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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(40): e27484, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622879

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Despite the anticipated growth in the global burden of obesity especially in low-income countries, limited data exist on the contribution of obesity to cardiometabolic diseases in Africa.We examined population-based samples of Kenyan adults who participated in the 2015 national chronic disease risk factor surveillance survey. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated and used as a measure for general obesity. Waist circumference (WC), a clinical measure of central obesity was also measured. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between obesity with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia risk.Of the 4276 participants, the median (IQR) age was 36 (27-47) years, 41% were men. One-third (37%) of the participants were centrally obese, whereas 10% were generally obese. The odds for overweight and general obesity were highest among females, adults >40 years, and those in the highest wealth quartile. Central and general obesity, assessed by WC and BMI, were associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia but not diabetes for both sexes. Compared with adults of normal weight, individuals with a BMI of ≥30 kg/m2 had an odds ratio of 2.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82-3.12) for hypertension and 2.24 (95% CI, 1.70-2.96) for dyslipidemia.Obesity prevalence is high in Kenya and is associated with hypertension and dyslipidemia but not diabetes. Our findings indicate an urgent need to develop public health interventions to address obesity and prevent the development of comorbid conditions.

2.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 4(4): e00292, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505404

RESUMO

AIMS: As survival among people living with HIV (PLHIV) improves with universal HIV treatment, new strategies are needed to support management of co-morbidities like type 2 diabetes (T2D). We assessed prediabetes and T2D prevalence and risk factors using haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among PLHIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Central Kenya. METHODS: This cross-sectional study, conducted at a rural and urban site, enrolled PLHIV aged ≥35 years on ART for at least 5 years. HbA1c was assayed using Cobas b 101® , a point-of-care device. HbA1c levels ≥6.5% were considered diagnostic of T2D. For pre-diabetic HbA1c levels (5.7%-6.4%), participants were requested to return the following day for a fasting blood glucose (FBG) to rule out T2D. Risk factors were assessed using multivariable log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Of the 600 completing study procedures, the prevalence of diabetes was 5% (30/600). Ten participants were known to have diabetes; thus, prevalence of newly diagnosed T2D was 3.4% (20/590). Prevalence of prediabetes (HbA1c 5.7%-6.4%) was 14.2% (84/590). Significant predictors of elevated HbA1c were increase in age (Prevalence ratio [PR]: 1.10, CI: 1.02, 1.18, p = .012), hypertension (PR: 1.43, CI: 1.07-2.3, p = .015), central adiposity (PR: 2.11, CI: 1.57-2.84, p < .001) and use of Efavirenz (PR: 2.09, CI: 1.48, 2.96, p < .001). CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of prediabetes, a significant predictor of T2D, among PLHIV in Central Kenya. Point-of-care HbA1c may help identify PLHIV with prediabetes in a single screening visit and provide an opportunity for early intervention.

3.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(Suppl): 18-24, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447419

RESUMO

Background: Adequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key to the successful treatment of children and adolescents living with HIV. Continuous ART Adherence is the key factor for virologic suppression and stability of the immune system and prevents the occurrence of opportunistic infections. Children and adolescents struggle with adherence to ART for various reasons, including a poor psychosocial support system and clinic attendance. Objectives: To describe the uptake of HIV treatment services among children and adolescents in the Mbita Sub-County Hospital, Homa Bay and determine how schooling, clinic attendance, and type of pill/regimen affect adherence to ART and viral suppression. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at the Mbita Sub-County Hospital. Medical chart data was abstracted from the hospital files of children and adolescents between the ages of 0-19 years on antiretroviral therapy, between the periods of October 2016 and September, 2017. Data was analyzed using measures of central tendency, and cross-tabulations were done to compare schooling, clinic attendance, type of pill/regimen and viral suppression. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between groups. Results: According to patient files reviewed, majority of patients, 244(91.4%) were enrolled into care within 2 weeks of HIV diagnosis according to guidelines, and 193(73.1 %) remained enrolled in care at end of study period. An overall viral suppression of 74.2 %( 132) was recorded. Of all the files reviewed, 121(74.7%) of patients attending school suppressed against 11(68.8 %) out of school, p=0.280. Suppression among Day and boarding reported at 78.6 %( 11) and 74.8 %( 113) of those out of school, respectively, p=0.533. Participants in primary school, 17(85.0%) suppressed better than those in secondary school, 102(73.4%), p=0.263. Keeping clinic appointments among eligible patient files reviewed decreased from 83.1% at 3 months, p=0.016, to 76.6%, p=0.526 at 6 months and to 52.9% at 12 months, p=0.278. Only 3- month clinic appointment return rates and Enhanced Adherence Counseling (EAC) were significant predictors of viral supression χ2 (2) = 0.280, p = 0.869 (> 0.05). Conclusion: The clinic attendance rate within the first 3 months, and Enhanced Adherence Counseling (EAC) were significant predictors of viral suppression, and therefore adherence to antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
5.
HIV Med ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, adult outpatients with symptoms of acute infectious illness are not routinely tested for prevalent or acute HIV infection (AHI) when seeking healthcare. METHODS: Adult symptomatic outpatients aged 18-39 years were evaluated by a consensus AHI risk score. Patients with a risk score ≥ 2 and no previous HIV diagnosis were enrolled in a stepped-wedge trial of opt-out delivery of point-of-care (POC) HIV-1 nucleic acid testing (NAAT), compared with standard provider-initiated HIV testing using rapid tests in the observation period. The primary outcome was the number of new diagnoses in each study period. Generalized estimating equations with a log-binomial link and robust variance estimates were used to account for clustering by health facility. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03508908. RESULTS: Between 2017 and 2020, 13 (0.9%) out of 1374 participants in the observation period and 37 (2.5%) out of 1500 participants in the intervention period were diagnosed with HIV infection. Of the 37 newly diagnosed cases in the intervention period, two (5.4%) had AHI. Participants in the opt-out intervention had a two-fold greater odds of being diagnosed with HIV (odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.39-3.51) after adjustment for factors imbalanced across study periods. CONCLUSIONS: Among symptomatic adults aged 18-39 years targeted by our POC NAAT intervention, we identified one chronic HIV infection for every 40 patients and one AHI patient for every 750 patients tested. Although AHI yield was low in this population, routinely offered opt-out testing could diagnose twice as many patients as an approach relying on provider discretion.

6.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; : 108587, 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Kenya is estimated to be 18% compared to 4.5% in the general population. Studies from high-income countries have demonstrated that methadone use is associated with increased uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and higher rates of viral suppression among PWID with HIV. However, it is unclear whether methadone use has the same effect among African PWID living with HIV. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate associations between methadone program participation and ART uptake and viral suppression (HIV RNA viral load <1000 copies/ml) among PWID with HIV in Kenya. Participants were recruited from needle and syringe programs and methadone clinics, interviewed on site, and samples were obtained and assayed for HIV viral loads. Univariate and multiple logistic regression were used to determine associations. RESULTS: Among 679 participants, median age was 37 years, 48% were female, and 24% were in a methadone program. We observed higher proportions of ART use (96% vs. 87%, p = 0.001) and HIV viral suppression (78% vs. 65%, p = 0.012) among PWID on methadone compared to those not on methadone treatment. PWID who were not participating in a methadone program were 3-fold more likely to be off ART and approximately twice as likely to be viremic compared to those in methadone programs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-8.35 and aOR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.03-3.52, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, Kenyan PWID living with HIV participating in a methadone treatment program were more likely to be on ART and to have achieved viral suppression. Scale-up of methadone programs may have a positive impact on HIV epidemic control for this key population.

7.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307064

RESUMO

Objectives: The changing global landscape of disease and public health crises, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic, call for a new generation of global health leaders. As global health leadership programs evolve, many have incorporated experiential learning and mentoring (ELM) components into their structure. However, there has been incomplete consideration on how ELM activities are deployed, what challenges they face and how programs adapt to meet those challenges. This paper builds on the co-authors' experiences as trainees, trainers, organizers and evaluators of six global health leadership programs to reflect on lessons learned regarding ELM. We also consider ethics, technology, gender, age and framing that influence how ELM activities are developed and implemented. Findings: Despite the diverse origins and funding of these programs, all six are focused on training participants from low- and middle-income countries drawing on a diversity of professions. Each program uses mixed didactic approaches, practice-based placements, competency and skills-driven curricula, and mentorship via various modalities. Main metrics for success include development of trainee networks, acquisition of skills and formation of relationships; programs that included research training had specific research metrics as well. Common challenges the programs face include ensuring clarity of expectations of all participants and mentors; maintaining connection among trainees; meeting the needs of trainee cohorts with different skill sets and starting points; and ensuring trainee cohorts capture age, gender and other forms of diversity. Conclusions: ELM activities for global health leadership are proving even more critical now as the importance of effective individual leaders in responding to crises becomes evident. Future efforts for ELM in global health leadership should emphasize local adaptation and sustainability. Practice-based learning and established mentoring relationships provide the building blocks for competent leaders to navigate complex dynamics with the flexibility and conscientiousness needed to improve the health of global populations. Key Takeaways: Experiential learning and mentorship activities within global health leadership programs provide the hands-on practice and support that the next generation of global health leaders need to address the health challenges of our times.Six global health leadership programs with experiential learning and mentorship components are showcased to highlight differences and similarities in their approaches and capture a broad picture of achievements that can help inform future programs.Emphasis on inter-professional training, mixed-learning approaches and mentorship modalities were common across programs. Both individual capacity building and development of trainees' professional networks were seen as critical, reflecting the value of inter-personal connections for long-term leadership success.During program design, future programs should recognize the "frame" within which the program will be incorporated and intentionally address diversity-in all its forms-during recruitment as well as consider North-South ethics, leadership roles, hierarchies and transition plans.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Saúde Global/educação , Liderança , Tutoria/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Competência Clínica , Países em Desenvolvimento , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Tutoria/organização & administração , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/organização & administração , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos
8.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 66, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307069

RESUMO

Introduction: Partnerships are essential to creating effective global health leadership training programs. Global pandemics, including the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and more recently the COVID-19 pandemic, have tested the impact and stability of healthcare systems. Partnerships must be fostered to prepare the next generation of leaders to collaborate effectively and improve health globally. Objectives: We provide key matrices that predict success of partnerships in building global health leadership capacity. We highlight opportunities and challenges to building effective partnerships and provide recommendations to promote development of equitable and mutually beneficial partnerships. Findings: Critical elements for effective partnership when building global health leadership capacity include shared strategic vision, transparency and excellent communication, as well as intentional monitoring and evaluation of the partnership, not just the project or program. There must be recognition that partnerships can be unpredictable and unequal, especially if the end is not defined early on. Threats to equitable and effective partnerships include funding and co-funding disparities between partners from high-income and low-income countries, inequalities, unshared vision and priorities, skewed decision-making levels, and limited flexibility to minimize inequalities and make changes. Further, imbalances in power, privilege, position, income levels, and institutional resources create opportunities for exploitation of partners, particularly those in low-income countries, which widens the disparities and limits success and sustainability of partnerships. These challenges to effective partnering create the need for objective documentation of disparities at all stages, with key milestones to assess success and the environment to sustain the partnerships and their respective goals. Conclusions: Developing effective and sustainable partnerships requires a commitment to equality from the start by all partners and an understanding that there will be challenges that could derail otherwise well-intended partnerships. Guidelines and training on evaluation of partnerships exist and should be used, including generic indicators of equity, mutual benefit, and the added value of partnering. Key Takeaways: Effective partnerships in building global health leadership capacity require shared strategic vision and intentional monitoring and evaluation of goalsInequalities in partnerships may arise from disparities in infrastructure, managerial expertise, administrative and leadership capacity, as well as limited mutual benefit and mutual respectTo promote equitable and effective partnerships, it is critical to highlight and monitor key measures for success of partnerships at the beginning of each partnership and regularly through the lifetime of the partnership.We recommend that partnerships should have legal and financial laws through executed memoranda of understanding, to promote accountability and facilitate objective monitoring and evaluation of the partnership itself.More research is needed to understand better the contextual predictors of the broader influence and sustainability of partnership networks in global health leadership training.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Cooperação Internacional , Liderança , Parcerias Público-Privadas/organização & administração , Comunicação , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Participação dos Interessados
10.
Acad Emerg Med ; 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergency departments (ED) interface with large numbers of patients that are often missed by conventional HIV testing approaches. ED-based HIV self-testing (HIVST) is an innovative engagement approach which has potential for testing gains among populations that have failed to be reached. This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluated acceptability and uptake of HIVST, as compared to standard provider-delivered testing approaches, among patients seeking care in ED settings. METHODS: Six electronic databases were systematically searched (Dates: January 1990-May 2021). Reports with data on HIVST acceptability and/or testing uptake in ED settings were included. Two reviewers identified eligible records (κ= 0.84); quality was assessed using formalized criteria. Acceptability and testing uptake metrics were summarized, and pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models with assessments of heterogeneity. RESULTS: Of 5773 records identified, seven met inclusion criteria. The cumulative sample was 1942 subjects, drawn from three randomized control trials (RCTs) and four cross-sectional studies. Four reports assessed HIVST acceptability. Pooled acceptability of self-testing was 92.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88.0%-97.1%). Data from two RCTs demonstrated that HIVST significantly increased testing uptake as compared to standard programs (risk ratio [RR] = 4.41, 95% CI: 1.95-10.10, I2  = 25.8%). Overall, the quality of evidence was low (42.9%) or very low (42.9%), with one report of moderate quality (14.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Available data indicate that HIVST may be acceptable and may increase testing among patients seeking emergency care, suggesting that expanding ED-based HIVST programs could enhance HIV diagnosis. However, given the limitations of the reports, additional research is needed to better inform the evidence base.

11.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(4): e13194, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949782

RESUMO

Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first 6 months of life improves survival, growth and development. In Kenya, recent legislation and policies advocate for maternity leave and workplace support for breastfeeding and breast milk expression. We conducted a qualitative study to describe factors influencing EBF for 6 months among mothers employed in commercial agriculture and tourism. We interviewed employed mothers (n = 42), alternate caregivers and employed mothers' husbands (n = 20), healthcare providers (n = 21), daycare directors (n = 22) and commercial flower farm and hotel managers (n = 16) in Naivasha, Kenya. Despite recognizing the recommended duration for EBF, employed mothers describe the early cessation of EBF in preparation for their return to work. Managers reported supporting mothers through flexible work hours and duties. Yet, few workplaces have lactation spaces, and most considered adjusting schedules more feasible than breastfeeding during work. Managers and healthcare providers believed milk expression could prolong EBF but thought mothers lack experience with pumping. The most frequently suggested interventions for improving EBF duration were to expand schedule flexibility (100% of groups), provide on-site daycare (80% of groups) and workplace lactation rooms (60% of groups), improve milk expression education and increase maternity leave length (60% of groups). Returning to work corresponds with numerous challenges including lack of proximate or on-site childcare and low support for and experience with milk expression. These factors currently make EBF for 6 months unattainable for most mothers in these industries. Interventions and supports to improve breastfeeding upon return to work are recommended to strengthen employed mothers' opportunity for EBF.


Assuntos
Extração de Leite , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Mães , Gravidez , Local de Trabalho
12.
AIDS ; 35(11): 1723-1731, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Heightened systemic inflammation is common in obese individuals and persons with HIV (PWH) and is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We investigated the combined effect of central obesity, a surrogate measure of visceral fat and HIV on circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines among Kenyan adults. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: We analysed and compared data from 287 virally suppressed PWH and 277 noninfected Kenyan adults, including biomarkers of gut epithelial dysfunction (intestinal fatty acid binding protein), monocyte activation (soluble CD163 and CD14) and inflammation [interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and hsCRP] by HIV/central obesity status (HIV-positive/obese, HIV-negative/obese, HIV-positive/nonobese and HIV-negative/nonobese). Central obesity was defined as waist circumference more than 80 cm for women and more than 94 cm for men. We assessed the association of HIV/obesity status with elevated biomarkers (>75th percentile) using logistic regression. RESULTS: Median age for participants was 44 years and 37% were centrally obese. Levels of all biomarkers were higher among the HIV-positive/obese compared with the HIV-negative/nonobese (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). The HIV-positive/obese group had the greatest odds of having elevated inflammatory biomarkers compared with other groups even after adjustment of age, BMI and other conventional CVD risk factors (P < 0.05 for all). Additional adjustment for sCD163 in the multivariate model substantially attenuated the association for HIV-positive/obesity with IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α but not hsCRP. The contribution of HIV-positive/obesity to inflammation was independent of the degree of immunosuppression. CONCLUSION: Central obesity is prevalent among virally suppressed African PWH and is associated with greater inflammation and monocyte activation independent of other comorbidities and HIV-specific factors.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Obesidade Abdominal , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Monócitos , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia
13.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(5): e27262, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014172

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the effective scale-up of HIV testing and treatment programs, only 75% of people living with HIV (PLWH) globally know their status, and this rate is lower among men. This highlights the importance of implementing HIV testing and linkage interventions with a high uptake in this population. In a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in Kenya between 2013 and 2015, we found that assisted partner services (APS) for HIV-exposed partners of newly diagnosed PLWH safely reached more HIV-exposed individuals with HIV testing compared with client referral alone. However, more data are needed to evaluate APS implementation in a real-world setting. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness, acceptability, fidelity, and cost of APS when integrated into existing HIV testing services (HTS) in Western Kenya. METHODS: Our study team from the University of Washington and PATH is integrating APS into 31 health facilities in Western Kenya. We are enrolling females newly diagnosed with HIV (index clients) who consent to receiving APS, their male sexual partners, and female sexual partners of male sexual partners who tested HIV positive. Female index clients and sexual partners testing HIV positive will be followed up at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months postenrollment to assess linkage to care, antiretroviral therapy initiation, and HIV viral load suppression. We will evaluate the acceptability, fidelity, and cost of real-world implementation of APS via in-depth interviews conducted with national, county, and subcounty-level policy makers responsible for HTS. Facility health staff providing HTS and APS, in addition to staff working with the study project team, will also be interviewed. We will also conduct direct observations of facility infrastructure and clinical procedures and extract data from the facilities and county and national databases. RESULTS: As of March 2020, we have recruited 1724 female index clients, 3201 male partners, and 1585 female partners. We have completed study recruitment as well as 6-week (2936/2973, 98.75%), 6-month (1596/1641, 97.25%), and 12-month (725/797, 90.9%) follow-up visits. Preliminary analyses show that facilities scaling up APS identify approximately 12-18 new HIV-positive males for every 100 men contacted and tested. We are currently completing the remaining follow-up interviews and incorporating an HIV self-testing component into the study in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The results will help bridge the gap between clinical research findings and real-world practice and provide guidance regarding optimal strategies for APS integration into routine HIV service delivery. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/27262.

14.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e041083, 2021 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895711

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Targeted, tailored interventions to test high-risk individuals for HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are vital to achieving HIV control and HCV microelimination in Africa. Compared with the general population, people who inject drugs (PWID) are at increased risk of HIV and HCV and are less likely to be tested or successfully treated. Assisted partner services (APS) increases HIV testing among partners of people living with HIV and improves case finding and linkage to care. We describe a study in Kenya examining whether APS can be adapted to find, test and link to HIV care the partners of HIV-positive PWID using a network of community-embedded peer educators (PEs). Our study also identifies HCV-positive partners and uses phylogenetic analysis to determine risk factors for onward transmission of both viruses. METHODS: This prospective cohort study leverages a network of PEs to identify 1000 HIV-positive PWID for enrolment as index participants. Each index completes a questionnaire and provides names and contact information of all sexual and injecting partners during the previous 3 years. PEs then use a stepwise locator protocol to engage partners in the community and bring them to study sites for enrolment, questionnaire completion and rapid HIV and HCV testing. Outcomes include number and type of partners per index who are mentioned, enrolled, tested, diagnosed with HIV and HCV and linked to care. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Potential index participants are screened for intimate partner violence (IPV) and those at high risk are not eligible to enrol. Those at medium risk are monitored for IPV following enrolment. A community advisory board engages in feedback and discussion between the community and the research team. A safety monitoring board discusses study progress and reviews data, including IPV monitoring data. Dissemination plans include presentations at quarterly Ministry of Health meetings, local and international conferences and publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03447210, Pre-results stage.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Estudos de Coortes , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Quênia , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e24800, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725834

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: There is increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Dyslipidemia is a well-known CVD risk factor which has been associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment in high-income countries. Studies in SSA that have examined the relationship between HIV and dyslipidemia have reported mixed results. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of dyslipidemia in HIV positive and negative adults (>=30 years old) and evaluate for association in Western Kenya with a higher prevalence expected among HIV positive individuals.HIV positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV negative individuals seeking HIV testing and counseling services were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Demographic and behavioral data and fasting blood samples were collected. Dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Associations between baseline demographic and clinical variables and dyslipidemia were analyzed using logistic regression.A total of 598 participants, 300 HIV positive and 298 HIV negative adults were enrolled. Dyslipidemia data was available for 564 (94%) participants. In total, 267 (47%) had dyslipidemia. This was not significantly different between HIV positive and HIV negative individuals (46% vs 49%, P = .4). In a multivariate analysis including both HIV positive and negative individuals, adults 50 to 59 years of age had a 2-fold increased risk of dyslipidemia (Odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence interval (1.2-3.5) when compared to 30 to 39-years-old participants. Abdominal obesity (OR 2.5), being overweight (OR 1.9), and low fruit and vegetable intake (OR 2.2) were significantly associated with dyslipidemia. Among HIV positive participants, time since HIV diagnosis, ART duration, use of (PI) protease inhibitor-based ART, viral load suppression, current cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and nadir CD4 did not have significant associations with dyslipidemia.The prevalence of dyslipidemia is high in Western Kenya, with nearly half of all participants with lipid abnormalities. Dyslipidemia was not significantly associated with HIV status, or with HIV-specific factors. Older age, being overweight, abdominal obesity, and low fruit and vegetable intake were associated with dyslipidemia and may be targets for public health interventions to lower the prevalence of dyslipidemia and CVD risk in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Frutas , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Soropositividade para HIV/imunologia , Soropositividade para HIV/virologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Verduras , Carga Viral
16.
Matern Child Health J ; 25(5): 724-730, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is the optimal way to feed young infants. Guidelines recommend that women living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy should EBF for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for up to 24 months or longer. Parents may face social or logistical barriers creating challenges to EBF. OBJECTIVES: To explore barriers, facilitators and community norms influencing EBF practices in Kenya. METHODS: This qualitative research was nested within a longitudinal study of intensive maternal counseling to increase EBF among HIV-positive mothers. HIV-negative and HIV-positive mothers were recruited from four public clinics in Nairobi. Women participated in focus group discussions (FGDs) that explored beliefs about and experiences with infant feeding. Conventional content analysis was used to describe and compare barriers and facilitators influencing HIV-positive and HIV-negative women's EBF experiences. RESULTS: We conducted 17 FGDs with 80 HIV-positive and 53 HIV-negative women between 2009 and 2012. Overall, women agreed that breastmilk is good for infants. However, early mixed feeding was a common cultural practice. HIV-positive women perceived that infant feeding methods and durations were their decision. In contrast, HIV-negative women reported less autonomy and more mixed feeding, citing peer pressure and lack of HIV transmission concerns. Autonomy in decision-making was facilitated by receiving EBF counseling and family support, especially from male partners. Low milk production was a barrier to EBF, regardless of HIV status, and perceived to represent poor maternal nutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Despite challenges, counseling empowered women living with HIV to advocate for EBF with spouses and family.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis has been linked to an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We assessed whether latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is associated with subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in two TB-prevalent areas. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from studies conducted in Lima, Peru, and Kampala, Uganda. Individuals ≥40 years old were included. We excluded persons with known history of ASCVD events or active TB. Participants underwent QuantiFERON®-TB (QFT) testing to define LTBI, and computed tomography angiography to examine coronary atherosclerosis. A Coronary Artery Disease-Reporting Data System (CAD-RADS) score ≥3 defined obstructive CAD (plaque causing ≥50% stenosis). RESULTS: 113 persons with LTBI and 91 persons without LTBI were included. There were no significant differences between LTBI and non-LTBI participants in terms of age (median [interquartile range]; 56 [51-62] vs. 55 [49-64], p=0.829), male sex (38% vs. 42%; p=0.519), or 10-year ASCVD risk scores (7.1 [3.2-11.7] vs. 6.1 [2.8-10.8]; p=0.533). CAD prevalence (any plaque) was similar between groups (29% vs. 24%; p=0.421). Obstructive CAD was present in 9% of LTBI and 3% of non-LTBI individuals; p=0.095. LTBI was associated with obstructive CAD after adjusting for ASCVD risk score, HIV status, and study site (adjusted odds ratio, 4.96, 95% CI 1.05-23.44; p=0.043). Quantitative QFT TB antigen minus nil interferon-gamma responses were associated with obstructive CAD (adjusted odds ratio, 1.2, 95% CI 1.03-1.41; p=0.022). CONCLUSIONS: LTBI was independently associated with an increased likelihood of subclinical obstructive CAD. Our data indicates that LTBI is a non-traditional correlate of ASCVD risk.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2034-e2042, 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33313687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation independently predicts future cardiovascular events and is associated with a 2-fold increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). We examined the association between inflammatory markers, HIV status, and traditional CVD risk factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Kenyan adults with and without HIV seeking care at Kisumu County Hospital. Using a multiplex immunoassay, we measured interleukin (IL) 1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentrations. We compared inflammatory marker concentrations by HIV status using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate associations between inflammatory biomarkers and HIV status, adjusting for CVD risk factors. RESULTS: We enrolled 286 PLHIV and 277 HIV-negative participants. Median duration of antiretroviral therapy for PLHIV was 8 years (interquartile range, 4-10) and 96% were virally suppressed. PLHIV had a 51% higher mean IL-6 concentration (P < .001), 39% higher mean IL-1ß (P = .005), 40% higher mean TNF-α (P < .001), and 27% higher mean hsCRP (P = .008) compared with HIV-negative participants, independent of CVD risk factors. Male sex, older age, and obesity were associated with higher concentrations of inflammatory markers. Restricting to PLHIV, viral load of ≥1000 copies/mL was associated with higher TNF-α levels (P = .013). CONCLUSIONS: We found higher levels of systemic inflammatory biomarkers among PLHIV who were virally suppressed, and this was independent of traditional CVD risk factors. Further longitudinal analyses to determine whether these inflammatory markers predict future CVD events, and are possible therapeutic targets among PLHIV, are warranted.

19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(1): 56-61, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Assisted partner services (aPS) involves notification and HIV testing for sexual partners of persons diagnosed HIV-positive (index clients). Because the impact of aPS is contingent on high acceptance, we assessed characteristics and reasons for nonenrollment among female index clients in an ongoing scale-up project. METHODS: We analyzed data from HIV-positive females offered aPS in 31 facilities from May 2018 to August 2019. We compared sociodemographic characteristics by aPS enrollment (accepted, refused, and ineligible) and used multivariate binomial regression to assess associations between demographics and refusal. RESULTS: Twenty-four thousand four hundred eighteen females received HIV testing and 1050 (4.3%) tested HIV-positive; 839 females enrolled in aPS (80%), 59 refused (6%), and 152 were ineligible (14%). APS uptake did not differ by age, testing history, or testing type (provider initiated vs. client initiated). Females refusing aPS were more likely to have completed secondary school [adjusted relative risk (aRR) 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13 to 2.82] and be divorced/separated (aRR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.39 to 6.86) or single (aRR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.31 to 5.42) compared with married/cohabitating. Reasons for refusing aPS included not feeling emotionally ready (31%) and reporting no sexual partners in past 3 years (22%). Reasons for ineligibility included fear or risk of intimate partner violence (9%), previous HIV diagnosis (9%), or insufficient time for aPS provision (3%). CONCLUSIONS: APS has high acceptability among HIV-positive females regardless of age or testing history. More counseling may be needed to increase uptake among females with higher education and those who are separated/single. Follow-up for females not emotionally ready or who had insufficient time for aPS in their clinic visit can improve coverage.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por HIV , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo , Quênia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
AIDS ; 35(1): 45-51, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Markers of monocyte/macrophage activation and vascular inflammation are associated with HIV-related cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mortality. We compared these markers among African people living with HIV (PLWH) and HIV-negative adults, and examined risk factors associated with elevated biomarkers (>75th percentile) in PLWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: We measured serum concentrations of a gut integrity biomarker (intestinal-fatty acid binding protein), monocyte/macrophage activation biomarkers (soluble CD14 and CD163), and vascular inflammation biomarkers [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1)]. We assessed the relationship of these inflammatory parameters with HIV, using logistic regression adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors. RESULTS: Among the 541 participants, median age was 43 years and half were female. Among 275 PLWH, median CD4 T-cell count and duration of ART use was 509 cells/µl and 8 years, respectively. PLWH had significantly higher prevalence of elevated inflammatory biomarkers compared with HIV-negative individuals even after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors. Compared with individuals without HIV, the prevalence of elevated biomarkers was highest among persons with detectable viral load and CD4 T-cell counts 200 cells/µl or less. In a subanalysis among PLWH, nadir CD4 T-cell count 200 cells/µl or less was associated with elevated soluble CD14 (sCD14); dyslipidemia with elevated sCD14, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1; and overweight/obesity with reduced sCD14. Longer ART exposure (>4 years) was associated with reduced sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1. CONCLUSION: HIV and not traditional CVD risk factors is a primary contributor of monocyte/macrophage activation and inflammation despite ART. Anti-inflammatory therapies in addition to ART may be necessary to reduce these immune dysregulations and improve health outcomes of African PLWH.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos , Carga Viral
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