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2.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 31(1): 56-74, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037317

RESUMO

Despite high health expenditures, Lesotho had some of the world's worst health indicators between 2000 and 2014. Official development assistance tripled from $37 to $107 million. PEPFAR funding rose from $3.8 to $32.4 million. Yet, deaths from TB, HIV, infant mortality, and maternal mortality remained unchanged. Lesotho had declining health outcomes amidst increased disease-focused financing and several large infrastructure projects. A World Bank loan financed the state-of-the-art Mamohato Hospital, and the U.S.-supported $362.5 million Millennium Challenge Corporation Project supported primary and secondary health infrastructure. This analysis uses the WHO Health Systems Framework to explore the unintended consequences of health financing on Lesotho's health outcomes. The WHO Health Systems Framework can be used to optimize health financing through investments in health service delivery, health workforce, health information, essential medicines, leadership, and equitable financial strategies. This approach can support governments to achieve universal health coverage and develop comprehensive health systems.

7.
Rev Afr Polit Econ ; 45(158): 522-540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772418

RESUMO

This article explores the relationship between the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak and the political economy of diamond mining in Kono District, Sierra Leone. The authors argue that foreign companies have recycled colonial strategies of indirect rule to facilitate the illicit flow of resources out of Sierra Leone. Drawing on field research conducted during the outbreak and in its aftermath, they show how this 'indirect rule redux' undermines democratic governance and the development of revenue-generation institutions. Finally, they consider the linkages between indirect rule and the Ebola outbreak, vis-à-vis the consequences of the region's intentionally underdeveloped health care infrastructure and the scaffolding of outbreak containment onto the paramount chieftaincy system.

8.
BMJ ; 367: l5894, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between phenotypic drug resistance and the risk of tuberculosis infection and disease among household contacts of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. SETTING: 106 district health centers in Lima, Peru between September 2009 and September 2012. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 10 160 household contacts of 3339 index patients with tuberculosis were classified on the basis of the drug resistance profile of the patient: 6189 were exposed to drug susceptible strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 1659 to strains resistant to isoniazid or rifampicin, and 1541 to strains that were multidrug resistant (resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tuberculosis infection (positive tuberculin skin test) and the incidence of active disease (diagnosed by positive sputum smear or chest radiograph) after 12 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Household contacts exposed to patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis had an 8% (95% confidence interval 4% to 13%) higher risk of infection by the end of follow-up compared with household contacts of patients with drug sensitive tuberculosis. The relative hazard of incident tuberculosis disease did not differ among household contacts exposed to multidrug resistant tuberculosis and those exposed to drug sensitive tuberculosis (adjusted hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.83). CONCLUSION: Household contacts of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis were at higher risk of tuberculosis infection than contacts exposed to drug sensitive tuberculosis. The risk of developing tuberculosis disease did not differ among contacts in both groups. The evidence invites guideline producers to take action by targeting drug resistant and drug sensitive tuberculosis, such as early detection and effective treatment of infection and disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00676754.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/transmissão , Tuberculose Pulmonar/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Escarro/microbiologia , Teste Tuberculínico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 55, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Girl child marriage, a formal union of a female before age 18, and undernutrition remain common in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to establish the extent to which girl child marriage contributes to socioeconomic status and underweight, a measure of undernutrition, among adult women. METHODS: We used data from 103 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), representing 35 African countries from 1991 to 2014. Girl child marriage was coded both as a binary variable (before 18 years) and categorical variable (before 14, 14 to 15 years, 16 to 17 years). The primary outcome was underweight (body mass index less than 18·5). Secondary outcomes were early and multiple childbearing, secondary education completion, and wealth index. Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations. RESULTS: Fifty-five percent of women married before age 18. Girl child marriage was associated with reduced risk of being underweight both in models adjusted for basic confounders (risk difference = - 0.020, 95% CI [- 0.026, - 0.014], p < 0.01) and in models adjusted for childbearing, women's relative status, and socioeconomic outcomes (risk difference = - 0.018, 95% CI [- 0.024, - 0.011], p < 0.01). Conditional on completing primary education and community fixed-effects, women married before 18 years had an increased risk of early motherhood (risk difference = 0.38, 95% CI [0.38, 0.38], p < 0.01) and of being in the poorest quintile (risk difference = 0.024, 95% CI [0.012, 0.036], p < 0.01), and were 27 percentage points less likely to complete secondary education (risk difference = - 0.27, 95% CI [- 0.28, - 0.26)], p < 001), compared to women married as adults. CONCLUSIONS: Though associated with substantially reduced socioeconomic status, girl child marriage appears to be associated with slightly reduced risk of being underweight in the population studied. Further research is needed to understand the determinants of undernutrition in this context as well as the broader relationship between socioeconomic status and nutritional outcomes.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Casamento/psicologia , Classe Social , Magreza/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 3(2): e000674, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662695

RESUMO

Introduction: Although Rwanda's health system underwent major reforms and improvements after the 1994 Genocide, the health system and population health in the southeast lagged behind other areas. In 2005, Partners In Health and the Rwandan Ministry of Health began a health system strengthening intervention in this region. We evaluate potential impacts of the intervention on maternal and child health indicators. Methods: Combining results from the 2005 and 2010 Demographic and Health Surveys with those from a supplemental 2010 survey, we compared changes in health system output indicators and population health outcomes between 2005 and 2010 as reported by women living in the intervention area with those reported by the pooled population of women from all other rural areas of the country, controlling for potential confounding by economic and demographic variables. Results: Overall health system coverage improved similarly in the comparison groups between 2005 and 2010, with an indicator of composite coverage of child health interventions increasing from 57.9% to 75.0% in the intervention area and from 58.7% to 73.8% in the other rural areas. Under-five mortality declined by an annual rate of 12.8% in the intervention area, from 229.8 to 83.2 deaths per 1000 live births, and by 8.9% in other rural areas, from 157.7 to 75.8 deaths per 1000 live births. Improvements were most marked among the poorest households. Conclusion: We observed dramatic improvements in population health outcomes including under-five mortality between 2005 and 2010 in rural Rwanda generally and in the intervention area specifically.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 30: 217-224, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors are at risk for uveitis during convalescence. Vision loss has been observed following uveitis due to cataracts. Since Ebola virus (EBOV) may persist in the ocular fluid of EVD survivors for an unknown duration, there are questions about the safety and feasibility of vision restorative cataract surgery in EVD survivors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of EVD survivors anticipating cataract surgery and patients with active uveitis to evaluate EBOV RNA persistence in ocular fluid, as well as vision outcomes post cataract surgery. Patients with aqueous humor that tested negative for EBOV RNA were eligible to proceed with manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS). FINDINGS: We screened 137 EVD survivors from June 2016 - August 2017 for enrolment. We enrolled 50 EVD survivors; 46 with visually significant cataract, 1 with a subluxated lens, 2 with active uveitis and 1 with a blind painful eye due to uveitis. The median age was 24.0years (IQR 17-35) and 35 patients (70%) were female. The median logMAR visual acuity (VA) was 3.0 (Snellen VA Hand motions; Interquartile Range, IQR: 1.2-3.0, Snellen VA 20/320 - Hand motions). All patients tested negative for EBOV RNA by RT-PCR in aqueous humor/vitreous fluid and conjunctiva at a median of 19months (IQR 18-20) from EVD diagnosis in Phase 1 of ocular fluid sampling and 34months (IQR 32-36) from EVD diagnosis in Phase 2 of ocular fluid sampling. Thirty-four patients underwent MSICS, with a preoperative median VA improvement from hand motions to 20/30 at three-month postoperative follow-up (P<0.001). INTERPRETATION: EBOV persistence by RT-PCR was not identified in ocular fluid or conjunctivae of fifty EVD survivors with ocular disease. Cataract surgery can be performed safely with vision restorative outcomes in patients who test negative for EBOV RNA in ocular fluid specimens. These findings impact the thousands of West African EVD survivors at-risk for ocular complications who may also require eye surgery during EVD convalescence.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Extração de Catarata , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Olho/virologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Sobreviventes , Adolescente , Adulto , Catarata , Olho/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Serra Leoa , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 98(5): 1484-1488, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557329

RESUMO

Studies have shown that people suffering from food insecurity are at higher risk for infectious and noncommunicable diseases and have poorer health outcomes. No study, however, has examined the association between food insecurity and outcomes related to Ebola virus disease (EVD). We conducted a cross-sectional study in two Ebola-affected communities in Kono district, Sierra Leone, from November 2015 to September 2016. We enrolled persons who were determined to have been exposed to Ebola virus. We assessed the association of food insecurity, using an adapted version of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, a nine-item scale well validated across Africa, with having been diagnosed with EVD and having died of EVD, using logistic regression models with cluster-adjusted standard errors. We interviewed 326 persons who were exposed to Ebola virus; 61 (19%) were diagnosed with EVD and 45/61 (74%) died. We found high levels (87%) of food insecurity, but there was no association between food insecurity and having been diagnosed with EVD. Among EVD cases, those who were food insecure had 18.3 times the adjusted odds of death than those who were food secure (P = 0.03). This is the first study to demonstrate a potential relationship between food insecurity and having died of EVD, although larger prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Serra Leoa , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Lab Med ; 38(1): 101-117, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29412874

RESUMO

The diagnostic laboratory is essential to patient care and to the achievement of health equity. Through the development of quality laboratories in settings burdened by poverty and weak health systems, Partners In Health has demonstrated the critical contributions of clinical laboratories to the care of patients with HIV, tuberculosis, and cancer, among other conditions. The lessons learned through the organization's experience include the importance of well-trained and well-supported staff; reliable access to supplies, reagents, and diagnostic equipment; adequate facilities to provide diagnostic services; the integration of laboratories into networks of care; and accompaniment of the public health sector.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , Haiti , Humanos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/terapia , Patologia , Ruanda , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/terapia
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