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1.
Orv Hetil ; 160(25): 987-993, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203645

RESUMO

Introduction: In recent years, many papers analyzed the relationship between serum vitamin D3 level and the frequency and activity of various diseases at least partially attributed to immune mechanisms. Aim: We looked for correlations among the number and location of edematous episodes occurring in patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) and the quantity of the C1-inhibitor used for supplementation as well as the vitamin D3 levels of patients. Method: We measured vitamin D3 levels in 118 of the 175 C1-INH-HAE patients of the National Angioedema Reference Center during the winter-spring (n = 111) and the summer-autumn periods (n = 105) in 2013-2014. Complement levels and clinical data were extracted from the National Angioedema Registry and from patient diaries. Results: The proportion of vitamin D3 deficient patients (serum level <20 ng/ml) was approximately 59.5% during winter-spring, 27.6% in summer-autumn, and 23.5% during both periods. There was a significant difference between vitamin D3 serum levels measured in the winter-spring or in the summer-autumn months (p<0.0001). The same applies to the number of the vials of C1-inhibitor concentrate administered as acute treatment for angioedema attacks (p = 0.01). In any season, vitamin D3 level did not correlate with the number of attacks experienced by the patients during the given period or of the vials of C1-inhibitor concentrate administered. Conclusions: We could not demonstrate a relationship between vitamin D3 level and the frequency or location of edematous episodes in HAE patients. The need for treatment (as reflected by the number of the vials administered) was higher in the winter-spring period. As vitamin D3 deficiency was more severe than expected in our patients, supplementation is clearly necessary. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(25): 987-993.

3.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 30(5): 562-568, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) usually begin during childhood or adolescence. However, limited data are available regarding indications and modalities of treatment of children. This study evaluated recombinant human C1-INH (rhC1-INH) for HAE attacks in children. METHODS: This open-label, phase 2 study included children aged 2-13 years with C1-INH-HAE. Eligible HAE attacks were treated intravenously with rhC1-INH 50 IU/kg body weight (maximum, 4200 IU). The primary end-point was time to beginning of symptom relief (TOSR; ≥20 mm decrease from baseline in visual analog scale [VAS] score, persisting for two consecutive assessments); secondary end-point was time to minimal symptoms (TTMS; <20 mm VAS score for all anatomic locations). RESULTS: Twenty children (aged 5-14 years; 73 HAE attacks) were treated with rhC1-INH. Seventy (95.9%) of the attacks were treated with a single dose of rhC1-INH. Seven (35.0%) children were treated for four or more attacks. Overall, median TOSR was 60.0 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.0-65.0); data were consistent across attacks. Median TTMS was 122.5 minutes (95% CI, 120.0-126.0); data were consistent across attacks. No children withdrew from the study due to adverse events. No treatment-related serious adverse events or hypersensitivity reactions were reported; no neutralizing antibodies were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Recombinant human C1-INH was efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in children. Data support use of the same dosing regimen for HAE attacks in children (50 IU/kg; up to 4200 IU, followed by an additional dose, if needed) as is currently recommended for adolescents and adults.

4.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 14(1): 67, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is characterized by localized, non-pitting, and transient swelling of submucosal or subcutaneous region. Human fetuin-A is a multifunctional glycoprotein that belongs to the proteinase inhibitor cystatin superfamily and has structural similarities to the high molecular weight kininogen. Fetuin-A is also known a negative acute phase reactant with anti-inflammatory characteristics. In this study we aimed to determine serum fetuin-A, C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) concentrations in patients with C1-INH-HAE during symptom-free period and during attacks and compare them to those of healthy controls. Further we analyzed possible relationship among these parameters as well as D-dimer levels which was known as marker of HAE attacks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum samples of 25 C1-INH-HAE patients (8 men, 17 women, age: 33.1 ± 6.9 years, mean ± SD) were compared to 25 healthy controls (15 men, 10 women, age: 32.5 ± 7.8 years). Serum fetuin-A and TNFα concentrations were determined by ELISA, CRP and D-dimer by turbidimetry. RESULTS: Compared to healthy controls patients with C1-INH-HAE in the symptom-free period had significantly decreased serum fetuin-A 258 µg/ml (224-285) vs. 293 µg/ml (263-329), (median (25-75% percentiles, p = 0.035) and TNFα 2.53 ng/ml (1.70-2.83) vs. 3.47 ng/ml (2.92-4.18, p = 0.0008) concentrations. During HAE attacks fetuin-A levels increased from 258 (224-285) µg/ml to 287 (261-317) µg/ml (p = 0.021). TNFα and CRP levels did not change significantly. We found no significant correlation among fetuin-A CRP, TNFα and D-dimer levels in any of these three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with C1-INH-HAE have decreased serum fetuin-A concentrations during the symptom-free period. Given the anti-inflammatory properties of fetuin-A, the increase of its levels may contribute to the counter-regulation of edema formation during C1-INH-HAE attacks.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/sangue , Angioedemas Hereditários/fisiopatologia , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , alfa-2-Glicoproteína-HS/metabolismo , Adulto , Análise Química do Sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(6): 1793-1802.e2, 2019 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the prevention of attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE), the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA, CSL Behring) was established in the 16-week Clinical Study for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT). OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term safety, occurrence of angioedema attacks, and use of rescue medication with C1-INH(SC). METHODS: Open-label, randomized, parallel-arm extension of COMPACT across 11 countries. Patients with frequent angioedema attacks, either study treatment-naive or who had completed COMPACT, were randomly assigned (1:1) to 40 IU/kg or 60 IU/kg C1-INH(SC) twice per week, with conditional uptitration to optimize prophylaxis (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT02316353). RESULTS: A total of 126 patients with a monthly attack rate of 4.3 in 3 months before entry in COMPACT were enrolled and treated for a mean of 1.5 years; 44 patients (34.9%) had more than 2 years of exposure. Mean steady-state C1-INH functional activity increased to 66.6% with 60 IU/kg. Incidence of adverse events was low and similar in both dose groups (11.3 and 8.5 events per patient-year for 40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg, respectively). For 40 IU/kg and 60 IU/kg, median annualized attack rates were 1.3 and 1.0, respectively, and median rescue medication use was 0.2 and 0.0 times per year, respectively. Of 23 patients receiving 60 IU/kg for more than 2 years, 19 (83%) were attack-free during months 25 to 30 of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, long-term replacement therapy with C1-INH(SC) is safe and exhibits a substantial and sustained prophylactic effect, with the vast majority of patients becoming free from debilitating disease symptoms.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(5): 1610-1618.e4, 2019 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH) is characterized by swelling of subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy/safety of fixed-dose subcutaneous plasma-derived C1-INH (pdC1-INH) liquid for HAE attack prevention (NCT02584959). METHODS: Eligible patients were ≥12 years with ≥2 monthly attacks prescreening or pre-long-term prophylaxis. In a partial crossover design, 80% of patients were randomized to placebo or pdC1-INH liquid for 14 weeks and crossed over from active to placebo or vice versa for another 14 weeks. The remainder were randomized to pdC1-INH liquid for 28 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was normalized number of attacks (NNA) versus placebo. Key additional endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving NNA reduction ≥50%, attack severity, number of attack-free days, and safety. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were randomized and 58 (77%) completed the study. Mean age 41 years; 88% HAE type I. Least-squares means of NNA were reduced from 3.9 with placebo to 1.6 with pdC1-INH (from day 1; P < .0001). Most patients had ≥50% NNA reduction with pdC1-INH (from day 1, 78%). A total of 8.8% of placebo-treated patients were attack-free and 5.3%, 22.8%, and 63.2% had mild, moderate, and severe attacks, respectively; 37.5% of pdC1-INH-treated patients were attack-free and 8.9%, 26.8%, and 26.8% had mild, moderate, and severe attacks, respectively. Treatment-emergent adverse event rates were similar between groups (52% vs 56% for pdC1-INH crossover vs placebo, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Fixed-dose subcutaneous pdC1-INH liquid was superior to placebo in preventing HAE attacks and demonstrated a favorable safety profile.

9.
BioDrugs ; 33(1): 33-43, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539362

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disease characterized by diminished levels or dysfunctional activity of C1-INH, leading to dysregulated plasma kallikrein activity within the kallikrein-kinin pathway. Symptoms manifest as painful, potentially life-threatening swelling of subcutaneous tissues throughout the body and/or submucosal edema in the upper airway or gastrointestinal tract. Attacks recur with unpredictable frequency, intensity, and duration, placing a heavy burden on patients' daily lives. Despite improved availability of medications for on-demand treatment during attacks and prophylaxis of future attacks, unmet needs remain. Lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, may help address some of the limitations of existing prophylactic options (e.g., the need for intravenous administration or frequent dosing). Preclinical studies demonstrate that it is highly potent and specifically inhibits plasma kallikrein, and findings from phase Ia and Ib studies suggest this agent is well tolerated and provides sustained inhibition of plasma kallikrein, allowing for less frequent dosing. The phase III HELP Study (NCT02586805) evaluating the efficacy and safety of lanadelumab in preventing HAE attacks has been completed, and its open-label extension (NCT02741596) is ongoing. Lanadelumab is now approved in the USA and Canada for prophylaxis to prevent attacks of HAE in patients aged ≥ 12 years. This review provides an overview of the discovery and clinical development of lanadelumab, from preclinical through phase Ib studies, characterizing its safety/tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. It also highlights how this agent may positively impact clinical care of patients with C1-INH-HAE.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Calicreína Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioedemas Hereditários/patologia , Angioedemas Hereditários/fisiopatologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Calicreína Plasmática/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare, potentially life-threatening disorder characterized by recurrent edematous attacks. The edema formation is the consequence of interaction of bradykinin and various vasoactive peptides with endothelium. Besides these agents, danazol, a modified testosterone derivative used in these patients to prevent edematous attacks, can also affect the function of the endothelium, because it shifts the blood lipid profile to a pro-atherogenic phenotype. OBJECTIVE: To assess the endothelial function in C1-INH-HAE patients and in healthy matched controls. METHODS: To evaluate the endothelial function, we used the flow-mediated dilation method measured in the region of the brachial artery in 33 C1-INH-HAE patients and in 30 healthy matched controls. Laboratory measurements of standard biochemical parameters were performed on computerized laboratory analyzers. RESULTS: No difference was found in endothelial function (reactive hyperemia, RH) between patients (median, 9.0; 25%-75% percentile, 6.3-12.9) and controls (median, 7.37; 25%-75% percentile, 4.52-9.93). Although we found elevated cardiovascular risk (high body mass index and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio) in danazol-treated C1-INH-HAE patients, RH values did not differ between danazol-treated and nontreated patients. Furthermore, risk factors correlated with the endothelial function only in healthy controls and patients not treated with danazol. CONCLUSION: In summary, our results did not indicate any signs of endothelial dysfunction in C1-INH-HAE patients. Moreover, the normal endothelial function in danazol-treated patients with pro-atherogenic lipid profile suggests that elevated bradykinin level or other factor(s) involved in the pathogenesis of edematous attacks may have a protective role against endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.

11.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1721, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30083168

RESUMO

Background: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) caused by deficiency (type I) or dysfunction (type II) of the C1 inhibitor protein (C1-INH-HAE) is a disabling, potentially fatal condition characterized by recurrent episodes of swelling. We have recently found that patients with C1-INH-HAE have increased plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factors and angiopoietins (Angs), which have been associated with vascular permeability in several diseases. Among these and other factors, blood endothelial cells and vascular permeability can be modulated by extracellular or secreted phospholipases A2 (sPLA2s). Objective: We sought to investigate the enzymatic activity and biological functions of sPLA2 in patients with C1-INH-HAE. Methods: sPLA2s enzymatic activity was evaluated in the plasma from 109 adult patients with C1-INH-HAE and 68 healthy donors in symptom-free period and attacks. Plasma level of group IIA sPLA2 (hGIIA) protein was measured in selected samples. The effect of C1-INH-HAE plasma on endothelial permeability was examined in vitro using a vascular permeability assay. The role of hGIIA was determined using highly specific sPLA2 indole inhibitors. The effect of recombinant hGIIA on C1-INH activity was examined in vitro by functional assay. Results: Plasma sPLA2 activity and hGIIA levels are increased in symptom-free C1-INH-HAE patients compared with controls. sPLA2 activity negatively correlates with C1-INH protein level and function. C1-INH-HAE plasma increases endothelial permeability in vitro, and this effect is partially reverted by a specific hGIIA enzymatic inhibitor. Finally, recombinant hGIIA inhibits C1-INH activity in vitro. Conclusion: sPLA2 enzymatic activity (likely attributable to hGIIA), which is increased in C1-INH-HAE patients, can promote vascular permeability and impairs C1-INH activity. Our results may pave the way for investigating the functions of sPLA2s (in particular, hGIIA) in the pathophysiology of C1-INH-HAE and may inform the development of new therapeutic targets.

12.
N Engl J Med ; 379(4): 352-362, 2018 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema is a life-threatening illness caused by mutations in the gene encoding C1 inhibitor (also called C1 esterase inhibitor) that lead to overactivation of the kallikrein-bradykinin cascade. BCX7353 is a potent oral small-molecule inhibitor of plasma kallikrein with a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile that may help prevent angioedema attacks. METHODS: In this international, three-part, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated four doses of BCX7353 (62.5 mg, 125 mg, 250 mg, and 350 mg once daily) for the prevention of angioedema attacks over a 28-day period. Patients with type I or II hereditary angioedema with a history of at least two angioedema attacks per month were randomly assigned to BCX7353 or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was the number of confirmed angioedema attacks. Key secondary end points included angioedema attacks according to anatomical location and quality of life. RESULTS: A total of 77 patients underwent randomization, 75 received BCX7353 or placebo, and 72 completed the trial. The rate of confirmed angioedema attacks was significantly lower among patients who received BCX7353 at daily doses of 125 mg or more than among those who received placebo, with a 73.8% difference at 125 mg (P<0.001). Significant benefits with respect to quality-of-life scores were observed in the 125-mg and 250-mg dose groups (P<0.05). Gastrointestinal adverse events, predominantly of grade 1, were the most commonly reported adverse events, particularly in the two highest BCX7353 dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily oral administration of BCX7353 at a dose of 125 mg or more resulted in a significantly lower rate of attacks of hereditary angioedema than placebo. Mild gastrointestinal symptoms were the principal side effect. (Funded by BioCryst Pharmaceuticals; APeX-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02870972 .).


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Calicreína Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
14.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 14(6): 447-460, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29757016

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disorder with life-threatening complications if untreated. It begins during childhood, and reduces the patient's quality of life. Therefore, the availability of an easily administered agent to relieve unpredictable HAE episodes is indispensable for this age group. Areas covered: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, open-label extensions and prospective observational studies have proven the safety and efficacy of the subcutaneously administered bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist, icatibant, in the acute treatment of HAE episodes in adult C1-INH-HAE patients. Recently, a Phase 3, multicenter, open-label, non-randomized, single-arm study demonstrated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of icatibant as an acute treatment for pediatric patients aged 2 years to less than 18 years. Expert commentary: The clinical study in pediatric patients showed that icatibant undergoes rapid absorption, reaches a therapeutic level, and promptly relieves the symptoms. It is well tolerated, and the subcutaneous preparation, presented in a pre-filled syringe, ensures ease of use. It can be administered anytime, anywhere, and instantly - even by the patients themselves, or - in the case of children and adolescents - by a caregiver. Icatibant may greatly contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of pediatric patients.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(4): 1205-1208, 2018 Jul - Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of idiopathic nonhistaminergic acquired angioedema (InH-AAE) has not yet been precisely elucidated. This condition is characterized by recurrent angioedema without wheals. OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical features of InH-AAE, and to make, for the first time, independent comparisons with hereditary angioedema of unknown origin (U-HAE), as well as with hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE). METHODS: We compared the clinical parameters of 46 patients with InH-AAE with those of 27 patients suffering from U-HAE, as well as of 73 patients with C1-INH-HAE. RESULTS: The mean age at the onset of symptoms was 36 years in InH-AAE, 13 years in C1-INH-HAE, and 29 years in U-HAE. More than 12 edematous episodes occurred over a year in 56% of patients with InH-AAE, in 59% of those with C1-INH-HAE, and in 48% of those with U-HAE. Edema of the extremities, of the upper airways, and of the gastrointestinal tract was more common in patients with C1-INH-HAE (92%, 51%, and 75%, respectively). These manifestations occurred less frequently in patients with InH-AAE (54%, 28%, and 20%) and in patients with U-HAE (37%, 29%, and 20%). By contrast, facial edema occurred in only 15% of patients with C1-INH-HAE, but in 67% of patients with InH-AAE and in 59% of patients with U-HAE. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations of patients with InH-AAE were different from those of patients with C1-INH-HAE. This may indicate different processes underlying edema formation in these disease forms. The close resemblance of the clinical manifestations in InH-AAE and U-HAE might suggest a similarity between the pathophysiology of these conditions.

16.
Gene ; 667: 76-82, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29753808

RESUMO

SERPING1 genotyping of subjects suspicious for hereditary angioedema due to C1-INH deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is important for clinical practice as well as for research reasons. Conventional approaches towards the detection of C1-INH-HAE-associated SERPING1 variants are cumbersome and time-demanding with many pitfalls. To take advantage of the benefits of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we developed and validated a custom NGS platform that, by targeting the entire SERPING1 gene, facilitates genetic testing of C1-INH-HAE patients in clinical practice. In total, 135 different C1-INH-HAE-associated SERPING1 variants, out of the approximately 450 reported, along with 115 negative controls and 95 randomly selected DNA samples from affected family members of C1-INH-HAE index patients, were included in the forward and reverse validation processes of this platform. Our platform's performance, i.e. analytical sensitivity of 98.96%, a false negative rate of 1.05%, analytical specificity 100%, a false positive rate equal to zero, accuracy of 99.35%, and repeatability of 100% recommends its implementation as a first line approach for the genetic testing of C1-INH-HAE patients or as a confirmatory method. A noteworthy advantage of our platform is the concomitant detection of single nucleotide variants and copy number variations throughout the whole length of the SERPING1 gene, moreover providing information about the size and the localization of the latter. During our study, 15 novel C1-INH-HAE-related SERPING1 variants were detected.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Angioedemas Hereditários/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1733-1741.e3, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess HRQoL outcomes in patients self-administering subcutaneous C1-INH (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA) for routine prevention of HAE attacks. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from the placebo-controlled, crossover phase III COMPACT study (Clinical Studies for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy). Ninety patients with C1-INH-HAE were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences: C1-INH(SC) 40 or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 16 weeks, preceded or followed by 16 weeks of twice weekly placebo injections. All HAE attacks were treated with open-label on-demand treatment as necessary. HRQoL assessments at week 14 (last visit) included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM). RESULTS: Compared with placebo (on-demand treatment alone), treatment with twice weekly C1-INH(SC) (both doses combined) was associated with better EQ-5D visual analog scale general health, less HADS anxiety, less WPAI presenteeism, work productivity loss, and activity impairment, and greater TSQM effectiveness and overall treatment satisfaction. More patients self-reported a "good/excellent" response during routine prevention with C1-INH(SC) compared with on-demand only (placebo prophylaxis) management. For each HRQoL measure, a greater proportion of patients had a clinically meaningful improvement during C1-INH(SC) treatment compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, a treatment strategy of routine prevention with self-administered twice weekly C1-INH(SC) had a greater impact on improving multiple HAE-related HRQoL impairments, most notably anxiety and work productivity, compared with on-demand treatment alone (placebo prophylaxis).

18.
Paediatr Drugs ; 20(2): 135-151, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214395

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a form of bradykinin-mediated angioedema. It is a rare disorder with an onset during childhood in most instances. Therefore, familiarity with the options for the management of pediatric cases is indispensable. The recurrent angioedematous episodes do not respond to conventional treatments and may evolve into a life-threatening condition. In view of the recommendations adopted by international consensus in 2016, patient management and follow-up should be guided by an individualized strategy. During the last decade, various medicinal products with novel modes of action and different posology have been developed for the treatment of C1-INH-HAE. These drugs either inhibit the release of bradykinin (plasma-derived C1-inhibitors, recombinant C1-inhibitors, kallikrein inhibitors) or prevent the released bradykinin from binding to its receptor (bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists). This review summarizes the properties of the medicinal products currently available for the treatment of C1-INH-HAE, the indications for their use in pediatric patients, and the findings of the clinical trials conducted in this patient population. It is concluded by a brief outline of future therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/metabolismo , Inativadores do Complemento/uso terapêutico , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/tratamento farmacológico , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptor B2 da Bradicinina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/genética , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/metabolismo , Humanos , Calicreínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
19.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 27(1): 87-103, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29226721

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare bradykinin-mediated disease characterized by recurrent subcutaneous and/or submucosal angioedematous attacks (HAE attacks), which occur unpredictably. The recurrent HAE attacks do not respond to conventional treatments, and may evolve into a life-threatening condition; therefore, special therapy is required. Areas covered: The agents used so far for the acute management of HAE attacks act by blocking the release of bradykinin, or its binding to its receptor. By contrast, the investigational medicinal products under evaluation in Phase I and II clinical trials are targeted at the prevention of HAE attacks. Chemically, these new drugs are small synthetic molecules, oligonucleotides, or antibodies, which inhibit either kallikrein, or Factor XII. Expert opinion: The key considerations for the development of new medicinal products include more straightforward dosing, self-administration, longer duration of action, and keeping the patient attack-free. This review summarizes the status and the findings of the currently ongoing Phase I and Phase II clinical trials of C1-INH-HAE.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Drogas , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Angioedemas Hereditários/fisiopatologia , Animais , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Drogas em Investigação/administração & dosagem , Drogas em Investigação/farmacologia , Humanos , Receptores da Bradicinina/metabolismo , Autoadministração
20.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 174(3-4): 200-204, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In view of the large heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), great efforts are being made towards detecting measurable biological determinants of disease severity that can help to improve the management of the disease. Considering the central role that plasma kallikrein plays in bradykinin production, we investigated the contribution of the functional polymorphism KLKB1-428G/A to the disease phenotype. METHODS: We studied 249 C1-INH-HAE patients from 114 European families, and we explored possible associations of C1-INH-HAE clinical features with carriage of KLKB1-428G/A, combined or not with that of the functional F12-46C/T polymorphism. RESULTS: Carriers of the G allele of the KLKB1-428G/A polymorphism exhibited a significantly delayed disease onset (i.e., by 4.1 years [p < 0.001], depending on the zygocity status), while carriers of both the KLKB1-428G/A and the F12-46C/T polymorphism displayed an 8.8-year delay in disease onset (p < 0.001) and a 64% lower probability of needing long-term prophylactic treatment (p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support our initial hypothesis that functional alterations in genes of proteins involved in bradykinin metabolism and function affect the clinical phenotype and possibly contribute to the pathogenesis of C1-INH-HAE. Given that an earlier onset of symptoms is inversely correlated with the subsequent course of the disease and, eventually, the need for long-term prophylaxis, these polymorphisms may be helpful prognostic biomarkers of disease severity.


Assuntos
Angioedema/genética , Angioedemas Hereditários/genética , Biomarcadores/sangue , Genótipo , Calicreínas/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioedema/diagnóstico , Angioedema/epidemiologia , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Angioedemas Hereditários/epidemiologia , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
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