteers and controls after 18 days. Immunoglobulin levels were assessed in peripheral blood by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cellular responses were assessed in peripheral blood and at the duodenal and colonic mucosa by flow cytometry. RESULTS: We demonstrate the generation of Ty21a-responsive and heterologous influenza virus-responsive CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells at the duodenal mucosa. All duodenal responses were consistently correlated, and no responses were observed at the colonic mucosa. Peripheral anti-lipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A responses were significantly correlated with duodenal responses. The assessment of integrin ß7 expression intensity among peripheral and duodenal T-cell subsets revealed varied capacities for mucosal homing and residence. CONCLUSIONS: The breadth of duodenal cellular responses was not reflected peripherally. The direct evaluation of mucosal immune defense may yield functional correlates of protection and could provide insight into mechanisms that may be manipulated to enhance vaccine immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Salmonella typhi/imunologia , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Masculino , Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...