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1.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(4): 787-891, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691761
2.
Stem Cells Int ; 2018: 5102630, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29681948

RESUMO

Background: Surgical correction of tracheal defects is a complex procedure when the gold standard treatment with primary end-to-end anastomosis is not possible. An alternative treatment may be the use of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS). It has been used as graft material for bioengineering applications and to promote tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SIS grafts improved tracheal tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of experimental tracheostomy. Methods: Sixteen rabbits were randomized into two groups. Animals in the control group underwent only surgical tracheostomy, while animals in the SIS group underwent surgical tracheostomy with an SIS graft covering the defect. We examined tissues at the site of tracheostomy 60 days after surgery using histological analysis with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and analyzed the perimeter and area of the defect with Image-Pro® PLUS 4.5 (Media Cybernetics). Results: The average perimeter and area of the defects were smaller by 15.3% (p = 0.034) and 21.8% (p = 0.151), respectively, in the SIS group than in the control group. Histological analysis revealed immature cartilage, pseudostratified ciliated epithelium, and connective tissue in 54.5% (p = 0.018) of the SIS group, while no cartilaginous regeneration was observed in the control group. Conclusions: Although tracheal SIS engraftment could not prevent stenosis in a rabbit model of tracheal injury, it produced some remarkable changes, efficiently facilitating neovascularization, reepithelialization, and neoformation of immature cartilage.

3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(4): 373-380, Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-888046

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Objective: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10). Then, a swimming test with control of lactate production was performed. Based on its result, the lactate threshold (LT) was established to define the training intensities. After six weeks, the animals were reassessed by echocardiography and lactate production. Outcome measures were end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, %) lactate at rest, lactate without overload, and lactate with 12g and 13.5g of additional load. Group comparisons of quantitative variables of the study were performed by one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Newman-Keuls test was used for multiple comparisons of the groups. Within-group comparisons of dependent variables between the two training protocols were performed by Student's t-test. Normality of the variables was tested by the Shapiro-Wilks test. Values of p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: EDD, ESD, and LVEF before and after the training period were similar in within-group comparisons. However, EDD was significantly different (p=0.008) in the CG. Significant differences were found for L12g (p=0.002) and L13.5g (p = 0.032) in the ITG, and for L12g (p = 0.014) in the CG. No differences were found in the echocardiographic parameters between the groups. Significant differences were found in lactate without overload (p = 0.016) and L12 (p = 0.031) in the second assessment compared with the first, and between the groups - ITG vs. CG (p = 0.019) and CTG vs. CG (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Both methods produced a training effect without altering ventricular function.


Resumo Fundamento: O exercício físico deve fazer parte do tratamento de pacientes pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM). Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos de treinamento produzidos por dois modelos distintos (contínuo x intervalado) e sua repercussão sobre a função ventricular de ratos pós-IAM com função ventricular normal. Métodos: Quarenta ratos Wistar pós-IAM foram avaliados ecocardiograficamente 21 dias após o evento. Aqueles com FEVE = 50% (n = 29) foram incluídos e randomizados: controle (GC n = 10), treinamento contínuo (GTC n = 9) e treinamento intervalado (GTI n = 10). Após, foi realizado um teste de natação com controle de lactato. A partir do resultado foi definido o limiar de lactato (LL) para determinar as intensidades do treinamento. Após seis semanas, foram reavaliados com ecocardiografia e controle de lactato. Como desfecho, foram avaliados: diâmetros diastólico e sistólico final (DDF, DSF, mL), fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE, %), lactato de repouso, livre de carga (LC), lactato com 12 g e 13,5 g de carga adicional. Para a comparação dos grupos em relação às variáveis quantitativas do estudo, foi considerado o modelo de análise da variância com um fator (ANOVA). Nas comparações múltiplas dos grupos foi usado o teste de Newman-Keuls. Na comparação entre as duas avaliações, dentro de cada grupo, foi usado o teste t de Student para amostras dependentes. A condição de normalidade das variáveis foi avaliada pelo teste de Shapiro-Wilks. Valores de p < 0,05 indicaram significância estatística. Resultados: Com relação à análise intragrupos, entre o período pré- e pós-treinamento foi identificado semelhança para DDF, DSF, FEVE, porém o GC apresentou diferença significativa para a variável DDF (p = 0,008). Houve diferença do GTI para L12g (p = 0,002) e L13,5g (p = 0,032) e para o GTC na variável L12g (p = 0,014). Não houve diferença para as variáveis ecocardiográficas entre os grupos. Houve diferença nas variáveis LC e L12g na segunda avaliação (p = 0,016 e p = 0,031, respectivamente) e entre os grupos: GTI vs. GC (p = 0,019) e GTC vs. GC (p = 0,035). Conclusão: Os dois métodos produziram efeito de treinamento sem alterar a função ventricular.

4.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(4): 373-380, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical exercise should be part of the treatment of post-acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of two training prescription models (continuous x interval) and its impact on ventricular function in rats after AMI with normal ventricular function. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were evaluated by echocardiography 21 days after the AMI. Those with LVEF = 50% (n = 29) were included in the study and randomized to control group (CG n = 10), continuous training group (CTG n = 9) or interval training group (ITG, n = 10). Then, a swimming test with control of lactate production was performed. Based on its result, the lactate threshold (LT) was established to define the training intensities. After six weeks, the animals were reassessed by echocardiography and lactate production. Outcome measures were end-diastolic diameter (EDD), end-systolic diameter (ESD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, %) lactate at rest, lactate without overload, and lactate with 12g and 13.5g of additional load. Group comparisons of quantitative variables of the study were performed by one-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Newman-Keuls test was used for multiple comparisons of the groups. Within-group comparisons of dependent variables between the two training protocols were performed by Student's t-test. Normality of the variables was tested by the Shapiro-Wilks test. Values of p < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. RESULTS: EDD, ESD, and LVEF before and after the training period were similar in within-group comparisons. However, EDD was significantly different (p=0.008) in the CG. Significant differences were found for L12g (p=0.002) and L13.5g (p = 0.032) in the ITG, and for L12g (p = 0.014) in the CG. No differences were found in the echocardiographic parameters between the groups. Significant differences were found in lactate without overload (p = 0.016) and L12 (p = 0.031) in the second assessment compared with the first, and between the groups - ITG vs. CG (p = 0.019) and CTG vs. CG (p = 0.035). CONCLUSION: Both methods produced a training effect without altering ventricular function.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Animais , Diástole/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Sístole/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 139: 357-365, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596951

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aims to evaluate whether there is a difference between the effects of vildagliptin and gliclazide MR (modified release) on glycemic variability (GV) in women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as evaluated by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). METHODS: An open-label, randomized study was conducted in T2DM women on steady-dose metformin monotherapy which were treated with 50 mg vildagliptin twice daily or 60-120 mg of gliclazide MR once daily. CGM and GV indices calculation were performed at baseline and after 24 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 42 patients (age: 61.9 ±â€¯5.9 years, baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c): 7.3 ±â€¯0.56) were selected and 37 completed the 24-week protocol. Vildagliptin and gliclazide MR reduced GV, as measured by the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, p = 0.007 and 0.034, respectively). The difference between the groups did not reach statistical significance. Vildagliptin also significantly decreased the standard deviation of the mean glucose (SD) and the mean of the daily differences (MODD) (p = 0.007 and 0.030). CONCLUSIONS: Vildagliptin and gliclazide MR similarly reduced the MAGE in women with T2DM after 24 weeks of treatment. Further studies are required to attest differences between vildagliptin and gliclazide MR regarding glycemic variability.


Assuntos
Adamantano/análogos & derivados , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Gliclazida/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/administração & dosagem , Adamantano/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gliclazida/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrilos/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vildagliptina
6.
Rev. Soc. Cardiol. Estado de Säo Paulo ; 28(1)jan.-mar. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-906709

RESUMO

Ao longo das décadas, alguns conceitos mudaram radicalmente a respeito do tratamento clínico da doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Inicialmente focado na redução dos sintomas isquêmicos, hoje a otimização da terapêutica clínica é fundamental para a redução de eventos cardiovasculares. No mesmo período, houve um grande desenvolvimento das técnicas de revascularização. A angioplastia coronária tornou-se uma das intervenções terapêuticas mais frequentemente realizadas e as técnicas de revascularização miocárdica vêm sendo objeto de mais ensaios clínicos randomizados, do que qualquer outra intervenção em Medicina. Ainda mais, várias modalidades de imagem invasivas e não invasivas foram desenvolvidas, permitindo estudar com maior precisão a doença arterial coronariana, reconhecer novos marcadores prognóstico, avaliar mais claramente os pacientes e indicar mais acertadamente o tratamento


Some concepts regarding the clinical management of coronary artery disease (CAD) have radically changed over the past decades. Initially focused on improving ischemic symptoms, today, optimal medical therapy is fundamental for reducing cardiovascular events. In the same time frame, there has been an immense development in revascularization treatment. Coronary angioplasty has become one of the most frequently performed therapeutic interventions, and myocardial revascularization techniques have been the subject of more randomized clinical trials than any other intervention in medicine. Furthermore, several invasive and non-invasive imaging modalities have been developed, enabling more accurate study of coronary artery disease, recognition of prognostic markers, clearer patient evaluation, and earlier treatment indications


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Revascularização Miocárdica/métodos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Estilo de Vida , Terapêutica , Trombose/prevenção & controle
7.
Glob Heart ; 13(1): 27-34.e17, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146489

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-system barriers and facilitators associated with cardiovascular medication adherence have seldom been studied, particularly in low- and middle-income countries where uptake rates are poorest. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to explore the major obstacles and facilitators to the use of evidence-supported medications for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease using qualitative analysis in 2 diverse countries across multiple levels of their health care systems. METHODS: A qualitative descriptive study approach was implemented in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, and Delhi, India. A purposeful sample (n = 69) of 23 patients, 10 physicians, 2 nurse practitioners, 5 Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homoeopathy physicians, 11 pharmacists, 3 nurses, 4 hospital administrators, 1 social worker, 3 nongovernmental organization workers, 2 pharmaceutical company representatives, and 5 policy makers participated in interviews in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (n = 21), and Delhi, India (n = 48). All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed followed by directed content analysis to summarize and categorize the interviews. RESULTS: Themes that emerged across the stakeholder groups included: medication counseling; monitoring adherence; medication availability; medication affordability and drug coverage; time restrictions; and task shifting. The depth of verbal medication counseling provided varied substantially between countries, with prescribers in India unable to convey relevant information about drug treatments due to time constraint and high patient load. Canadian patients reported drug affordability as a common issue and very few patients were familiar with government subsidized drug programs. In India, patients purchased medications out-of-pocket from private, community pharmacies to avoid long commutes, lost wages, and unavailability of medications from hospitals formularies. Task shifting medication-refilling and titration to nonphysician health workers was accepted and supported by physicians in Canada but not in India, where many of the physicians considered a high level of clinical expertise a precondition to carry out these tasks skillfully. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal context-specific, health system factors that affect the patient's choice or ability to initiate and/or continue cardiovascular medication. Strategies to optimize cardiovascular drug use should be targeted and relevant to the health care system.


Assuntos
Fármacos Cardiovasculares/provisão & distribução , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Adesão à Medicação , Melhoria de Qualidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Morbidade/tendências , Ontário/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 17(1): 279, 2017 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains unclear into which level the systolic blood pressure (SBP) should be lowered in order to provide the best cardiovascular protection among older people. Hypertension guidelines recommendation on attaining SBP levels <150 mmHg in this population is currently based on experts' opinion. To clarify this issue, we systematically reviewed and quantified available evidence on the impact of achieving different SBP levels <150 mmHg on various adverse outcomes in subjects aged ≥60 years old receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. METHODS: We searched 8 databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and post-hoc analyses or subanalyses of RCTs reporting the effects of attaining different SBP levels <150 mmHg on the risk of stroke, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality in participants aged ≥60 years. We performed random-effects meta-analyses stratified by study design. RESULTS: Eleven studies (> 33,600 participants) were included. Compared with attaining SBP levels ≥140 mmHg, levels of 130 to <140 mmHg were not associated with lower risk of outcomes in the meta-analysis of RCTs, whereas there was an associated reduction of cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.88) and all-cause mortality (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75-0.99) in the meta-analysis of post-hoc analyses or subanalyses of RCTs. Limited and conflicting data were available for the SBP levels of <130 mmHg and 140 to <150 mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Among older people, there is suggestive evidence that achieving SBP levels of 130 to <140 mmHg is associated with lower risks of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Future trials are required to confirm these findings and to provide additional evidence regarding the <130 and 140 to <150 mmHg SBP levels.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
9.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(6): 509-515, Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887982

RESUMO

Abstract Background: The prevalence of childhood obesity and associated conditions, such as hypertension, has become a major problem of public health. Although waist circumference (WC) is a marker of cardiovascular risk in adults, it is unclear whether this index is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in children. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the association between increased WC and elevated blood pressure (BP) in children with normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Methods: Cross-sectional evaluation of students between 6 and 11 years with normal BMI. WC was categorized by quartile for each age group. Normal BP was defined as values < 90th percentile, and levels above this range were considered elevated. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 5,037 children initially assessed, 404 (8%) were excluded for being underweight and 1,216 (24.1%) were excluded for being overweight or obese. A final sample of 3,417 children was evaluated. The prevalence of elevated BP was 10.7%. In children with WC in the lowest quartile, the prevalence of elevated BP was 8.1%. This prevalence increased in upper quartiles: 10.6% in the second, 12.4% in third and 12.1% in the upper quartile. So, in this group, being in the highest WC quartile was associated with a 57% higher likelihood to present elevated BP when compared to those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs Q1; OR 1.57 - 95%CI 1.14 - 2.17). Conclusion: In children aged 6 to 11 years, increased waist circumference is associated with elevated BP even when BMI is normal.


Resumo Fundamento: A prevalência da obesidade infantil e condições associadas, tal como a hipertensão, tornou-se um grande problema de saúde pública. Embora a circunferência da cintura (CC) seja um marcador de risco cardiovascular em adultos, não está claro se esse índice está associado a fatores de risco cardiovascular em crianças. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação entre CC aumentada e pressão arterial (PA) elevada em crianças com índice de massa corpórea (IMC) normal. Métodos: Avaliação transversal de estudantes com idade entre 6 e 11 anos com IMC normal. A CC foi categorizada por quartil para cada faixa etária. PA normal foi definida como valores < percentil 90. Níveis acima dessa faixa foram considerados elevados. Valores de p<0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significantes. Resultados: Das 5037 crianças inicialmente avaliadas, 404 (8%) foram excluídas por estarem abaixo do peso e 1216 (24,1%) foram excluídas por estarem com sobrepeso ou obesidade. Uma amostra final de 3417 crianças foi avaliada. A prevalência de PA elevada foi de 10,7%. Em crianças com CC no quartil mais baixo, a prevalência de PA elevada foi de 8,1%. Essa prevalência aumentou em quartis superiores: 10,6% no segundo, 12,4% no terceiro e 12,1% no quartil mais alto. Assim, nesse grupo, estar no quartil mais alto de CC associou-se com uma probabilidade 57% maior de apresentar PA elevada em comparação aos quartis mais baixos (Q4 vs. Q1; OR 1,57 - IC95% 1,14 - 2,17). Conclusão: Em crianças de 6 a 11 anos, circunferência da cintura aumentada está associada à PA elevada, mesmo quando o IMC é normal. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

10.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 109(6): 509-515, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity and associated conditions, such as hypertension, has become a major problem of public health. Although waist circumference (WC) is a marker of cardiovascular risk in adults, it is unclear whether this index is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in children. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the association between increased WC and elevated blood pressure (BP) in children with normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. METHODS: Cross-sectional evaluation of students between 6 and 11 years with normal BMI. WC was categorized by quartile for each age group. Normal BP was defined as values < 90th percentile, and levels above this range were considered elevated. Values of p < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of the 5,037 children initially assessed, 404 (8%) were excluded for being underweight and 1,216 (24.1%) were excluded for being overweight or obese. A final sample of 3,417 children was evaluated. The prevalence of elevated BP was 10.7%. In children with WC in the lowest quartile, the prevalence of elevated BP was 8.1%. This prevalence increased in upper quartiles: 10.6% in the second, 12.4% in third and 12.1% in the upper quartile. So, in this group, being in the highest WC quartile was associated with a 57% higher likelihood to present elevated BP when compared to those in the lowest quartile (Q4 vs Q1; OR 1.57 - 95%CI 1.14 - 2.17). CONCLUSION: In children aged 6 to 11 years, increased waist circumference is associated with elevated BP even when BMI is normal.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/etiologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Pediátrica/complicações , Circunferência da Cintura , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana
11.
Faludi, André Arpad; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Saraiva, José Francisco Kerr; Chacra, Ana Paula Marte; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Afiune Neto, Abrahão; Bertolami, Adriana; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Lottenberg, Ana Maria; Sposito, Andrei C.; Chagas, Antonio Carlos Palandri; Casella Filho, Antonio; Simão, Antônio Felipe; Alencar Filho, Aristóteles Comte de; Caramelli, Bruno; Magalhães, Carlos Costa; Negrão, Carlos Eduardo; Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo dos Santos; Scherr, Carlos; Feio, Claudine Maria Alves; Kovacs, Cristiane; Araújo, Daniel Branco de; Magnoni, Daniel; Calderaro, Daniela; Gualandro, Danielle Menosi; Mello Junior, Edgard Pessoa de; Alexandre, Elizabeth Regina Giunco; Sato, Emília Inoue; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki; Rached, Fabiana Hanna; Santos, Fábio César dos; Cesena, Fernando Henpin Yue; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Fonseca, Henrique Andrade Rodrigues da; Xavier, Hermes Toros; Mota, Isabela Cardoso Pimentel; Giuliano, Isabela de Carlos Back; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; Diament, Jayme; Pesquero, João Bosco; Santos, José Ernesto dos; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Melo Filho, José Xavier de; Kato, Juliana Tieko; Torres, Kerginaldo Paulo; Bertolami, Marcelo Chiara; Assad, Marcelo Heitor Vieira; Miname, Márcio Hiroshi; Scartezini, Marileia; Forti, Neusa Assumpta; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Maranhão, Raul Cavalcante; Santos Filho, Raul Dias dos; Alves, Renato Jorge; Cassani, Roberta Lara; Betti, Roberto Tadeu Barcellos; Carvalho, Tales de; Martinez, Tânia Leme da Rocha; Giraldez, Viviane Zorzanelli Rocha; Salgado Filho, Wilson.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 109(2,supl.1): 1-76, ago. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-887919
12.
J Med Food ; 20(1): 30-36, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28098515

RESUMO

Consumption of food products enriched with plant sterols and the use of ezetimibe reduce cholesterol absorption in the intestine and effectively reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plasma levels. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of the ezetimibe+plant sterol association in patients with coronary artery disease still not reaching recommended lipid levels despite the use of statins. We performed a prospective open-label study with 41 patients with stable coronary disease and LDL >70 mg/dL. Patients were randomized into four groups for a 6-week treatment: the control (CT) group remained on the same statin therapy, the ezetimibe (EZ) group received 10 mg/day of ezetimibe, the plant sterol (PS) group received spread enriched with 2 g of plant sterols, and the ezetimibe+PS (EZ+PS) group received 10 mg/day EZ +2 g PS. Initial mean LDL level was 97.4 ± 31.1 mg/dL in control group, 105.1 ± 23.1 mg/dL in EZ group, 95.4 ± 27.7 mg/dL in PS group, and 97.0 ± 8.3 mg/dL in EZ+PS group (P > .05). After 6 weeks of treatment, LDL of patients slightly increased in the control group (+8.9%; P > .05) and dropped in EZ group (-19.1%; P = .06), PS group (-16.6%; P = .01), and EZ+PS group (-27.3%; P < .01). Mean LDL levels after treatment were 70.5 ± 17.9 mg/dL in EZ+PS group, lower than the other groups (control was 106.1 ± 34.9 mg/dL, EZ group was 85.0 ± 35.6 mg/dL, and PS was 79.6 ± 29.7 mg/dL) (P = .05 variance analysis factor [ANOVA]). Body weight, body-mass index, and glucose plasma levels did not change significantly after intervention. The combination of PS+ezetimibe was associated with lower LDL levels and suggests beneficial therapeutic effect against major cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 33(2): 239-251, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776432

RESUMO

In the last two decades, statin therapy has proved to be the most potent isolated therapy for attenuation of cardiovascular risk. Its frequent use has been seen as one of the most important elements for the reduction of cardiovascular mortality in developed countries. However, the recurrent incidence of muscle symptoms in statin users raised the possibility of causal association, leading to a disease entity known as statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). Mechanistic studies and clinical trials, specifically designed for the study of SAMS have allowed a deeper understanding of the natural history and accurate incidence. This set of information becomes essential to avoid an unnecessary risk of severe forms of SAMS. At the same time, this concrete understanding of SAMS prevents overdiagnosis and an inadequate suspension of one of the most powerful prevention strategies of our times. In this context, the Luso-Latin American Consortium gathered all available information on the subject and presents them in detail in this document as the basis for the identification and management of SAMS.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Doenças Musculares/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
14.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 33(2): 239-251, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: ses-36705

RESUMO

In the last two decades, statin therapy has proved to be the most potent isolated therapy for attenuation of cardiovascular risk. Its frequent use has been seen as one of the most important elements for the reduction of cardiovascular mortality in developed countries. However, the recurrent incidence of muscle symptoms in statin users raised the possibility of causal association, leading to a disease entity known as statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). Mechanistic studies and clinical trials, specifically designed for the study of SAMS have allowed a deeper understanding of the natural history and accurate incidence. This set of information becomes essential to avoid an unnecessary risk of severe forms of SAMS. At the same time, this concrete understanding of SAMS prevents overdiagnosis and an inadequate suspension of one of the most powerful prevention strategies of our times. In this context, the Luso-Latin American Consortium gathered all available information on the subject and presents them in detail in this document as the basis for the identification and management of SAMS...(AU)


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases
15.
Open Heart ; 3(2): e000438, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary prevention is cost-effective for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but uptake is suboptimal. Understanding barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention for CVD at multiple health system levels may inform policy. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review of barriers and facilitators to adherence/persistence to secondary CVD prevention medications at health system level. METHODS: Included studies reported effects of health system level factors on adherence/persistence to secondary prevention medications for CVD (coronary artery or cerebrovascular disease). Studies considered at least one of ß blockers, statins, angiotensin-renin system blockers and aspirin. Relevant databases were searched from 1 January 1966 until 1 October 2015. Full texts were screened for inclusion by 2 independent reviewers. RESULTS: Of 2246 screened articles, 25 studies were included (12 trials, 11 cohort studies, 1 cross-sectional study and 1 case-control study) with 132 140 individuals overall (smallest n=30, largest n=63 301). 3 studies included upper middle-income countries, 1 included a low middle-income country and 21 (84%) included high-income countries (9 in the USA). Studies concerned established CVD (n=4), cerebrovascular disease (n=7) and coronary heart disease (n=14). Three studies considered persistence and adherence. Quantity and quality of evidence was limited for adherence, persistence and across drug classes. Studies were concerned with governance and delivery (n=19, including 4 trials of fixed-dose combination therapy, FDC), intellectual resources (n=1), human resources (n=1) and health system financing (n=4). Full prescription coverage, reduced copayments, FDC and counselling were facilitators associated with higher adherence. CONCLUSIONS: High-quality evidence on health system barriers and facilitators to adherence to secondary prevention medications for CVD is lacking, especially for low-income settings. Full prescription coverage, reduced copayments, FDC and counselling may be effective in improving adherence and are priorities for further research.

16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 50 Suppl 1: 10s, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents - 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil's North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil's North and Northeast regions, must be analyzed in future studies, to support the creation of strategies for efficient interventions.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Rev Saude Publica ; 50 Suppl 1: 11s, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some components and participation of others in the syndrome composition shows the importance of early diagnosis of this changes, even if not grouped within the metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 50 Suppl 1: 9s, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26910553

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of arterial hypertension and obesity and the population attributable fraction of hypertension that is due to obesity in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from participants in the Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which was the first national school-based, cross-section study performed in Brazil were evaluated. The sample was divided into 32 geographical strata and clusters from 32 schools and classes, with regional and national representation. Obesity was classified using the body mass index according to age and sex. Arterial hypertension was defined when the average systolic or diastolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to the 95th percentile of the reference curve. Prevalences and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of arterial hypertension and obesity, both on a national basis and in the macro-regions of Brazil, were estimated by sex and age group, as were the fractions of hypertension attributable to obesity in the population. RESULTS We evaluated 73,399 students, 55.4% female, with an average age of 14.7 years (SD = 1.6). The prevalence of hypertension was 9.6% (95%CI 9.0-10.3); with the lowest being in the North, 8.4% (95%CI 7.7-9.2) and Northeast regions, 8.4% (95%CI 7.6-9.2), and the highest being in the South, 12.5% (95%CI 11.0-14.2). The prevalence of obesity was 8.4% (95%CI 7.9-8.9), which was lower in the North region and higher in the South region. The prevalences of arterial hypertension and obesity were higher in males. Obese adolescents presented a higher prevalence of hypertension, 28.4% (95%CI 25.5-31.2), than overweight adolescents, 15.4% (95%CI 17.0-13.8), or eutrophic adolescents, 6.3% (95%CI 5.6-7.0). The fraction of hypertension attributable to obesity was 17.8%. CONCLUSIONS ERICA was the first nationally representative Brazilian study providing prevalence estimates of hypertension in adolescents. Regional and sex differences were observed. The study indicates that the control of obesity would lower the prevalence of hypertension among Brazilian adolescents by 1/5.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etiologia , Masculino , Obesidade/complicações , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Rev. saúde pública ; 50(supl.1): 10s, Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-774639

RESUMO

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions, must be analyzed in future studies, to support the creation of strategies for efficient interventions.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Determinar a distribuição de colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, HDL-colesterol e triglicerídeos em adolescentes brasileiros, bem como a prevalência de níveis alterados de tais parâmetros. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados do Estudo de Riscos Cardiovasculares em Adolescentes (ERICA), estudo transversal, de âmbito nacional e base escolar que avaliou adolescentes de 12 a 17 anos, residentes em municípios com mais de 100 mil habitantes. Foi avaliada a média e distribuição dos níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total, LDL-colesterol, HDL-colesterol e triglicerídeos. Dislipidemia foi determinada por níveis de colesterol total ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL-colesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL-colesterol < 45 mg/dL ou triglicerídeos ≥ 130 mg/dl. Os dados foram analisados por sexo, idade e regiões do Brasil. RESULTADOS Foram avaliados 38.069 adolescentes, 59,9% do sexo feminino; 54,2% com idade entre 15 a 17 anos. Os valores médios encontrados foram: colesterol total 148,1 mg/dl (IC95% 147,1-149,1), HDL-colesterol 47,3 mg/dl (IC95% 46,7-47,9), LDL-colesterol 85,3 mg/dl (IC95% 84,5-86,1), e triglicerídeos 77,8 mg/dl (IC95% 76,5-79,2). Adolescentes do sexo feminino apresentaram níveis médios de colesterol total, LDL-colesterol e HDL-colesterol mais elevados, mas sem diferença nos níveis de triglicerídeos. Não houve diferença significativa de valores médios entre adolescentes de 12 a 14 e de 15 a 17 anos. As alterações com maior prevalência foram HDL-colesterol baixo (46,8% [IC95% 44,8-48,9]), hipercolesterolemia (20,1% [IC95% 19,0-21,3]) e hipertrigliceridemia (7,8% [IC95% 7,1-8,6]). O LDL-colesterol elevado foi observado em 3,5% (IC95% 3,2-4,0) dos adolescentes. As prevalências de HDL-colesterol baixo foram mais elevadas nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do País. CONCLUSÕES Uma parcela significativa dos adolescentes brasileiros apresenta alterações dos lípides plasmáticos. A alta prevalência de HDL-colesterol baixo e a hipertrigliceridemia, sobretudo nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, devem ser analisadas em futuros estudos para subsidiar formulações de estratégias de intervenções eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
20.
J Sports Sci ; 34(17): 1657-61, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26710938

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-h ultramarathon, an aerobic test of high physical load, on lipid profile and apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A1 (ApoA1) levels, minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and oxidised LDL. Prospective evaluation of 16 male athletes who participated in an ultramarathon run, where the objective was to run the greatest distance possible in 24 h. Fourteen participants completed the run. The mean distance achieved was 133.1 km (maximum of 169.6 km). There was a trend in reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol (P = 0.06 and 0.05, respectively), without significant modifications in high-density lipoprotein, LDL and ApoA1 levels (P = 0.16; 0.55 and 0.67). There was a marked reduction in ApoB levels (P < 0.001), correlated directly to the distance covered (Pearson R = 0.68). Accordingly, an increase in the LDL/ApoB ratio was observed. The stress of this physical activity was not associated to an increase in minimally modified LDL or oxidised LDL. Lipid profile levels were not acutely altered by prolonged physical activity. Similarly, there was no evidence of greater oxidation of LDL over a 24-h period of physical activity. The reduction in ApoB was directly proportional to the distance covered, suggesting an acute positive change in phenotype of LDL molecules.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adulto , Apolipoproteína A-I/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Humanos , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Triglicerídeos/sangue
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