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1.
Acta Oncol ; 60(9): 1106-1113, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple meta-analyses have demonstrated that routine surveillance following colorectal cancer surgery improves survival outcomes. There is limited data on how recurrence patterns and post-recurrence outcomes vary by individual tumor stage. METHODS: Using a multi-site community cohort study, we examined the potential impact of primary tumor stage on the sites of recurrence, management of recurrent disease with curative intent, and post-resection survival. We also explored changes over time. RESULTS: Of 4257 new colon cancers diagnosed 2001 through 2016, 789 (21.1%) had stage I, 1584 (42.4%) had stage II, and 1360 (36.4%) had stage III colon cancer. For consecutive 5-year periods (2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2016), recurrence rates have declined (23.4 vs. 17.1 vs. 13.6%, p < 0.001), however, the resection rates of metastatic disease (29.3 vs. 38.6 vs. 35.0%, p = 0.21) and post-resection 5-year survival (52.0 vs. 51.8 vs. 64.2%, p = 0.12) have remained steady. Primary tumor stage impacted recurrence rate (3.8 vs. 12 vs. 28%, p < 0.0001 for stage 1, 2, and 3), patterns of recurrence, resection of metastatic disease, (50 vs. 42 vs. 30%, p < 0.0001) and post-resection 5-year survival (92 vs. 64 vs. 44%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this community cohort we defined significant differences in recurrence patterns and post-resection survival by tumor stage, with a diminishing rate of recurrence over time. While recurrence rates were lower with stage I and II disease, the high rate of metastatic disease resection and excellent post-resection outcomes help to justify routine surveillance in these patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
2.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(2)2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are morbid and costly complications after elective colorectal surgery. SSI prevention bundles have been shown to reduce SSI in colorectal surgery, but their impact on organ space infections (OSI) is variable. Adoption of an evidence-based practice without an implementation strategy is often unsuccessful. Our aim was to successfully implement an OSI prevention bundle and to achieve a cost-effective reduction in OSI following elective left-sided colorectal operations. METHODS: The Translating Research into Practice model was used to implement an OSI prevention bundle in all patients undergoing elective left-sided colorectal resections by a single unit from November 2018 to September 2019. The new components included oral antibiotics with mechanical bowel preparation, when required, and use of impermeable surgical gowns. Other standardised components included alcoholic chlorhexidine skin preparation, glove change after bowel handling prior to wound closure with clean instruments. The primary outcome was OSI. Secondary outcomes included bundle compliance, unintended consequences and total patient costs. Outcomes were compared with all patients undergoing elective left-sided colorectal resections at the same institution in 2017. RESULTS: Elective colorectal resections were performed in 173 patients across two cohorts. The compliance rate with bundle items was 63% for all items and 93% for one omitted item. There was a reduction in OSI from 12.9% (11 of 85) to 3.4% (3 of 88, p<0.05) after implementation of the OSI prevention bundle. The average cost of an OSI was $A36 900. The estimated savings for preventing eight OSIs by using the OSI bundle in the second cohort was $A295 198. CONCLUSION: Successful implementation of an OSI prevention bundle was associated with a reduced rate of OSI after elective colorectal surgery. The OSI bundle and its implementation were cost-effective. Further study is required to investigate the sustainability of the OSI prevention bundle.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Colorretal , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Cirurgia Colorretal/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
3.
ANZ J Surg ; 91(5): E280-E285, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a common manifestation of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, appropriate workup prior to surgery and the effect of anaemia on outcomes have not been well defined. This study aimed to describe preoperative anaemia incidence, investigations performed, treatment and associated complications in a CRC surgical population at a single large tertiary institution in Australia. METHODS: Patients who received surgery with curative intent for CRC between 2012 and 2017 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Demographic and clinical outcome data were analysed. RESULTS: In total, 754 patients with CRC were included. Anaemia was found in 350 (46.4%) patients, of which 124 (35.4%) were microcytic, 20 (5.7%) were macrocytic and 206 (58.9%) were normocytic. Older patients were more likely to have anaemia (mean age 70.28 years, standard deviation (SD) 12.98 versus 64.74 years, SD 11.74). Only 89 patients (25.4%) were tested for iron deficiency, and of these, 76 (85.4%) were found to be iron deficient and 42 (47.7%) had low ferritin. Preoperative anaemia was associated with a higher incidence of postoperative complications (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95%, CI 1.04-2.05; P = 0.03) and a longer length of stay (LOS; average 1.8 days; 95% CI 0.3-3.3 days). CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of CRC patients had anaemia and the majority were normocytic. Only a small number of anaemic patients were tested for iron deficiency. Preoperative anaemia had an adverse effect on LOS and postoperative complications. The evaluation of anaemic patients is essential in CRC patients undergoing surgery.


Assuntos
Anemia , Neoplasias Colorretais , Idoso , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Humanos , Ferro , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
ANZ J Surg ; 91(5): 947-953, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of lateral lymph node dissection (LLND) in the treatment of patients with low rectal cancer with enlarged lateral lymph nodes (LLN+) is under investigation. Enthusiasm for LLND stems from a perceived reduction in local recurrence (LR). We aimed to compare the LR rate for LLN+ patients with LLN- patients, treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and surgery, in a hospital that does not perform LLND. METHODS: A retrospective study of all patients with clinical stage 3 low rectal cancer who completed nCRT and surgery between 2008 and 2017 at Western Health was performed. Outcomes for LLN+ patients were compared with LLN- patients. The primary outcome was LR. Secondary outcomes included distant metastases, disease-free survival and overall survival. RESULTS: There were 110 patients treated for stage 3 low rectal cancer over 10 years. There was no significant difference in the LR rate, with one LR from 28 LLN+ patients and one LR from 82 LLN- patients (4% versus 1.2%, P = 0.44). There were no significant differences in median disease-free survival (41 versus 52 months, P = 0.19) or mean overall survival (62 versus 60 months, P = 0.80). Of all patients studied, 21% developed distant metastases. CONCLUSION: LR after nCRT and surgery in patients with stage 3 rectal cancer is rare, irrespective of lateral pelvic node status. These data, along with the uncertain benefit and known risks of LLND, supports the continued use of standard therapy in these patients. Strategies to address distant failure in these patients should be explored.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfonodos/cirurgia , Metástase Linfática , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 4(3): e1346, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between smoking, diabetes and obesity and oncological outcomes in patients with stage III colon cancer treated with surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy is unclear. AIM: To evaluate whether smoking, obesity and diabetes are associated with the disease-free survival and overall survival rates of patients with stage III colon cancer who have received adjuvant chemotherapy. METHODS: Patients were selected from the prospectively maintained Australian Cancer Outcomes and Research Database (ACCORD). All stage III colon cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy between January 2003 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The three primary exposures of interest were smoking status, body mass index (BMI) and diabetic (DM) status. The primary outcomes of interest were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 785 patients between 2003 and 2015 were included for analysis. Using Kaplan-Meier survivorship curves, there was no association between OS and smoking (P = .71), BMI (P = .3) or DM (P = .72). Similarly, DFS did not reveal an association with smoking (P = .34), BMI (P = .2) and DM (P = .34). Controlling for other covariates the results did not reach statistical significance in adjusted multiple regression models. CONCLUSION: Smoking, obesity and DM were not shown to influence DFS or OS for patients with stage III colon cancer who have received adjuvant chemotherapy.

6.
Intern Med J ; 51(9): 1457-1462, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Managing the growing demand for colonoscopies is challenging. AIMS: To assess the diagnostic performance of National and Victorian colonoscopy triage guidelines and potential redistribution of triage categories. METHODS: This is a diagnostic validation study comparing colonoscopy triage guidelines against a reference colonoscopy dataset. Participants were a reference dataset of 2378 colonoscopies from 1 October 2014 to 30 June 2016. Comparison with triage categorisation determined using National Cancer Council Australia guidelines; Victorian triage guidelines; Optimal Cancer Care Pathways recommendations. Main outcome measures were as follows: (i) proportion of colonoscopies assigned to each triage category; (ii) detection rate (proportion of cancers assigned to triage Category 1); and (iii) conversion rate (proportion of triage Category 1 colonoscopies that diagnose a cancer). RESULTS: After adjusting for data absent in referrals, the National and Victorian guidelines reduced the proportion of Category 1 colonoscopies compared with the reference triage (National 76.3% vs 58.6%; 95% CI for difference 15.0-20.3%, P < 0.0001. Victorian 76.3% vs 66.3%; 95% CI for difference 7.4-12.6%, P < 0.0001). Victorian guidelines were associated with the highest detection rate (91.4%) and a conversion rate of 5.4% although the number of cancers limited the power to detect significant differences on these metrics. There was a higher proportion of unclassifiable colonoscopies using the National guidelines than the Victorian ones due to their focus on symptomatic indications. CONCLUSIONS: The Victorian guidelines could reduce the proportion of Category 1 colonoscopies by 10% without reducing conversion or detection rates. This would require improvements in the quality of referrals and ordering faecal occult blood tests in 6% of symptomatic patients.

7.
ANZ J Surg ; 91(5): 938-942, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33300280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently no consensus exists regarding what pre-reversal investigations are required to assess integrity of the rectal anastomosis. The objective of this study was to compare pre-reversal assessments of anastomotic integrity and to evaluate trends that might have influenced timings for reversal. METHODS: From a prospectively maintained database, patients with colorectal cancer resections between March 2012 and October 2019 were identified. Patient characteristics, pre-reversal contrast enema and flexible sigmoidoscopy findings were recorded, and management of complications were recorded. Time-to-ileostomy reversal and time series for trends were analysed. RESULTS: There were 154 patients included. Pre-reversal contrast enema or sigmoidoscopy detected a possible stricture or leak at the rectal anastomotic site in 11% (15/132) and 15% (18/112), respectively. When both modalities were used there was concordance of 86.1% and a positive likelihood ratio of 5.73. Of 125 (81.2%) ileostomies reversed, the median time-to-reversal was 11.99 months; time series analysis over the 7-year period showed no significant trend for average patient-days from booking to reversal (P = 0.60). Cox regression modelling did not identify any influential risk factors for the times taken to reversal. CONCLUSION: This study supports the use of both contrast enema and flexible sigmoidoscopy in the assessment of rectal anastomosis integrity. Most patients with complications can have their ileostomies reversed. Patients who have adjuvant chemotherapy have a prolonged time to reversal.


Assuntos
Ileostomia , Neoplasias Retais , Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos , Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Meios de Contraste , Humanos , Ileostomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079492

RESUMO

AIM: Colorectal cancer surveillance is an essential part of care and should include clinical review and follow-up investigations. There is limited information regarding postoperative surveillance and survivorship care in the Australian context. This study investigated patterns of colorectal cancer surveillance at a large tertiary institution. METHODS: A retrospective review of hospital records was conducted for all patients treated with curative surgery between January 2012 and June 2017. Provision of clinical surveillance, colonoscopy, computed tomography (CT), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) within 24 months postoperatively were recorded. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to evaluate time-to-surveillance review and associated investigations. RESULTS: A total of 675 patients were included in the study. Median time to first postoperative clinical review was 20 days (95% confidence interval (CI), 18-21) with only 31% of patients having their first postoperative clinic review within 2 weeks. Median time to first CEA was 100 days (95% CI, 92-109), with 47% of patients having their CEA checked within the first 3 months, increasing to 68% at 6 months. Median time to first follow-up CT scan was 262 days (95% CI, 242-278) and for colonoscopy, 560 days (95% CI, 477-625). Poor uptake of surveillance testing was more prevalent in patients from older age groups, those with multiple comorbidities, and higher stage cancers. CONCLUSION: Colorectal cancer surveillance is multi-disciplinary and involves several parallel processes, many of which lead to inconsistent follow-up. Further prospective work is required to identify the reasons for variation in care and which aspects are most important to cancer patients.

10.
Intern Med J ; 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) is standard of care treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). A pathologic complete response (pCR) following CRT is an early indicator of treatment benefit and associated with excellent survival outcomes. As capecitabine replaces infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as the fluoropyrimidine of choice in routine care of LARC, on the back of clinical trial data demonstrating equivalence, it is important to confirm that efficacy is maintained in the real-world setting. METHODS: We analysed data from a prospectively maintained colorectal cancer database at 3 Australian hospitals including patients diagnosed January 2009 to December 2018. Pathological response was determined as either complete or incomplete and compared for patients receiving 5FU or capecitabine. RESULTS: 657 patients were analysed, 498 receiving infusional 5-FU and 159 capecitabine. Capecitabine use has markedly increased from approval in 2014 in Australia, now being used in more than 80% of patients. Patient characteristics were similar by treatment, including age, tumour location and pre-treatment stage. pCR was reported in 22/159 (13.8%) of capecitabine treated patients and 118/380 (23.7%) that received 5-FU (p = <0.01). More capecitabine-treated patients received post-operative oxaliplatin (44.2% vs 6.3%, p < 0.01). Two-year progression free survival was similar (84.9% vs 88.0%, p = 0.34). CONCLUSION: Capecitabine is now the dominantly used neoadjuvant chemotherapy in LARC. Capecitabine use was associated with a lower rate of pCR versus infusional 5-FU, a difference not explained by examined patient or tumour characteristics. Poor treatment compliance with oral therapy in the real-world setting is one possible explanation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

11.
Mod Pathol ; 33(3): 483-495, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471586

RESUMO

TP53 mutations drive colorectal cancer development, with missense mutations frequently leading to accumulation of abnormal TP53 protein. TP53 alterations have been associated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance, but data remain controversial. Here, we examined the predictive utility of TP53 overexpression in the context of current adjuvant treatment practice for patients with stage III colorectal cancer. A prospective cohort of 264 stage III patients was tested for association of TP53 expression with 5-year disease-free survival, grouped by adjuvant treatment. Findings were validated in an independent retrospective cohort of 274 stage III patients. Overexpression of TP53 protein (TP53+) was found in 53% and 52% of cases from the prospective and retrospective cohorts, respectively. Among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, TP53+ status was associated with shorter disease-free survival (p ≤ 0.026 for both cohorts), while no difference in outcomes between TP53+ and TP53- cases was observed for patients treated with surgery alone. Considering patients with TP53- tumors, those receiving adjuvant treatment had better outcomes compared with those treated with surgery alone (p ≤ 0.018 for both cohorts), while no treatment benefit was apparent for patients with TP53+ tumors. Combined cohort-stratified analysis adjusted for clinicopathological variables and DNA mismatch repair status confirmed a significant interaction between TP53 expression and adjuvant treatment for disease-free survival (pinteraction = 0.030). For the combined cohort, the multivariate hazard ratio for TP53 overexpression among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy was 2.03 (95% confidence interval 1.41-2.95, p < 0.001), while the hazard ratio for adjuvant treatment among patients with TP53- tumors was 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.24-0.71, p = 0.001). Findings were maintained irrespective of tumor location or when restricted to mismatch repair-proficient tumors. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in stage III colorectal cancer is restricted to cases with low-level TP53 protein expression. Identifying TP53+ tumors could highlight patients that may benefit from more aggressive treatment or follow-up.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/química , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Colectomia , Neoplasias Colorretais/química , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/análise , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Colectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
12.
ANZ J Surg ; 89(12): 1642-1646, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of service centralization in rectal cancer surgery is controversial. Recent studies suggest centralization to high-volume centres may improve postoperative mortality. We used a state-wide administrative data set to determine the inpatient mortality for patients undergoing elective rectal cancer surgery and to compare individual hospital volumes. METHODS: The Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset was explored using the Dr Foster Quality Investigator tool. The inpatient mortality rate, 30-day readmission rate and the proportion of patients with increased length of stay were measured for all elective admissions for rectal cancer resections between 2012 and 2016. A peer group of 14 hospitals were studied using funnel plots to determine inter-hospital variation in mortality. Procedure types were compared between the groups. RESULTS: There were 2241 elective resections performed for rectal cancer in Victoria over 4 years. The crude inpatient mortality rate was 1.1%. There were no significant differences in mortality among 14 hospitals within the peer group. The number of elective resections over 4 years ranged from 14 to 136 (median 65) within these institutions. Ultralow anterior resection was the commonest procedure performed. CONCLUSION: Inpatient mortality after elective rectal cancer surgery in Victoria is rare and compares favourably internationally. Based on inpatient mortality alone, there is no compelling evidence to further centralize elective rectal cancer surgery in Victoria. More work is needed to develop data sets with oncological information capable of providing accurate complete state-wide data which will be essential for future service planning, training and innovation.


Assuntos
Serviços Centralizados no Hospital , Protectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Protectomia/efeitos adversos , Protectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Vitória
13.
JAMA Oncol ; 5(12): 1710-1717, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621801

RESUMO

Importance: Adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with stage III colon cancer prevents recurrence by eradicating minimal residual disease. However, which patients remain at high risk of recurrence after completing standard adjuvant treatment cannot currently be determined. Postsurgical circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis can detect minimal residual disease and is associated with recurrence in colorectal cancers. Objective: To determine whether serial postsurgical and postchemotherapy ctDNA analysis could provide a real-time indication of adjuvant therapy efficacy in stage III colon cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter, Australian, population-based cohort biomarker study recruited 100 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed stage III colon cancer planned for 24 weeks of adjuvant chemotherapy from November 1, 2014, through May 31, 2017. Patients with another malignant neoplasm diagnosed within the last 3 years were excluded. Median duration of follow-up was 28.9 months (range, 11.6-46.4 months). Physicians were blinded to ctDNA results. Data were analyzed from December 10, 2018, through June 23, 2019. Exposures: Serial plasma samples were collected after surgery and after chemotherapy. Somatic mutations in individual patients' tumors were identified via massively parallel sequencing of 15 genes commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. Personalized assays were designed to quantify ctDNA. Main Outcomes and Measures: Detection of ctDNA and recurrence-free interval (RFI). Results: After 4 exclusions, 96 eligible patients were eligible; median patient age was 64 years (range, 26-82 years); 49 (51%) were men. At least 1 somatic mutation was identified in the tumor tissue of all 96 evaluable patients. Circulating tumor DNA was detectable in 20 of 96 (21%) postsurgical samples and was associated with inferior recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 3.8; 95% CI, 2.4-21.0; P < .001). Circulating tumor DNA was detectable in 15 of 88 (17%) postchemotherapy samples. The estimated 3-year RFI was 30% when ctDNA was detectable after chemotherapy and 77% when ctDNA was undetectable (HR, 6.8; 95% CI, 11.0-157.0; P < .001). Postsurgical ctDNA status remained independently associated with RFI after adjusting for known clinicopathologic risk factors (HR, 7.5; 95% CI, 3.5-16.1; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: Results suggest that ctDNA analysis after surgery is a promising prognostic marker in stage III colon cancer. Postchemotherapy ctDNA analysis may define a patient subset that remains at high risk of recurrence despite completing standard adjuvant treatment. This high-risk population presents a unique opportunity to explore additional therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Mutação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasia Residual , Medicina de Precisão , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Future Oncol ; 15(10): 1135-1146, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880455

RESUMO

Quality of life has become increasingly regarded as a key outcome measurement for cancer patients. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) represent the tools used to ascertain self-reported quality of life. This review provides a summary of the literature regarding the use of PROMs in colorectal cancer and evaluates the advantages and limitations of generic and disease specific questionnaires that can be utilized in clinical practice. Factors that influence PROMs are outlined, including cancer characteristics, patient factors and treatment methods. Finally, future directions for the use of PROMs in colorectal cancer to inform healthcare delivery at an individual- and systems-based level are discussed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Humanos
15.
ANZ J Surg ; 89(5): 546-551, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of colonoscopy has been increasing in Australia. This case series describes management and outcomes of colonoscopic perforation managed by a single tertiary referral unit. METHODS: An analysis of 13 years (2003-2015) of prospectively collected data on patients who had a colonoscopic perforation and were managed by the colorectal unit at a single tertiary referral centre was performed. Main outcomes were time of diagnosis, modality of management, time to theatre, length of stay, cost of admission and complications. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients had perforations (median age of 69 years). Thirty-eight (61.2%) patients had their colonoscopy performed in another institution. The incidence rate decreased to 0.37 perforations per 1000 colonoscopies within Western Health. Overall, diagnostic colonoscopies accounted for 56% of perforations and perforations were likely to occur in the left colon (P = 0.006). Fifty-one (82%) patients underwent surgery during their admission, with 24% of these being laparoscopic procedures. An earlier diagnosis was associated with significantly less intra-abdominal contamination. Gross peritoneal contamination was more likely to be associated with the decision to form a stoma (37%, n = 19, P = 0.04). Thirty-day mortality was 1.6% (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: Colonoscopic perforations occur in experienced hands and may have serious implications. We demonstrated a difference in patterns of injury between therapeutic and diagnostic colonoscopies. Those who have an earlier diagnosis are less likely to have severe intra-abdominal contamination requiring a stoma formation.


Assuntos
Colo/lesões , Colonoscopia/efeitos adversos , Perfuração Intestinal/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Idoso , Colo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Perfuração Intestinal/diagnóstico , Perfuração Intestinal/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitória/epidemiologia
16.
Gut ; 68(4): 663-671, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), adjuvant chemotherapy selection following surgery remains a major clinical dilemma. Here, we investigated the ability of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) to improve risk stratification in patients with LARC. DESIGN: We enrolled patients with LARC (T3/T4 and/or N+) planned for neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Plasma samples were collected pretreatment, postchemoradiotherapy and 4-10 weeks after surgery. Somatic mutations in individual patient's tumour were identified via massively parallel sequencing of 15 genes commonly mutated in colorectal cancer. We then designed personalised assays to quantify ctDNA in plasma samples. Patients received adjuvant therapy at clinician discretion, blinded to the ctDNA results. RESULTS: We analysed 462 serial plasma samples from 159 patients. ctDNA was detectable in 77%, 8.3% and 12% of pretreatment, postchemoradiotherapy and postsurgery plasma samples. Significantly worse recurrence-free survival was seen if ctDNA was detectable after chemoradiotherapy (HR 6.6; P<0.001) or after surgery (HR 13.0; P<0.001). The estimated 3-year recurrence-free survival was 33% for the postoperative ctDNA-positive patients and 87% for the postoperative ctDNA-negative patients. Postoperative ctDNA detection was predictive of recurrence irrespective of adjuvant chemotherapy use (chemotherapy: HR 10.0; P<0.001; without chemotherapy: HR 22.0; P<0.001). Postoperative ctDNA status remained an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after adjusting for known clinicopathological risk factors (HR 6.0; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Postoperative ctDNA analysis stratifies patients with LARC into subsets that are either at very high or at low risk of recurrence, independent of conventional clinicopathological risk factors. ctDNA analysis could potentially be used to guide patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias Retais/genética , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Austrália , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Retais/sangue , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
Gut ; 68(3): 465-474, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tumour-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) response and deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) are determinants of prognosis in colorectal cancer. Although highly correlated, evidence suggests that these are independent predictors of outcome. However, the prognostic significance of combined TIL/MMR classification and how this compares to the major genomic and transcriptomic subtypes remain unclear. DESIGN: A prospective cohort of 1265 patients with stage II/III cancer was examined for TIL/MMR status and BRAF/KRAS mutations. Consensus molecular subtype (CMS) status was determined for 142 cases. Associations with 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated and validated in an independent cohort of 602 patients. RESULTS: Tumours were categorised into four subtypes based on TIL and MMR status: TIL-low/proficient-MMR (pMMR) (61.3% of cases), TIL-high/pMMR (14.8%), TIL-low/dMMR (8.6%) and TIL-high/dMMR (15.2%). Compared with TIL-high/dMMR tumours with the most favourable prognosis, both TIL-low/dMMR (HR=3.53; 95% CI=1.88 to 6.64; Pmultivariate<0.001) and TIL-low/pMMR tumours (HR=2.67; 95% CI=1.47 to 4.84; Pmultivariate=0.001) showed poor DFS. Outcomes of patients with TIL-low/dMMR and TIL-low/pMMR tumours were similar. TIL-high/pMMR tumours showed intermediate survival rates. These findings were validated in an independent cohort. TIL/MMR status was a more significant predictor of prognosis than National Comprehensive Cancer Network high-risk features and was a superior predictor of prognosis compared with genomic (dMMR, pMMR/BRAFwt /KRASwt , pMMR/BRAFmut /KRASwt , pMMR/BRAFwt /KRASmut ) and transcriptomic (CMS 1-4) subtypes. CONCLUSION: TIL/MMR classification identified subtypes of stage II/III colorectal cancer associated with different outcomes. Although dMMR status is generally considered a marker of good prognosis, we found this to be dependent on the presence of TILs. Prognostication based on TIL/MMR subtypes was superior compared with histopathological, genomic and transcriptomic subtypes.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transcriptoma
18.
ANZ J Surg ; 88(11): 1174-1177, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maintaining high standards in colon cancer surgery requires the measurement of quality indicators and the re-allocation of resources to address deficiencies. We used state-wide administrative data to determine the inpatient mortality for patients undergoing elective colon cancer surgery and to compare individual hospital rates. METHODS: The Dr Foster Quality Investigator Tool was used to explore the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset for elective admissions for colon cancer surgery between 2012 and 2016. The inpatient mortality rate, 30-day readmission rate and the proportion of patients with increased length of stay were measured. Risk-adjusted rates were used to compare public and private hospitals. A peer group of 14 hospitals were studied using funnel plots to determine inter-hospital variation in mortality. RESULTS: There were 6120 colectomies performed for colon cancer in Victoria over 3 years. The crude inpatient mortality rate was 1.3%. It was significantly higher in public than private hospitals, even after risk adjustment. Variation in crude mortality was demonstrated among 14 selected hospitals. The lowest volume hospitals had significantly higher inpatient mortality rates. Right hemicolectomy was the commonest procedure performed. CONCLUSION: Using an efficient method of complete state-wide data capture, we have demonstrated that the inpatient mortality rate after elective colon cancer surgery in Victoria is low. However, complexity remains around the interpretation of inter-hospital variation, defining outliers, and comparing outcomes between public and private hospitals. Resolving these complexities and defining additional quality indicators remain a priority in the use of administrative data to audit the quality of colon cancer care.


Assuntos
Colectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Risco Ajustado , Vitória/epidemiologia
19.
ANZ J Surg ; 88(4): E228-E231, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27723238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested a benefit from extended venous thromboprophylaxis post-operatively in colorectal cancer with an assumed base rate of zero venous thromboembolic events prior to treatment. We aim to establish the incidence of pulmonary embolism in patients with newly diagnosed stage III or IV colorectal cancer prior to any treatment. METHOD: Consecutive patients presenting to a single health service with a new diagnosis of stage III or IV colorectal cancer were identified from a prospective database, for the period between January 2011 and September 2014. Contemporaneous clinical data was reviewed. Included patients had a computerized tomography (CT) chest scan for pre-operative staging for cancer. The diagnosis of pulmonary emboli was made on chest CT. RESULTS: Of 330 patients identified, 224 had baseline CT chest imaging available for review, of which 107 (47.8%) were technically adequate scans. Pulmonary emboli were identified on five (4.7%) of these 107, including one of five patients (1.7%) with stage III and four of five patients (8.3%) with stage IV disease. None of the 107 patients with adequate scans had post-operative pulmonary emboli or deep vein thrombosis. CONCLUSION: There is a clinically significant baseline rate of asymptomatic pulmonary emboli in patients with stage III and IV colorectal cancer that can be demonstrated on the staging chest CT scan. Pulmonary emboli described as a post-operative event in previous series may have been present prior to surgery.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
ANZ J Surg ; 88(1-2): E6-E10, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27255690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence regarding the oncological impact of anastomotic leak following colorectal cancer surgery. This study aims to test the hypothesis that anastomotic leak is independently associated with local recurrence and overall and cancer-specific survival. METHODS: Analysis of prospectively collected data from multiple centres in Victoria between 1988 and 2015 including all patients who underwent colon or rectal resection for cancer with anastomosis was presented. Overall and cancer-specific survival rates and rates of local recurrence were compared using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4892 patients were included, of which 2856 had completed 5-year follow-up. The overall anastomotic leak rate was 4.0%. Cox regression analysis accounting for differences in age, sex, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score and tumour stage demonstrated that anastomotic leak was associated with significantly worse 5-year overall survival (χ 2 = 6.459, P = 0.011) for colon cancer, but only if early deaths were included. There was no difference in 5-year colon cancer-specific survival (χ 2 = 0.582, P = 0.446) or local recurrence (χ 2 = 0.735, P = 0.391). For rectal cancer, there was no difference in 5-year overall survival (χ 2 = 0.266, P = 0.606), cancer-specific survival (χ 2 = 0.008, P = 0.928) or local recurrence (χ 2 = 2.192, P = 0.139). CONCLUSION: Anastomotic leak may reduce 5-year overall survival in colon cancer patients but does not appear to influence the 5-year overall survival in rectal cancer patients. There was no effect on local recurrence or cancer-specific survival.


Assuntos
Fístula Anastomótica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
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