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2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(3): 225-232, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001296

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Methods: A parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of three regimens (bevacizumab every month, bevacizumab every 2 weeks, and ranibizumab every month), followed by as-needed retreatments, for 1 year, in previously untreated individuals with age-related macular degeneration. The primary outcome was change in visual acuity and in central macular thickness after 1 year of follow-up. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio, and investigators and examiners were blinded to the randomization results. Results: We included 15 patients in each group. After 1 year of follow-up, we found statistically significant improvements in visual acuity and central macular thickness reduction in all groups. However, we found no statistically significant differences between the three groups. Conclusions: The bi-weekly follow-up was effective and we found no significant differences in efficacy or safety between the treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab.


RESUMO Objetivo: Estudar a eficácia e segurança dos tratamentos com ranibizumabe e bevacizumabe para a degeneração macular relacionada à idade exsudativa. Métodos: Ensaio clínico paralelo randomizado foi conduzido para comparar a eficácia e segurança de três regimes (bevacizumabe a cada mês, bevacizumabe a cada 2 semanas e ranibizumabe todos os meses), seguidos por retratamentos conforme necessidade, durante 1 ano, em indivíduos previamente não tratados com degeneração macular relacionada à idade. O desfecho primário foi alteração na acuidade visual e na espessura macular central após um ano de seguimento. Os indivíduos foram designados aleatoriamente para um dos 3 grupos em uma proporção de 1:1:1, e os investigadores e examinadores foram mascarados para os resultados da randomização. Resultados: Foram incluídos 15 pacientes em cada grupo. Após um ano de seguimento, encontramos melhorias estatisticamente significativas na acuidade visual e na redução da espessura macular central em todos os grupos. No entanto, não encontramos diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre os 3 grupos. Conclusões: O seguimento quinzenal foi eficaz e não encontramos diferenças significativas na eficácia ou segurança entre os tratamentos com bevacizumabe e ranibizumabe.

3.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040132

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the real-life safety profile of intravitreal dexamethasone implant injection for various retinal conditions. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter analysis of intravitreal dexamethasone implant injections (700 µg) due to various retinal conditions including central retinal venous occlusion (1861 injections), diabetic macular oedema (3104 injections), post-surgical cystoid macular oedema (305 injections) and uveitis (381 injections). The eyes were evaluated mainly for the occurrence of adverse events such as glaucoma, cataract, retinal detachment and endophthalmitis along during the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 6015 injections in 2736 eyes of 1441 patients (mean age of 65.7±12.9 years) were in total analysed over an average period of 18 months (range 6 months to 102 months). A total of 576 eyes (32.5% of the phakic eyes) developed cataract requiring surgical intervention. However, visually insignificant cataract progression was observed in another 259 phakic eyes (14.6%) which did not require surgical removal. A total of 727 eyes (26.5%) experienced an intraocular pressure (IOP) rise of >25 mm Hg, with 155 eyes (5.67%) having a prior history of glaucoma and 572 eyes (20.9%) having new onset IOP rise. Overall, more than 90% of eyes with IOP rise were managed medically, and 0.5% eyes required filtering surgery. Endophthalmitis (0.07%), retinal detachment (0.03%) and vitreous haemorrhage (0.03%) were rare. There was no significant change in visual acuity (p=0.87) and central macular thickness (p=0.12) at the last follow-up. CONCLUSION: This is the largest real-life study assessing the safety of intravitreal dexamethasone implant injections in various retinal conditions. Cataract progression and intraocular pressure rise are the most common side effects, but are often rather easily manageable.

4.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess silicone oil (SO) release by different brands of syringes used for intravitreal injection under different handling conditions. METHODS: Eight syringes were analysed: from the USA, Terumo 0.5 mL, Becton-Dickinson (BD) Tuberculin 1 mL, BD Luer-lok 1 mL, BD Ultra-Fine 0.3 mL and Exel Insulin 0.3 mL; from Germany, Braun Omnifix-F 1 mL and Braun Injekt-F 1 mL and from Spain, BD Plastipak 1 mL. The impact of air, priming the plunger, agitation by flicking and fluid temperature on SO release were assessed by light microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed to identify the molecular compound in each syringe. RESULTS: Five hundred and sixty syringes were analysed. Terumo 0.5 mL and BD Ultra-Fine 0.3 mL released more SO than all others. BD Luer-lok 1 mL, BD Plastipak and Braun Omnifix-F 1 mL released little SO; BD Tuberculin 1 mL, Exel 0.3 mL and Braun Injekt-F 1 mL released the least SO. Priming the syringe and different temperatures did not significantly affect SO release. Agitation by flicking caused a significantly higher proportion of samples to have SO droplets and an increased number of oil droplets. Air had an additive effect on the release of oil in the agitation groups. FTIR identified polysiloxane in all syringes but Injekt-F. CONCLUSION: Syringes commonly used for intravitreal injections frequently release SO droplets, especially when agitated by flicking. To avoid unnecessary ocular risks, syringes should not be agitated before intravitreal injection. It is desirable that syringes be manufactured specifically for ophthalmic use.

5.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 82(3): 225-232, 2019 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810619

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study the efficacy and safety of treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab for exudative age-related macular degeneration. METHODS: A parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of three regimens (bevacizumab every month, bevacizumab every 2 weeks, and ranibizumab every month), followed by as-needed retreatments, for 1 year, in previously untreated individuals with age-related macular degeneration. The primary outcome was change in visual acuity and in central macular thickness after 1 year of follow-up. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups in a 1:1:1 ratio, and investigators and examiners were blinded to the randomization results. RESULTS: We included 15 patients in each group. After 1 year of follow-up, we found statistically significant improvements in visual acuity and central macular thickness reduction in all groups. However, we found no statistically significant differences between the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: The bi-weekly follow-up was effective and we found no significant differences in efficacy or safety between the treatments with ranibizumab and bevacizumab.

6.
Retina ; 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789460

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence and risk factors for intravitreal dexamethasone implant migration into the anterior chamber in eyes with macular edema. METHODS: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational chart review of data that included patients with macular edema who had been treated with at least one intravitreal dexamethasone injection. Patients with incomplete chart information during the follow-up period were excluded. RESULTS: The prevalence of implant migration in 468 patients, considering the number of injections, was 1.6%, with significant associations between implant migration and cataract surgery (P = 0.043) and intraocular lens status (P = 0.005) and a trend toward statistical significance (P = 0.057) with vitrectomy. A higher rate of implant migration into the anterior chamber was observed in vitrectomized eyes (4.8%) when compared with patients who did not undergo a vitrectomy (1.6%). The implants that migrated were removed with forceps with/without viscoelastic expression or with 20-gauge cannulas connected to the vitreous cutter machine. CONCLUSION: The risk of implant migration into the anterior chamber was 1.6%. Risk factors were a history of cataract surgery or vitrectomy and aphakia. When anterior migration occurs, rapid removal is advised, especially if corneal edema is present.

7.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673952

RESUMO

PURPOSES: To compare surgeons' opinions regarding idiopathic full-thickness macular hole (MH) surgery by using traditional microscopy and three-dimensional (3-D) visualization system. To analyze the required time for pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and for internal limiting membrane (ILM) rhexis by using both visualization methods. To evaluate anatomical surgical results. METHODS: Four surgeons (surgeon 1, fellows 1, 2, 3) performed the total of 40 surgeries for treating MHs. Each one performed 10 surgeries (5 with traditional microscopy and 5 with 3-D visualization). The completion time for PPV and ILM rhexis was determined by using both methods. Ergonomics, educational value, image sharpness, depth perception, field of view and technical skills were analyzed through answering a questionnaire. RESULTS: Forty patients were included in the study. The MH size for surgeon 1, fellows 1, 2 and 3 groups, individually, ranged from 237 to 602 µm; 228 to 590 µm, 271 to 611 µm and 289 to 600 µm, respectively. In the 3-D and in the traditional microscopy subgroups (which includes all 4 physicians on the use of one or the other method), the MH size ranged from 228 to 602 µm and 237 to 611 µm, respectively. Comparisons between the average time for full PPV and ILM rhexis by using the two methods were non-significant, neither in each individual case of 3-D surgery for each surgeon. Surgeon 1 had always been faster than his fellows. Depth perception was rated as similar for both methods. Field of view and educational values were rated as superior when using the 3-D system. Image resolution and ergonomics were rated as superior when using traditional microscopy. Technical skills strongly tended toward 'superiority' when using traditional microscopy. Thirty-six (90%) full-thickness MHs were successfully closed with one surgery. CONCLUSION: The 3-D system for MH surgery had a short learning curve and was a refined educational tool, when used with reduced illumination and precise focus. Concerning MH surgery, heads-up method was similar to traditional microscopy regarding length of time and anatomical surgical results. Heads-up surgery may become a new pattern for ophthalmic surgery as ongoing improvements are applied.

8.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(3): 517-528, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607553

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the applicability of the acai dye at a 25% concentration for identifying the posterior hyaloids and internal limiting membranes (ILMs) during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in human eyes with macular holes (MHs). METHODS: This study included 25 patients with chronic idiopathic MHs. The exclusion criteria included glaucoma, previous significant ocular conditions, and previous ocular surgeries except uncomplicated cataract. Ten surgeons performed 23-gauge four-port PPV, phacoemulsification, posterior hyaloid detachment, ILM peeling guided by dye staining, and perfluoropropane injection. The patients remained prone for 5 days postoperatively. The patients were evaluated postoperatively after 1, 30, and 180 days. The surgeons completed a questionnaire regarding the dye's staining abilities. RESULTS: The posterior hyaloids and ILMs stained purple in all eyes. The final best-corrected visual acuity improved significantly (p < 0.001) from preoperatively (1.37 ± 0.29) to 180 days postoperatively (1.05 ± 0.43). The MHs closed in 76% of eyes. CONCLUSION: The acai dye at a 25% concentration identified posterior hyaloids and ILMs during PPVs in humans. Dye toxicity was unlikely.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Euterpe , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Perfurações Retinianas/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Vitrectomia/métodos , Corpo Vítreo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Corantes/farmacologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Perfurações Retinianas/cirurgia , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Corpo Vítreo/cirurgia
9.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 257(3): 473-483, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645695

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the initial experiences of several vitreoretinal surgeons in Brazil, both experienced and beginners, with a three-dimensional (3D) system, and to report the advantages and disadvantages of this technology. We also report surgical manipulations performed using the heads-up method in porcine eyes. For full-thickness idiopathic macular holes (MHs), we analyzed the times required for pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) and internal limiting membrane (ILM) rhexis by using traditional microscopy and 3D system, and to evaluate anatomical surgical results. METHODS: During experimental vitreoretinal surgery on porcine eyes, two retinal surgeons applied the heads-up method. In clinical surgery, 14 retinal surgeons performed almost all types of vitreoretinal surgeries in association with facectomy, Ahmed glaucoma valve implant, or minimally invasive glaucoma surgery using an iStent®. The Ngenuity® 3D Visualization System was digitally integrated with intraoperative optical coherence tomography, the Verion™ Image-Guided System, and an endoscope (with a modified GoPro® camera). To compare the 3D system with traditional microscopy, ergonomics, educational value, image sharpness, depth perception, field of view, advantages and disadvantages, and technical feasibility were assessed using a questionnaire. One year later, the 14 surgeons answered the same questionnaire again, in order to assess whether they became more comfortable or not with 3D. For treating MHs, four surgeons (surgeon 1, fellows 1, 2, 3) performed the total of 40 surgeries. Each one performed 10 surgeries (5 with traditional microscopy and 5 with 3D visualization). The completion time for PPV and ILM rhexis were determined by using both methods. RESULTS: In porcine eyes, disabling the color channels allowed better visualization of the ILM, either with Brilliant Blue G (BBG), indocyanine green chorioangiography (ICG), or açai dye; transillumination through the sclera was also better without a color channel, but visualization of the peripheral vitreous was better with a blue channel. Regarding clinical experience, the questionnaire responses showed that the respondents generally favored the heads-up method compared with traditional microscopy (p < 0.05); however, despite a slightly higher average score, the 3D system was not statistically significantly preferred in terms of technical feasibility (p = 0.1814). Answering again the same questionnaire 1 year later, the 14 surgeons felt more comfortable with 3D (p < 0.05). The type of surgery benefitting most from the 3D system was peeling of the ILM or epiretinal membrane (p < 0.001), and that receiving the least benefit was anterior segment surgery (p < 0.001). In addition, surgeons did not report benefits of color channels, preferring to disable it (p < 0.001). Comparisons between the average time for full PPV and ILM rhexis by using the two methods were non-significant, neither in each individual case of 3D surgery for each surgeon. Surgeon 1 had always been faster than his fellows. Thirty-six (90%) full-thickness MHs were successfully closed with one surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The 3D system was preferred to traditional microscopy. The 3D system was especially helpful for certain specific types of surgeries and served as an educational tool, having reduced illumination and allowing precise focusing. Concerning MH surgery, heads-up method was similar to traditional microscopy regarding length of time and anatomical surgical results. As a digital platform, it will be amenable to constant upgrades and may ultimately become the new standard for ophthalmic surgery.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Edema Macular/cirurgia , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Cirurgiões/normas , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Cirurgia Vitreorretiniana/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Suínos , Cirurgia Vitreorretiniana/normas
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386633

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the binding affinity, stability, and sterility of aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept to vascular endothelial growth factor (Holash et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99(17):11393-11398, 2002. 10.1073/pnas.172398299) after compounding and storage for up to 28 days at 4 °C and - 8 °C. Methods: Tuberculin-type 1-mL syringes were prepared containing aflibercept (40 mg/mL) and ziv-aflibercept (25 mg/mL). Samples were stored at 4 °C and - 8 °C for 0, 14, and 28 days and evaluated for the binding affinity of anti-VEGF to VEGF and stability using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The evaluation of sample sterility was performed. Results: Laboratory trials with aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept showed preservation of the drug-binding capability to recombinant VEGF when stored in plastic syringes for up to 28 days at 4 °C and - 8 °C. No significant decrease in mass or concentration were observed. Microbiologic evaluations did not detect contamination in the syringes. Conclusions: The current study corroborates that compounded anti-VEGF drugs aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept do not loose stability or binding affinity and do not become contaminated if prepared under sterile conditions and stored at 4 °C or - 8 °C for 14 or 28 days.

11.
Ophthalmologica ; : 1-9, 2018 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30332674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare two different laser strategies of panretinal photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Single-center, randomized study including 41 eyes treated with 577-nm multispot laser with a 20-ms pulse duration (group 1) or a 532-nm single-spot laser with a 100-ms pulse duration (group 2). The outcomes included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and imaging changes at baseline, 6 and 12 months, laser parameters, and results of subjective pain analysis. RESULTS: At 12 months, the treatments did not differ significantly in BCVA, central retinal thicknesses (CRTs), improved macular edema, vitreomacular interface changes, patient-reported pain scores, or angiographic responses. Group 1 had significantly fewer treatment sessions but used more laser spots (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The multispot laser required fewer applications with more spots delivered to compensate for lower fluency, showing similar patient tolerance to single-spot laser. Both groups maintained the initial visual acuities and CRTs; about 50% of cases had vitreomacular interface changes and improved macular edema, with similar angiographic improvements after 12 months.

12.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 49(8): 603-610, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To illustrate how optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography (OCTA) can be misinterpreted if not evaluated along with structural en face OCT to analyze the signal intensity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with different macular diseases associated with suspicious flow impairment in the choriocapillaris were recruited to be imaged on the RTVue XR Avanti device (Optovue, Fremont, CA) with the Angio Retina mode. En face OCT angiograms, structural en face OCT, and corresponding OCT B-scans with flow signal overlaid were compared to evaluate the correspondence of signal strength to areas of flow reduction in the choriocapillaris. RESULTS: Six eyes from six patients were enrolled. Macular lesions evaluated in this study included acute central serous chorioretinopathy, paracentral acute middle maculopathy, age-related macular degeneration, adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy, and branch retinal vein occlusion. In all cases, areas of suspicious flow decrement in the choriocapillaris corresponded to hyporeflective areas in the intensity en face OCT. Thus, a precise confirmation of choriocapillaris flow impairment was not possible. CONCLUSION: It is essential to be aware of the importance of analyzing the structural image alongside with the flow image to interpret flow impairment. This is more important in subretinal pigment epithelial structures such as choriocapillaris and choroid. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:603-610.].

13.
J Ophthalmol ; 2018: 6830835, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116632

RESUMO

Purpose: To classify and quantify anthocyanins in a vital dye extracted from the acai fruit (Euterpe oleracea), adjust pH and osmolarity, and perform lyophilization to develop a new chromovitrectomy dye. Methods: Three dye concentrations 10%, 25%, and 35% (equivalent to 100, 250, and 350 mg of lyophilized acai fruit pulp extract samples) were evaluated when diluted in 1 ml of phosphate-buffered solution (pH 7 and 300 mOsm). The dye was analyzed by mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to identify and quantify anthocyanins molecules. Results: The pH and osmolarity correction and lyophilization were performed without damaging the anthocyanin molecular structure. Mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of five anthocyanins in the three concentrations of the dye. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was the major anthocyanin found. HPLC showed that the concentration of anthocyanin was similar, independent of the dye concentration tested. Conclusions: Lyophilization and the correction of pH and osmolarity (7.00 and 300 mOsm, resp.) were performed successfully. Five anthocyanins are present in the dye from the acai fruit. The major anthocyanin is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. Independent of the dye concentration tested, the anthocyanin concentration was similar. Standardized chemical characteristics of this new dye may allow its use during chromovitrectomy in humans.

14.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyse the pooled safety data of intravitreal ziv-aflibercept (IVZ) therapy for various retinal conditions. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study which included patients from 14 participating centres who received IVZ. The medical records of patients who received IVZ from March 2015 through October 2017 were evaluated. Patient demographics and ocular details were compiled. Ocular and systemic adverse events that occurred within 1 month of IVZ injections were recorded and defined as either procedure-related or drug-related. RESULTS: A total of 1704 eyes of 1562 patients received 5914 IVZ injections (mean±SD: 3.73±3.94) during a period of 2.5 years. The age of patients was 60.6±12.8 years (mean±SD) and included diverse chorioretinal pathologies. Both ocular (one case of endophthalmitis, three cases of intraocular inflammation, and one case each of conjunctival thinning/necrosis and scleral nodule) and systemic adverse events (two cases of myocardial infarction, one case of stroke and two deaths) were infrequent. CONCLUSION: This constitutes the largest pooled safety report on IVZ use and includes patients from 14 centres distributed across the globe. It shows that IVZ has an acceptable ocular and systemic safety profile with incidences of adverse events similar to those of other vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitory drugs. The analysis supports the continued use of IVZ in various retinal disorders.

15.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30072436

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the 30-month outcome of treat and extend (TAE) intravitreal ziv-aflibercept therapy in eyes with macular diseases. METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive subjects received intravitreal 0.05 mL ziv-aflibercept (1.25 mg) injections for various macular diseases. Outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) and central macular thickness (CMT) on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Paired comparison was done using Wilcoxon signed-rank test calculator. RESULTS: Fifty-three eyes of 48 subjects (33 naïve eyes) received intravitreal ziv-aflibercept and were followed between 12 and 30 months following TAE included neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) (35 eyes) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO) (18 eyes). In eyes with nAMD, CMT decreased by 107.8 µm at the 30-month follow-up (p=0.012) with BCVA gain of 0.52 (p=0.001). In eyes with DMO, CMT decreased by 224.3 µm at the 30-month follow-up (p=0.027) with BCVA gain of 0.46 (p=0.042). Combining all disease categories, the mean number of injections was 9.2 at month 12, 2.5 between 12 and 18 months, 1.6 between 18 and 24 months and 1.0 between 24 and 30 months. CONCLUSIONS: Using TAE regimen, intravitreal ziv-aflibercept appeared efficacious at managing retinal disease through month 30 using the TAE regimen.

16.
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina ; 49(4): 245-250, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29664981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To study the safety and efficacy of intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept (IVI-ZA) (Zaltrap; Sanofi-Aventis and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY) during a period of 48 weeks in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seven consecutive patients with DME were enrolled and submitted to 12 consecutive IVI-ZA with a 4-week interval. The safety parameters included changes in full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and systemic or ocular complications, and the efficacy parameters were the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT). RESULTS: No significant differences were found in any ERG component after IVI-ZA, and no systemic or ocular complication was observed. The improvement of BCVA was most significant after the first IVI-ZA and remained until week 48 (P < .05). The CRT significantly decreased during the course of 48 weeks. CONCLUSION: The 48-week results are consistent with our previous 24-week findings, supporting IVI-ZA as a safe, efficient, and well-tolerated therapy for patients with DME. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:245-250.].

17.
Retin Cases Brief Rep ; 12(2): 93-96, 2018 Spring.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29554051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe the visual, tomographic, and electroretinographic findings in a patient with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion who was submitted to three consecutive intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept. METHODS: The patient underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, as well as optical coherence tomography and full-field electroretinography at baseline and 90 days after the first injection. RESULTS: The best-corrected visual acuity improved from 20/400 to 20/40, and the central retinal thickness decreased from 791 µm to 198 µm after three consecutive intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept. Full-field electroretinography showed an increase in cone amplitude and decrease in rod amplitude. No adverse side effects were observed after injections. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept showed both effectiveness and safety in the treatment of a patient with macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion. The observed anatomic (by ophthalmic examination, optical coherence tomography) and functional (best-corrected visual acuity, full-field electroretinography) improvements and lack of serious adverse side effects demonstrates the potential of intravitreal injections of ziv-aflibercept for the treatment of macular edema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/administração & dosagem , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/administração & dosagem , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/complicações , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cornea ; 37(2): 194-198, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29135709

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of different concentrations of topical lidocaine gel with standard subconjunctival anesthesia. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized controlled pilot study with 3 different groups. Group SC received subconjunctival lidocaine and proparacaine drops as needed during surgery. Group L2 received 2% lidocaine gel and group L5 received 5% lidocaine gel. Both lidocaine gel groups could receive another gel dose as needed during the procedure. The primary outcome was pain, which was experienced during and after surgery. The assessment was done using a 10-point linear analog scale at predetermined stages of surgery (1-first incision, 2-pterygium body excision, 3-conjunctival suturing, 4-immediate postoperative period after patching, and 5-assessment by a trained nurse in the absence of a surgeon after operation). RESULTS: We enrolled 45 consecutive patients who underwent primary pterygium surgery. Statistical significance between groups was found in mean pain at administration (2.2 vs. 0.4 vs. 0.0 in SC, L2, and L5 groups, respectively, with P < 0.05). The number of reapplications of anesthetic drops did not differ between the groups. We found a correlation between reapplication of the anesthetic and pain at administration and duration of the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that the use of lidocaine gel at concentrations of 2% and 5% in pterygium surgery was as effective as subconjunctival injection of lidocaine in reducing intraoperative and postoperative pain, producing significantly less pain during initial administration of the anesthetic.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Pterígio/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Géis , Humanos , Injeções Intraoculares/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270314

RESUMO

Background: To report fluorescein angiography findings in a group of albuminuric Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients without diabetic retinopathy. Methods: Fifteen albuminuric T1DM patients with normal/near normal estimated glomerular filtration rate without diabetic retinopathy underwent fluorescein angiography; presence of microaneurysms, vascular permeability changes and retinal malperfusion were evaluated. Results: Fluorescein angiography revealed microaneurysms, blood-retinal barrier breakdown and retinal ischemia in 10 (67%) and 11 (73%); 8 (53%) and 9 (60%); 2 (13%) and 5 (33%) of patients at baseline and follow up, respectively. Follow up time averaged 24.6 months, minimum follow up time was 20 months. Patients who presented retinal malperfusion had higher HbA1C and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. Conclusions: Most albuminuric T1DM patients with a normal fundus exam had angiographic signs of diabetic retinopathy, some presenting retinal malperfusion. Retinal changes may be found with more sensitive testing in these patients, especially with impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate, even if the fundus exam is normal, and fluorescein angiography should be considered. These findings point to a homogenous presentation of the diabetic microangiopathies.

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