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Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096926


BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusion (CTO) is common in patients with diabetes mellitus. Data on the long-term outcomes after treatment of CTOs in this high-risk population are scarce. AIM: To compare the long-term clinical outcomes of CTO revascularization either by coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus optimal medical treatment (MT) alone in patients with diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 538 consecutive patients with diabetes and at least one CTO were identified from 2010 to 2014 in our center. In the present analysis, patients were stratified according to the CTO treatment strategy that was selected. MT was selected in 61% of patients whereas revascularization in the remaining 39%. Patients undergoing revascularization were younger, had higher left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), lower ACEF score, and more positive myocardial ischemia detection results compared to the MT group (p < .001).Patients referred for CABG had higher rates of left main disease compared to the PCI and MT groups (32% vs. 3% and 11%, respectively; p < .001). Complete revascularization was more often achieved in the CABG group, compared to the PCI group (62% vs. 32% p < .001). Multivariable analysis showed that revascularization with CABG was associated with lower rates of all-cause and cardiac mortality rates compared to MT, [hazard ratio (HR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25-0.70, p < .001 and HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20-81, p = .011, respectively]. Successful CTO-PCI showed a trend towards benefit in all-cause mortality (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.33-1.04, p = .06). CONCLUSION: In our registry, CTO revascularization in diabetic patients, especially with CABG, was associated with lower long-term mortality rates as compared to MT alone.

Rev Port Cardiol ; 38(7): 497-501, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495716


INTRODUCTION: Infection remains a major complication among heart transplant (HT) recipients, causing approximately 20% of deaths in the first year after transplantation. In this population, Aspergillus spp. can have various clinical presentations including invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), with high mortality (53-78%). OBJECTIVES: To establish the characteristics of IPA infection in HT recipients and their outcomes in our center. METHODS: Among 328 HTs performed in our center between 1998 and 2016, we identified five cases of IPA. Patient medical records were examined and clinical variables were extracted. RESULTS: All cases were male, and mean age was 62 years. The most common indication for HT was non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Productive cough was reported as the main symptom. The radiological assessment was based on chest X-ray and chest computed tomography. The most commonly reported radiographic abnormality was multiple nodular opacities in both techniques. Bronchoscopy was performed in all patients and Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated in four cases on bronchoalveolar lavage culture. Treatment included amphotericin in four patients, subsequently changed to voriconazole in three, and posaconazole in one patient, with total treatment lasting an average of 12 months. Neutropenia was found in only one patient, renal failure was observed in two patients, and concurrent cytomegalovirus infection in three patients. All patients were alive after a mean follow-up of 18 months. CONCLUSIONS: IPA is a potentially lethal complication after HT. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of aggressive treatment are the cornerstone of better survival.

Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Transplantados , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Aspergilose Pulmonar Invasiva/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
Clin Transplant ; 33(7): e13596, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102488


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heart transplantation (HT) is the treatment of choice for selected cases of advanced heart failure. There is an increasing rate of emergency HT in our country. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of HT in our hospital according to emergent vs. elective transplantation status. METHODS: The costs of all consecutive HTs performed in our center between January 2010 and May 2015 were analyzed. The cost of elective and emergent HT was compared. RESULTS: HT mean cost at our institution was €62 203 ± 47 976. Elective HT mean cost was €47 540 ± 25 140, whereas emergent HT cost was €102 733 ± 68 050 (emergency status 1, as regional priority, was €66 077 ± 28 067 and emergency status 0, as the highest national priority, was €136 056 ± 77 080; P < 0.001). Increased emergent HT cost was mainly related to a longer admission (32 ± 24 days vs. 69 ± 53 days; P = 0.006; accounting for a cost of €14 517 ± 12 475 vs. €37 846 ± 31 702; P < 0.001) and increased drug-related expenses (€6622 ± 7465 vs. €15,171 ± 15,758; P < 0.02). Elective HT survival rate was 96%, compared to 68% for emergent HT; P = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Elective HT showed a high survival rate with a relatively low and less variable cost, leading to a favorable economic balance in today's public health reimbursement system. In contrast, emergent HT showed a higher cost and a lower survival rate. New treatment strategies should be identified for heart failure patients at risk of requiring emergency HT.

Int J Cardiol ; 275: 59-64, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314840


OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate cardiac activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 after heart transplantation (HT) and its relation with acute rejection (AR) and chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV). BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is altered in heart failure and HT. However, ACE and ACE2 activities in post-HT acute and chronic rejection have not been previously studied. METHODS: HT patients (n = 45) were included when appropriate serial endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) and coronary angiography were available for analysis. In 21 patients, three post-HT time points were selected for CAV study in EMB tissue: basal (0-3 wks), second (2-3 months) and third (4-5 months). At 10 years post-HT, CAV was evaluated by coronary angiography (CA) and patients were grouped by degree of CAV: 0-1, non-CAV (n = 15) and 2-3, CAV (n = 6). For the AR study, 28 HT patients with evidence of one EMB rejection at grade 3 and two EMB grade 1A and/or 1B rejections were selected. RESULTS: Post-HT, ACE2 activity was increased in the CAV group, compared to non-CAV. Patients with AR showed increased ACE, but not ACE2, activity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that early post-HT cardiac ACE2 activity may have an important role in CAV development. In contrast, ACE activity was increased in AR. The renin-angiotensin system seems to be altered after HT and strategies to balance the system may be useful.

Rejeição de Enxerto/enzimologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Miocárdio/enzimologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Doença Crônica , Angiografia Coronária , Feminino , Seguimentos , Rejeição de Enxerto/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Projetos Piloto , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo
Rev. colomb. cardiol ; 25(6): 405-405, nov.-dic. 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1058368


Abstract In the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention, mechanical complications after acute myocardial infarction are extremely rare, with an incidence of less than 0.5%. Rupture of the ventricular septum is the least frequent occurrence. Despite early surgical repair, mortality still remains high. Patients who are at high risk of perioperative death include those with cardiogenic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. In this group, a mechanical circulatory support such as an Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation circuit could be used as bridge to surgical repair is feasible or heart transplantation, as it provides hemodynamic stability and the potential to correct multiorgan dysfunction. We reported a case pf ECMO device implantation as a bridge to heart transplantation in a patient with post infarction ventricular septal rupture. Unfortunately, while on the waiting list for heart transplantation with maximum priority the patient had massive diffuse alveolar hemorrhage secondary to the anticoagulation required by the equipment and died.

Resumen En la era de la intervención coronaria percutánea primaria, las complicaciones mecánicas tras un infarto de miocardio agudo son extremadamente infrecuentes, con una incidencia de menos del 0,5%. La ruptura del septum ventricular es el caso menos frecuente. A pesar de la reparación quirúrgica, la mortalidad sigue siendo elevada. Los pacientes con alto riesgo de muerte perioperativa incluyen a aquellos con shock cardiógeno y síndrome de disfunción multiorgánica. En este grupo, podría utilizarse soporte circulatorio mecánico, tal como el circuito de oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea, como puente hacia la reparación quirúrgica o trasplante cardiaco, ya que aporta estabilidad dinámica y la posibilidad de corregir el síndrome de disfunción multiorgánica. Se reporta un caso de implantación de dispositivo de membrana extracorpórea, como puente al trasplante cardiaco, en un paciente con ruptura del septum ventricular tras infarto. Lamentablemente, a pesar de estar en lista de espera con prioridad máxima, sufrió una hemorragia alveolar difusa masiva, secundaria a la anticoagulación requerida por el equipo, y falleció.

Clin Transplant ; 32(9): e13364, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058129


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) after heart transplantation (HT) is associated to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and increased morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with bosentan for the treatment of PH after HT. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of patients with PH receiving bosentan post-transplant was performed. Pulmonary hemodynamics before and after bosentan (BG) and clinical outcomes were assessed and compared to a historical control group (CG) not receiving bosentan. RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2016, 21 patients were treated post-transplant with bosentan. Twenty-four hours after bosentan initiation, there were significant decreases in systolic (42.5 ± 8 to 38.1 ± 8 mm Hg, P = 0.015), diastolic (21.4 ± 4 to 17.8 ± 6 mm Hg, P = 0.008) and mean (29.6 ± 5 to 25 ± 6 mm Hg, P = 0.001) pulmonary artery pressures (PAP), transpulmonary gradient (13.1 ± 3 to 9.7 ± 4 mm Hg, P < 0.001), diastolic gradient (5.2 ± 4 to 2.3 ± 3 mm Hg, P = 0.001) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (2.2 ± 1 to 1.6 ± 1WU, P = 0.015). This effect was maintained at day 3. Compared with CG, BG showed significantly more decrease in PVR (0.7 ± 0.9 vs 0.3 ± 1.7WU, P = 0.025) and mean PAP (4.6 ± 5.2 vs 1.5 ± 4.4 mm Hg, P = 0.040). RV function 7 days post-transplant was significantly better in BG compared to CG, P = 0.004. There were not clinically significant interactions between bosentan and immunosuppressive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bosentan, initiated early post-transplant, was associated with a significant decrease in PVR. Bosentan was well tolerated and did not interact with immunosuppressive treatment.

Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Bosentana/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
Circ Heart Fail ; 7(5): 791-8, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25047042


BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and collagen metabolism abnormalities are prevalent in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Peripheral endothelial dysfunction (PED) has been described in HF and in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Our aim is to determine whether PH is associated with PED and impaired collagen metabolism in patients with HFpEF.; METHODS AND RESULTS: Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9, tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor 1, and C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen were determined in 28 patients with HFpEF and 42 hypertensive controls. Patients with systolic pulmonary artery pressure >35 mm Hg on echocardiogram underwent a right heart catheterization. Patients with HFpEF had more severe PED than controls: flow-mediated dilation 1.95% (-0.81 to 4.92) versus 5.02% (3.90 to 10.12), P=0.002. Twenty patients with PH underwent right heart catheterization: mean pulmonary artery pressure 38 (27-52) mm Hg, wedge capillary pressure 18 (16-22) mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance 362 (235-603) dyn s cm(-5). There was a significant inverse correlation between flow-mediated dilation and pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with HFpEF and PH (r=-0.679; P=0.002). Patients with HFpEF showed higher matrix metalloproteinase-2 and C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen values than hypertensive controls. Patients with HFpEF and higher C-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen values also had higher mean pulmonary artery pressure (r=0.553; P=0.014), transpulmonary gradient (r=0.560; P=0.013), and pulmonary vascular resistance (r=0.626; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HFpEF, there is a significant correlation between PED and pulmonary vascular resistance. Collagen metabolism was more impaired in patients with HFpEF and PH. PED and collagen metabolism assessment could be useful tools to identify patients with HFpEF at risk of developing PH.

Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Vasodilatação , Idoso , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Hipertensão Pulmonar Primária Familiar , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pressão Propulsora Pulmonar , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia
Clin Transplant ; 27(6): E649-58, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24025040


We sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, and consequences of acute rejection (AR) after conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) to a proliferation signal inhibitor (PSI) in maintenance heart transplantation. Relevant clinical data were retrospectively obtained for 284 long-term heart transplant recipients from nine centers in whom CNIs were replaced with a PSI (sirolimus or everolimus) between October 2001 and March 2009. The rejection rate at one yr was 8.3%, stabilizing to 2% per year thereafter. The incidence rate after conversion (4.9 per 100 patient-years) was significantly higher than that observed on CNI therapy in the pre-conversion period (2.2 per 100 patient-years). By multivariate analysis, rejection risk was associated with a history of late AR prior to PSI conversion, early conversion (<5 yr) after transplantation and age <50 yr at the time of conversion. Use of mycophenolate mofetil was a protective factor. Post-conversion rejection did not significantly influence the evolution of left ventricular ejection fraction, renal function, or mortality during further follow-up. Conversion to a CNI-free immunosuppression based on a PSI results in an increased risk of AR. Awareness of the clinical determinants of post-conversion rejection could help to refine the current PSI conversion strategies.

Inibidores de Calcineurina , Rejeição de Enxerto/etiologia , Transplante de Coração , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Everolimo , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sirolimo/análogos & derivados , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
Med Clin (Barc) ; 141(2): 87-8, 2013 Jul 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23384432
Clin Transplant ; 27(1): 25-31, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22861120


BACKGROUND: Increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is associated with increased right ventricular failure and mortality after heart transplantation. METHODS: In this prospective study, 22 patients considered high-risk candidates for heart transplantation because of severe pulmonary hypertension (PVR = 6 ± 2 Wood units; transpulmonary gradient 22 ± 7 mmHg), received bosentan 125 mg bid. Right heart catheterization was repeated after four months (n = 22) and 12 months (n = 9). Eleven patients who declined participation in the study were considered as control group. RESULTS: After four months, PVR decreased by 38% in patients receiving bosentan (n = 22), while it increased by 25% in the control group (p = 0.001). Those patients who received bosentan for 12 months (n = 9), experienced a 60% reduction in PVR compared to baseline (p = 0.003). Only three patients (14%) had no hemodynamic improvement with bosentan. After bosentan therapy, 14 patients (64%) underwent heart transplantation. Patients with high PVR who received bosentan showed a trend toward better one-yr survival after transplantation than patients with PVR ≤ 2.5 Wood units transplanted in the same period of time (93% vs. 83%). CONCLUSIONS: In patients considered high-risk candidates for heart transplantation because of high PVR, therapy with bosentan is associated with a significant reduction in PVR and a good outcome after transplantation.

Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Bosentana , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Segurança