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1.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 32: 122-34, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302920

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Consenso , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta , Peixes , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Espanha
2.
Nutr Hosp ; 31 Suppl 2: 1-9, 2015 Apr 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25862323

RESUMO

The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain.


Assuntos
Cálcio na Dieta , Laticínios , Leite , Animais , Humanos
3.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(supl.2): 1-9, feb. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-137486

RESUMO

Se señala la importancia del calcio en la alimentación humana, los mecanismos de absorción y de excreción del elemento, y los factores que influyen en los mismos con especial mención a los factores dietéticos. Tras revisar, en población europea y española, las ingestas de calcio y los principales contribuyentes dietéticos, se indican las ingestas recomendadas en España, los países nórdicos y los Estados Unidos. En relación a las fuentes dietéticas de calcio se señala que el valor de un alimento como fuente dietética de un nutriente depende de su contenido en el alimento, la biodisponibilidad del nutriente y el consumo habitual del alimento. Se muestran los contenidos de calcio de alimentos potenciales fuentes del elemento, y se estima su valor como fuente dietética si se considera la absorbabilidad potencial del calcio que contienen. Se destacan asimismo las ventajas de la leche y sus derivados como fuentes de calcio. Para satisfacer las elevadas necesidades de calcio grupos de población como los niños, mayores… pueden requerir alimentos enriquecidos o suplementos, por lo que se comentan algunos ejemplos de la eficacia de esta suplementación. Se concluye que alimentos y bebidas constituyen la fuente de elección de calcio. Que por el contenido de calcio, el tamaño habitual de la ración y los hábitos de consumo la leche y derivados, los frutos secos, los vegetales de hoja verde y las leguminosas, proporcionan aportes adecuados de calcio. Sin embargo, los lácteos constituyen la mejor fuente dietética por la biodisponibilidad del calcio que suministran (AU)


The importance of calcium in human nutrition, the mechanisms of absorption and excretion of the element, and the factors affecting them with special reference to dietary factors are described. After reviewing daily dietary intakes of calcium and the main contributors in European and Spanish population, recommended intakes in Spain, the Nordic countries and the United States are mentioned. In relation to the dietary sources of calcium it has to be noted that the value of a given food as a source of a nutrient depends on its content in the food, the bioavailability of the nutrient and the usual food consumption. The calcium contents of potential food sources of the element are reported and its value is estimated according to the potential absorbability of the calcium they contain. The benefits of milk and dairy products as sources of calcium are also highlighted. Populations such as children or elderly may require fortified foods or supplements to satisfy their high calcium needs, so some examples of the efficacy of this supplementation are discussed. It is concluded that food and drinks are the best choice to obtain calcium. Taking into account the calcium content, the usual portion size and the consumption habits milk and dairy products, nuts, green leafy vegetables and legumes can provide adequate amounts of calcium. However, milk and dairy products constitute the best dietary source thanks to the bioavailability of the calcium they contain (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Laticínios/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Nutrientes/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal
4.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, ene. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132578

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado son bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, existe preocupación a nivel mundial sobre los niveles de metilmercurio en el pescado, por lo que muchos países como Estados Unidos, Australia, Nueza Zelanda, Canadá y muchos países europeos han realizado recomendaciones de consumo de pescado a la población , especialmente a los grupos vulnerables con el fin de reducir la ingesta de metilmercurio. La sangre y el pelo son las mejores muestras biológicas para medir el metilmercurio. El método de análisis más empleado ha sido la espectroscopia de absorción atómica con la técnica del vapor frío, aunque existen también métodos directos que se basan en la descomposición térmica de la muestra. En los últimos años han aumentado los laboratorios que miden el mercurio por espectrometría de masas con plasma acoplado por inducción. Además, se puede diferenciar las distintas especies de mercurio acoplando métodos de separación cromatográficos. Es necesario que los laboratorios que analizan mercurio en muestras biológicas participen en programas de garantía externa de la calidad. Aunque se logre reducir las emisiones de mercurio, el mercurio del medio ambiente altodavía puede permanecer muchos años, por lo que es fundamental el consejo dietético para disminuir la exposición. No es aconsejable el uso de terapia quelante con fines diagnósticos o en pacientes asintomáticos. Es preciso proponer medidas de salud pública encaminadas a la disminución de la exposición al mercurio y que se evalúe también los beneficios de las mismas desde el punto de vista económico y social (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well-known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse ethylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Peixes , Análise Custo-Benefício
5.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, ene. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132579

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, la ingesta de metilmercurio principalmente a través del pescado y marisco contaminado puede producir efectos adversos en la salud. El grupo de estudio para la prevención de la exposición al metilmercurio (GEPREM-Hg), constituido por representantes de diferentessociedades científicas españolas, ha elaborado un documento de consenso donde se recogen en forma de preguntas y respuestas las principales conclusiones, recomendaciones y propuestas planteadas en el grupo. El objetivo del documento es profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores asociados a la exposición al metilmercurio, los posibles efectos sobre la salud en la población española, los métodos de análisis, la interpretación de los resultados, el coste económico y establecer finalmente recomendaciones de consumo de pescados y mariscos. El grupo considera acertadas todas las iniciativas encaminadas a reducir o prohibir el uso del mercurio y la necesidad de conocer los resultados de los análisis de contaminantes que se realizan en los pescados y mariscos que se comercializan en España. Además, opina que se deberían establecer sistemas de biomonitorización para conocer la evolución de la exposición al metilmercurio en niños y adultos y realizar estudios diseñados para conocer los posibles efectos sobre la salud de las concentraciones halladas en la población española, teniendo en cuenta el estilo de vida, los patrones de consumo alimentarios y la dieta mediterránea (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group’s main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta combusking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea
6.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 34(3): 105-123, sept.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131757

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, la ingesta de metilmercurio principalmente a través del pescado y marisco contaminado puede producir efectos adversos en la salud. El grupo de estudio para la prevención de la exposición al metilmercurio (GEPREM-Hg), constituido por representantes de diferentes sociedades científicas españolas, ha elaborado un documento de consenso donde se recogen en forma de preguntas y respuestas las principales conclusiones, recomendaciones y propuestas planteadas en el grupo. El objetivo del documento es profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores asociados a la exposición almetilmercurio, los posibles efectos sobre la salud en la población española, los métodos de análisis, la interpretación de los resultados, el coste económico y establecer finalmente recomendaciones de consumo de pescados y mariscos. El grupo considera acertadas todas las iniciativas encaminadas a reducir o prohibir el uso del mercurio y la necesidad de conocer los resultados de los análisis de contaminantes que se realizan en los pescados y mariscos que se comercializan en España. Además, opina que se deberían establecer sistemas de biomonitorización para conocer la evolución de la exposicional metilmercurio en niños y adultos y realizar estudios diseñados para conocer los posibles efectos sobre la salud de las concentraciones halladas en la población española, teniendo en cuenta el estilo de vida, los patrones de consumo alimentarios y la dieta mediterránea (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methyl mercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methyl mercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methyl mercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methyl mercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fatores de Risco , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Produtos Pesqueiros/efeitos adversos
7.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 969-88, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365001

RESUMO

Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Mercúrio/genética , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/patologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacocinética , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Estado Nutricional , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Alimentos Marinhos , Caracteres Sexuais , Toxicocinética
8.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365002

RESUMO

The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/epidemiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Gravidez , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
9.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561094

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well- known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse methylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia
10.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, 2014 Nov 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561095

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
11.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 46(2): 68-72, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12011575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To have a good physical appearance is a determining factor by which adolescents show a tendency to worry excessively about their weight. The aim of this work is to study the possible relationship between actual and perceived body weight, how it is considered and what strategies are followed for weight control among adolescents residing in Valencia. METHODS: A sample of 568 students, 325 girls and 243 boys, aged 14-20 years, were selected from public high schools in Valencia. Their height and weight were used to calculate their actual body mass index (BMIO). The subjective perception of their physical measurements (BMIS) was evaluated by means of a questionnaire. The statistical treatment of data was done with commercially available software. RESULTS: There is a relatively large proportion of underweight subjects among the participants of the survey. Differences between the BMIO and BMIS indicate a misperception of height (overestimated) and weight (underestimated) that is greater in girls than in boys. Girls tend to undergo restrictive dietary measures when they consider themselves overweight. A general lack of knowledge about adequate weight was observed. CONCLUSION: Valencia teenagers show a poor knowledge of their body size and of the weight that should be adequate for their age and tallness.


Assuntos
Estatura , Imagem Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Autoavaliação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrevelação , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários
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