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1.
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl ; 13: 203-212, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209581

RESUMO

Haemosporidian parasites characterize multi-host and multi-parasite structures which are prevalent among wild bird populations. Here, determination of host records, estimation of the prevalence and diversity of haemosporidian lineages were performed in wild and domestic birds in 11 provinces in Iran. To our knowledge, for the first time in this region, molecular characterization of haemosporidians in migratory water birds, raptors, and domestic birds was carried out: blood or tissue samples were collected from 246 birds belonging to 36 species, 12 families, and 11 orders. The prevalence of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon were documented as 1.21%, 3.65%, and 0.4%, respectively. Of 36 birds' species inspected in this investigation, 13 individuals of 9 species were parasitized by blood parasites. To our knowledge, five lineages including hANACRE03, hAYTFER01, hAYTFER02, hAQUCYR01, and hSTAL06 were found as un-described lineages, while six known lineages of hLK03, pLK05, lTUSW04, pSW5, hMILANS02, and hHAECOL1 were recorded in hosts within novel geographical regions. Such results are required to fill the gaps in understanding the geographical distribution patterns of wildlife related vector-borne parasites in migratory birds as potential carriers, raptors with high vulnerability, and domestic birds as pet or with economic value.

2.
Infect Genet Evol ; 83: 104342, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348876

RESUMO

Since 2005, H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the Goose/Guangdong (Gs/GD) lineage have spread worldwide, affecting poultry and wild birds in Asia, Europe, Africa and North America. So far, the role of Western Asia and the Middle East in the diffusion dynamics of this virus has been poorly explored. In order to investigate the genetic diversity and the role of Iran in the transmission dynamics of the Gs/GD lineage, we sequenced the complete genome of twenty-eight H5Nx viruses which were circulating in the country between 2016 and 2018. We reported the first characterization of the HPAI H5N6 subtype of clade 2.3.4.4B in Iran and gave evidence of the high propensity of the Gs/GD H5 AIVs to reassort, describing six novel H5N8 genotypes of clade 2.3.4.4B, some of them likely generated in this area, and one H5N1 reassortant virus of clade 2.3.2.1c. Our spatial analyses demonstrated that the viruses resulted from different viral introductions from Asia and Europe and provided evidence of virus spread from Iran to the Middle East. Therefore, Iran may represent a hot-spot for virus introduction, dissemination and for the generation of new genetic variability. Increasing surveillance efforts in this high-risk area is of utmost importance for the early detection of novel emerging strains with zoonotic potential.


Assuntos
Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/genética , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Animais , Aves , Genótipo , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Filogenia , Filogeografia
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(3): 629-635, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374823

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly infectious pathogen, which affects the respiratory tract, reproductive system, and kidney of chickens. Many different genotypes of IBV are recognized which cause different clinical manifestations. According to the antigenic differences, different serotypes of the virus do not cross-protect. Massachusetts serotype induces the best cross-protection against other serotypes. Recently, the IBV QX genotype has been detected in Iran. QX genotype causes permanent damage to the oviduct in layer and breeder flock if it occurs in the early life cycle. In this study, we compared two vaccination program using 793/B type and Massachusetts type vaccine. One-day-old SPF chickens were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 were unvaccinated groups. Group 3 was vaccinated with the H120 vaccine at day 1 and 793/B at day 14 (eye drop), and group 4 was vaccinated with H120+793/B (eye drop) on the first day and 793/B at day 14. Groups 2, 3, and 4 challenged (oculonasal) with QX genotype (104 EID50) at day 35. Five days post challenge, the sample were clollected for ciliostasis test, histopathology, and quantitative real-time RT-PCR from trachea, lung, and kidneys. Results showed that two vaccination programs created more than 80% of protection against challenge virus, but no significant difference was recorded between two programs. Based on our results, it can be concluded that vaccination with two mixed vaccines (H120+793/B) on the first day of the life of a chick does not make any difference in comparison to single vaccine (H120) in reducing of pathological damages and viral load. As long as the second vaccination against IB may not be applied properly in farm situation, applying the mixture of 793/B type vaccine with H120 at day 1 (ocular or spray) may help to increase vaccination program efficacy.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Irã (Geográfico) , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
4.
Arch Virol ; 161(1): 53-62, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26467927

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis (IB) is a viral avian disease with economic importance in the world, including Iran. S1 gene sequencing has been used for molecular epidemiological studies and genotypic characterization of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). A total of 118 IBV isolates were obtained from tissue samples from chickens with clinically suspected IB from Iranian broiler farms (eight provinces, 200 samples). The isolates were confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and characterized by sequencing the spike glycoprotein gene. The isolates formed six distinct phylogenetic groups (IS/1494/06 [Var2] like, 4/91-like, IS/720-like, QX-like, IR-1 and Mass-like) that were related to variants isolated in the region. The most frequently detected viruses were of the Var2-like (IS/1494/06-like) genotype, with an overall prevalence of 34 %. Twenty-one percent of the isolates formed a cluster together with the 4/91 IBV type, 10 % were of the QX genotype, and 8 % were of the IS/720 genotype. In addition, 4 % and 3 % of the isolates belonged to the Massachusetts and IR-1 genotype, respectively. For the first time, we have isolated and characterized IBV variants from broiler farms in different provinces of Iran. This study demonstrates a constant evolution of IBV in Iran, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring and development of new vaccines based on indigenous viruses.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/classificação , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Irã (Geográfico) , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
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