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1.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(2)2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35203833

RESUMO

The quantification of antimicrobial usage (AMU) in food-producing animals can help identify AMU risk factors, thereby enhancing appropriate stewardship policies and strategies for a more rational use. AMU in a sample of 34 farms in the Province of Trento (north-eastern Italy) from 2018 to 2020 was expressed as defined daily doses for animals per population correction unit according to European Surveillance of Veterinary Antimicrobial Consumption guidelines (DDDvet) and according to Italian guidelines (DDDAit). A retrospective analysis was carried out to test the effects of several husbandry practices on AMU. Overall, the average AMU ranged between 6.5 DDDAit in 2018 and 5.2 DDDAit in 2020 (corresponding to 9 and 7 DDDvet, respectively), showing a significant trend of decrement (-21.3%). Usage of the highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIA) was reduced by 83% from 2018 to 2020. Quarantine management, available space, water supply, animals' cleanliness and somatic cell count had no significant association with AMU. Rather, farms with straw-bedded cubicles had lower AMU levels than those with mattresses and concrete floors (p < 0.05). In conclusion, this study evidenced a decrement in AMU, particularly regarding HPCIA, but only a few risk factors due to farm management.

2.
Toxins (Basel) ; 10(6)2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29921757

RESUMO

The presence of botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia (BPC) in food sources is a public health concern. In favorable environmental conditions, BPC can produce botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) outside or inside the vertebrate host, leading to intoxications or toxico-infectious forms of botulism, respectively. BPC in food are almost invariably detected either by PCR protocols targeted at the known neurotoxin-encoding genes, or by the mouse test to assay for the presence of BoNTs in the supernatants of enrichment broths inoculated with the tested food sample. The sample is considered positive for BPC when the supernatant contains toxic substances that are lethal to mice, heat-labile and neutralized in vivo by appropriate polyclonal antibodies raised against purified BoNTs of different serotypes. Here, we report the detection in a food sample of a Clostridium tetani strain that produces tetanus neurotoxins (TeNTs) with the above-mentioned characteristics: lethal for mice, heat-labile and neutralized by botulinum antitoxin type B. Notably, neutralization occurred with two different commercially available type B antitoxins, but not with type A, C, D, E and F antitoxins. Although TeNT and BoNT fold very similarly, evidence that antitoxin B antiserum can neutralize the neurotoxic effect of TeNT in vivo has not been documented before. The presence of C. tetani strains in food can produce misleading results in BPC detection using the mouse test.


Assuntos
Antitoxina Botulínica/imunologia , Toxinas Botulínicas/análise , Clostridium/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Neurotoxinas/análise , Animais , Bioensaio , Toxinas Botulínicas/imunologia , Toxinas Botulínicas/metabolismo , Clostridium/metabolismo , Reações Cruzadas , Camundongos , Neurotoxinas/imunologia , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo
3.
Ital J Food Saf ; 7(1): 6967, 2018 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732331

RESUMO

Processing of alpine milk in malga farms is carried out under conditions that can favor contamination by coliforms, coagulase-positive staphylococci, or pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes. With the aim to improve the hygienic characteristics and safety of cheese produced in four malga farms the use of lyophilized Natural Milk Culture prepared with selected strains was tested.. Two cheesemaking tests were carried out in the same day always starting from the same milk: in the first case following the malga recipe that uses either Natural Whey Culture or without the addition of a starter, in the second one using a Natural Milk Culture. Cheesemaking were carried out in four malga farms located in the west area of Trentino region within the same week. For hygienic and safety evaluation, aerobic colony count, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Escherichia coli, staphylococcal toxins, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp, pH and aw were determined in raw milk from evening and morning milking, curd in vat, curd after extraction and two months-ripened cheese. Pathogens or toxins, high values of coagulase- positive staphylococci and E. coli were not found in cheese samples. However, in the curd coagulase-positive staphylococci reached values almost of 5 Log CFU/g in the two malga without starter cultures. The use of Natural Milk Culture reduced E. coli counts. In addition, DNA was extracted from cheese samples and from Natural Milk Culture and the composition of the microbial community determined by Next Generation Sequencing method. The determination of cheese microbial communities demonstrated that the use of Natural Milk Culture exerted different effects in the different malga, in any case preserving bacterial biodiversity.

4.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 15(3): 200-203, maio-jun. 2009. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-517536

RESUMO

INTRODUÇÃO: O alongamento muscular é frequentemente utilizado nas práticas desportivas, com o objetivo de aumentar a flexibilidade muscular e amplitude articular, assim como diminuir o risco de lesões e melhorar o desempenho atlético. OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito agudo do alongamento com diferentes tempos no desempenho da força dinâmica de membros superiores e inferiores em homens jovens. MÉTODOS: Participaram da amostra 14 voluntários do sexo masculino com idade de 23 ± 2 anos, peso corporal de 84 ± 10kg, estatura de178 ± 7cm, IMC de 26 ± 2kg/m² e percentual de gordura de 11 ± 3 por cento. Eles foram avaliados com o teste de 10RM em três situações distintas: condição sem alongamento (SA), aquecimento especifico seguido do teste de 10-RM; condição com oito minutos de alongamento (AL-8), uma sessão de alongamento estático com oito minutos de duração, seguido do aquecimento e teste de 10RM; e a condição alongamento 16 minutos (AL-16), 16 minutos de alongamento seguidos dos procedimentos descritos anteriormente. Os testes foram feitos no supino reto e leg-press 45º; os alongamentos foram selecionados de forma a atingir as musculaturas solicitadas nos respectivos exercícios. RESULTADOS: Houve redução de 9,2 por cento da força muscular dinâmica de membros superiores em comparação dos grupos SA e AL16, e entre os grupos AL8 e AL16 (p < 0,001). Em membros inferiores essa redução de força (p < 0,001) foi de 4,8 por cento para AL-8 e de 14,3 por cento para AL-16 em comparação com o grupo SA. CONCLUSÃO: Sessões de alongamentos estáticos efetuados antes de atividades que envolvam força dinâmica possuem a capacidade de alterar negativamente o desempenho dessa qualidade física, acarretando pior rendimento em longos períodos de alongamento.


BACKGROUND: Muscular stretching is frequently used in sports practice with the aim to increase muscular flexibility and joint range of motion as well as to reduce injury risks and to improve athletic performance. AIM: To analyze the acute effect of stretching with different times in the dynamic strength performance of lower and upper extremities in young men. METHODS: The sample was composed by 14 healthy male volunteers aged 23 ± 2 years, weight of 84 ± 10 Kg , height of 178 ± 7 cm, BMI of 26 ± 2 Kg/m2 and body fat of 11 ± 3 percent. They were evaluated in a 10-maximum repetition test (10-RM) in three situations: no stretching (NS); after an 8-minute session of static stretching followed by specific warm-up (SS-8); and after 16-minute and specific warm-up before 10 RM test (SS-16). Tests were performed in bench press and 45º leg press exercises, and stretching was selected as to reach the musculature required in these exercises. RESULTS: There was significant reduction (p<0.001) of dynamic muscular strength of upper extremities in comparison to NS with SS-16 (9.2 percent) and between SS-8 (4.2 percent) and SS-16 (14.3 percent) to lower extremities. This difference was found in all tested conditions. CONCLUSION: Static stretching sessions before activities involving dynamic strength are able to negatively change performance in longer stretching periods.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Força Muscular , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Tempo de Reação , Treinamento de Força
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 85(1-2): 68-80, 2008 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18304663

RESUMO

Several countries within the European Union (EU) have successfully eradicated Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), while others (e.g. Germany) are making efforts to achieve IBR-free status. EU member states IBR eradication programmes must meet Community legislation requirements that ban breeding farms from purchasing positive animals, from using whole-virus IBR vaccines, and from inseminating cows with semen from positive bulls. A follow-up study from 2002 to 2005 was carried out in the province of Trento (Italy), where a compulsory programme for IBR eradication was started in 1998. IBR outbreaks (identified on the basis of seroconversion of sentinel animals) were concentrated in larger positive herds. A higher incidence was recorded between 2003 and 2004. An association between markedly high temperatures in the summer of 2003 and virus reactivation has been suggested but is yet to be confirmed. The practice of driving cattle to common alpine pastures for the summer season did not play a significant epidemiological role in IBR transmission. Premising that only seronegative animals are allowed to enter dairy farms, animal movement increases the infection risk to a moderate extent. The long-term persistence of IBR antibodies was more pronounced in animals positive for antibodies to the glycoprotein E (gE). Scattered seroconversions, occurring mostly in positive herds, require careful interpretation in order to avoid overestimating the incidence of the infection at herd level.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/epidemiologia , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/imunologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/isolamento & purificação , Rinotraqueíte Infecciosa Bovina/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
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