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J Patient Saf ; 2016 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314201


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop an emergency department (ED) trigger tool to improve the identification of adverse events in the ED and that can be used to direct patient safety and quality improvement. This work describes the first step toward the development of an ED all-cause harm measurement tool by experts in the field. METHODS: We identified a multidisciplinary group of emergency medicine safety experts from whom we solicited candidate triggers. We then conducted a modified Delphi process consisting of 4 stages as follows: (1) a systematic literature search and review, including an independent oversampling of review for inclusion, (2) solicitation of empiric triggers from participants, (3) a Web-based survey ranking triggers on specific performance constructs, and (4) a final in-person meeting to arrive at consensus triggers for testing. Results of each step were shared with participants between each stage. RESULTS: Among an initial 804 unique articles found using our search criteria, we identified 94 that were suitable for further review. Interrater reliability was high (κ = 0.80). Review of these articles yielded 56 candidate triggers. These were supplemented by 58 participant-submitted triggers yielding a total of 114 candidate triggers that were shared with team members electronically along with their definitions. Team members then voted on each measure via a Web-based survey, ranking triggers on their face validity, utility for quality improvement, and fidelity (sensitivity/specificity). Participants were also provided the ability to flag any trigger about which they had questions or they felt merited further discussion at the in-person meeting. Triggers were ranked by combining the first 2 categories (face validity and utility), and information on fidelity was reviewed for decision making at the in-person meeting. Seven redundant triggers were eliminated. At an in-person meeting including representatives from all facilities, we presented the 50 top-ranked triggers as well as those that were flagged on the survey by 2 or more participants. We reviewed each trigger individually, identifying 41 triggers about which there was a clear agreement for inclusion. Of the seven additional triggers that required subsequent voting via e-mail, 5 were adopted, arriving at a total of 46 consensus-derived triggers. CONCLUSIONS: Our modified Delphi process resulted in the identification of 46 final triggers for the detection of adverse events among ED patients. These triggers should be pilot field tested to quantify their individual and collective performance in detecting all-cause harm to ED patients.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 54(7): 590-6, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27214065


CONTEXT: Medication use has become increasingly prevalent in the United States, with up trending use of both prescription and over the counter medication. The increasing use and availability of medication may be changing the nature of poisoning fatality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in fatal poisoning over time, with respect to fatalities involving one or more medications, using annual reports published by the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: AAPCC annual reports were reviewed from 1984 to 2013. Data from tables in each annual report titled Number of Substances Involved in Human Exposure Cases and Summary of Fatal Exposures were abstracted. Fatality rates and changes in these rates over time were calculated for exposures to 1, 2, or ≥ 3 substances. All substances detailed in Summary of Fatal Exposures tables were then coded as medication or non-medication. The percentage of fatalities involving 1, 2, or ≥ 3 medications was calculated and trended over time. Subset analysis was performed to compare the periods 1984-2005 and 2006-2013 in order to limit confounding from changes in reporting. Secondary analysis linking the number of substances cases were exposed to and the fatality rate was performed for data from 2006-2013. RESULTS: There were 59,866,357 human exposures and 29,659 fatalities reported from 1984 to 2013. There were 49.5 fatalities per 100,000 exposures. The majority of fatalities (52.2%) involved more than one substance, although multiple substances were involved in only 8.3% of exposures. Fatality rates increased over time and were higher for cases involving multiple substances. Medications were involved in 79.2% of fatalities, a percentage that increased from 70% in the 1980s to nearly 90% after 2010. In recent years, the majority of fatalities have involved multiple medications. For data from 2006-2013 there was a strong association between fatality rate and number of substances involved in an exposure (221 additional fatalities per 100,000 exposures for each additional substance involved in an exposure). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Multiple substance exposures have become a greater percentage of cases reported to the AAPCC and have higher fatality rates than single substance exposures. The majority of fatal poisonings reported to the AAPCC between 1984 and 2013 involved medication. The percentage of fatal poisonings involving medication increased over the interval, as did the percentage of fatalities involving more than one medication. Fatalities involving multiple medications are now the most common type of fatal poisoning reported to the AAPCC.

Bases de Dados Factuais , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Envenenamento/epidemiologia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/envenenamento , Humanos , Prevalência , Sociedades Científicas , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
J Med Toxicol ; 11(2): 245-52, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25804670


Medical and medication errors remain definite threats to patients in US health care. Medical toxicologists frequently encounter patients either harmed by or at risk for harm from adverse drug events, including medication errors and inadvertent exposures. An historical perspective, as viewed through the lens of specific disciplines, can be useful to trace systemic responses to safety threats. Early efforts to address anesthesia perioperative risks and recent actions in medicine, surgery, and obstetrics to introduce checklists, communication tools, and systems approaches are reviewed. Patient safety concepts can be utilized and disseminated by toxicologists to improve medication safety and drive innovative approaches to confront patient harm. Various approaches include simulation of high-risk scenarios which might predispose to medication error, assembling multidisciplinary groups of health care providers to review events and implement mitigation strategies, and proactive patient safety rounds in clinical areas to allow frontline staff to voice concerns and introduce solutions for administration, evaluation, and implementation. We review selected lessons from the past and current innovations to achieve safe medication practice.

Segurança do Paciente , Toxicologia/tendências , Simulação por Computador , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Erros Médicos , Erros de Medicação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 4(4): 291-9, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21149230


BACKGROUND: Agents of opportunity (AO) are potentially harmful biological, chemical, radiological, and pharmaceutical substances commonly used for health care delivery and research. AOs are present in all academic medical centers (AMC), creating vulnerability in the health care sector; AO attributes and dissemination methods likely predict risk; and AMCs are inadequately secured against a purposeful AO dissemination, with limited budgets and competing priorities. We explored health care workers' perceptions of AMC security and the impact of those perceptions on AO risk. METHODS: Qualitative methods (survey, interviews, and workshops) were used to collect opinions from staff working in a medical school and 4 AMC-affiliated hospitals concerning AOs and the risk to hospital infrastructure associated with their uncontrolled presence. Secondary to this goal, staff perception concerning security, or opinions about security behaviors of others, were extracted, analyzed, and grouped into themes. RESULTS: We provide a framework for depicting the interaction of staff behavior and access control engineering, including the tendency of staff to "defeat" inconvenient access controls. In addition, 8 security themes emerged: staff security behavior is a significant source of AO risk; the wide range of opinions about "open" front-door policies among AMC staff illustrates a disparity of perceptions about the need for security; interviewees expressed profound skepticism concerning the effectiveness of front-door access controls; an AO risk assessment requires reconsideration of the security levels historically assigned to areas such as the loading dock and central distribution sites, where many AOs are delivered and may remain unattended for substantial periods of time; researchers' view of AMC security is influenced by the ongoing debate within the scientific community about the wisdom of engaging in bioterrorism research; there was no agreement about which areas of the AMC should be subject to stronger access controls; security personnel play dual roles of security and customer service, creating the negative perception that neither role is done well; and budget was described as an important factor in explaining the state of security controls. CONCLUSIONS: We determined that AMCs seeking to reduce AO risk should assess their institutionally unique AO risks, understand staff security perceptions, and install access controls that are responsive to the staff's tendency to defeat them. The development of AO attribute fact sheets is desirable for AO risk assessment; new funding and administrative or legislative tools to improve AMC security are required; and security practices and methods that are convenient and effective should be engineered.

Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Medição de Risco/métodos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Medidas de Segurança , Terrorismo/prevenção & controle , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Hospitais/normas , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 4(4): 318-25, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21149234


Agents of opportunity (AO) in academic medical centers (AMC) are defined as unregulated or lightly regulated substances used for medical research or patient care that can be used as "dual purpose" substances by terrorists to inflict damage upon populations. Most of these agents are used routinely throughout AMC either during research or for general clinical practice. To date, the lack of careful regulations for AOs creates uncertain security conditions and increased malicious potential. Using a consensus-based approach, we collected information and opinions from staff working in an AMC and 4 AMC-affiliated hospitals concerning identification of AO, AO attributes, and AMC risk and preparedness, focusing on AO security and dissemination mechanisms and likely hospital response. The goal was to develop a risk profile and framework for AO in the institution. Agents of opportunity in 4 classes were identified and an AO profile was developed, comprising 16 attributes denoting information critical to preparedness for AO misuse. Agents of opportunity found in AMC present a unique and vital gap in public health preparedness. Findings of this project may provide a foundation for a discussion and consensus efforts to determine a nationally accepted risk profile framework for AO. This foundation may further lead to the implementation of appropriate regulatory policies to improve public health preparedness. Agents of opportunity modeling of dissemination properties should be developed to better predict AO risk.

Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Bioterrorismo/prevenção & controle , Consenso , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco/métodos , Humanos , Prática de Saúde Pública , Medidas de Segurança , Estados Unidos
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 28(2): 409-19, Table of Contents, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20413022


Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been in use since 1987, the initiation of highly active ART has produced an increase in adverse drug reactions. This is a new challenge as many of the adverse drug reactions attributable to ART may be indistinguishable from non-drug-related illnesses. The emergency physician must be aware of the potential complications of ART as affected patients may present with nonspecific symptoms. The focus of this article is the metabolic and hepatobiliary adverse effects of ART.

Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Acidose Láctica/induzido quimicamente , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/etiologia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Lipodistrofia Associada ao HIV/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente