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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4065, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210971

RESUMO

Strategies that enable intermolecular site-selective C-H bond functionalisation of organic molecules provide one of the cornerstones of modern chemical synthesis. In chloroalkane synthesis, such methods for intermolecular site-selective aliphatic C-H bond chlorination have, however, remained conspicuously rare. Here, we present a copper(I)-catalysed synthetic method for the efficient site-selective C(sp3)-H bond chlorination of ketones, (E)-enones and alkylbenzenes by dichloramine-T at room temperature. A key feature of the broad substrate scope is tolerance to unsaturation, which would normally pose an immense challenge in chemoselective aliphatic C-H bond functionalisation. By unlocking dichloramine-T's potential as a chlorine radical atom source, the product site-selectivities achieved are among the most selective in alkane functionalisation and should find widespread utility in chemical synthesis. This is exemplified by the late-stage site-selective modification of a number of natural products and bioactive compounds, and gram-scale preparation and formal synthesis of two drug molecules.


Assuntos
Domínio Catalítico , Cobre/química , Cetonas/química , Sulfonamidas/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Carbono/química , Catálise , Halogenação , Hidrogênio/química , Temperatura
2.
J Org Chem ; 86(3): 2998-3007, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502190

RESUMO

Iodosobenzene (PhIO) is known to be a potent oxidant for alcohols in the presence of catalytic bromide in water. In order to understand this important and practical oxidation process, we have conducted density functional theory studies to shed light on the reaction mechanism. The key finding of this study is that PhIO is not the reactive oxidant itself. Instead, the active oxidant is hypobromite (BrO-), which is generated by the reaction of PhIO with bromide through an SN2-type reaction. Critically, water acts as a cocatalyst in the generation of BrO- through lowering the activation energy of this process. This investigation also demonstrates why BrO- is a more powerful oxidant than PhIO in the oxidation of alcohols. Other halide additives have been reported experimentally to be less effective catalysts than bromide-our calculations provide a clear rationale for these observations. We also examined the effect of replacing water with methanol on the ease of the SN2 reaction, finding that the replacement resulted in a higher activation barrier for the generation of BrO-. Overall, this work demonstrates that the hypervalent iodine(III) reagent PhIO can act as a convenient and controlled precursor of the oxidant hypobromite if the right conditions are present.


Assuntos
Brometos , Água , Álcoois , Catálise , Oxirredução
3.
Chemistry ; 27(10): 3552-3559, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210327

RESUMO

A simple gold-catalyzed annulation of 1,8-dialkynylnaphthalenes utilizing a cationic gold catalyst was developed. Such a peri-position of two alkynyl substituents has not been studied in gold catalysis before. Dependent on the substrate, the reactions either follow a mechanism involving vinyl cation intermediates or involve a dual gold catalysis mechanism which in an initial 6-endo-dig-cyclization generates gold(I) vinylidene intermediates that are able to insert into C-H bonds. Indenophenalene derivatives were obtained in moderate to high yields. In addition, the bidirectional gold-catalyzed annulation of tetraynes provided even larger conjugated π-systems. The optoelectronic properties of the products were also investigated.

4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(40): 8103-8108, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006357

RESUMO

A combination of iodosobenzene (PhIO) and molecular iodine (I2) is well-documented to produce a key species capable of conducting various organic reactions through radical mechanisms. This key species is identified here by density functional theory (DFT) calculations to be the hypoiodite radical (IO˙). The calculations show that two equivalents of IO˙ are generated when I2 reacts with two equivalents of PhIO. One of the ensuing IO˙ species acts as a hydrogen abstractor and thus forms an organic radical and the other one is involved in oxidation of the resultant organic radical to afford the final product.

5.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 235: 118280, 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248034

RESUMO

To clarify the interaction of phosphine copper(I) complex with DNA, our study reports the synthesis of a new phosphine copper(I) complex, along with a detailed analysis of the geometry characterization and its interaction with double-stranded DNA. The triclinic phase Cu(PPh3)2(L)(I) with a tetrahedral geometry was identified as the product of the reaction of copper(I) iodide with (E,E)-N,N'-1,2-Ethanediylbis[1-(3-pyridinyl)methanimine] ligand and triphenylphosphine by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Molecular interaction of the synthesized complex with the calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was investigated in the physiological buffer (pH 7.4) by multi-spectroscopic approaches associated with a competitive displacement towards Hoechst 33258 and methylene blue (MB) as groove and intercalator probes. The fluorescence and UV/Vis results detected the formation of a complex-DNA adduct in the ground-state with a binding affinity in order of 104 M-1, which is in keeping with both groove binders and intercalators. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔS0 = -200.31 ± 0.08 cal/mol·K and ΔH0 = -63.11 ± 0.24 kcal/mol, confirmed that the van der Waals interaction is the main driving force for the binding process. Moreover, the ionic strength and pH effect experiments demonstrated the electrostatic interactions between the complex and DNA is negligible. Analysis of the molecular docking simulation declared the flat (E,E)-N,N'-1,2-Ethanediylbis[1-(3-pyridinyl)methanimine] part of the complex was inserted between the sequential A…T/A…T base pairs, while the phosphine substituents were located in the groove, i.e. threading intercalation. Besides, the cytotoxicity of the complex against the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was detected at IC50 = 10 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , DNA/análise , Fosfinas/análise , Apoptose , Sítios de Ligação , DNA/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Íons , Células MCF-7 , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Concentração Osmolar , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Eletricidade Estática , Termodinâmica , Raios X
6.
Mol Divers ; 24(4): 1223-1234, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485890

RESUMO

A new series of aryloxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazones 4a-q have been synthesized as anti-Toxoplasma gondii agents. All compounds showed significant inhibitory activity against T. gondii-infected cells (IC50 values 1.09-25.19 µg/mL). The 4-fluorophenoxy derivative (4l) was the most potent compound with the highest selectivity toward host cells (SI = 19), being better than standard drug pyrimethamine. SAR study indicated that the concurrence of proper substituents on both aryl ring of phenoxyacetophenone is important for potency and safety profile. Further in vitro experiments with the representative compounds 4l and 4p revealed that these compounds at the concentration of 5 µg/mL can significantly reduce the viability of T. gondii tachyzoites, as well as their infectivity rate and intracellular proliferation, comparable to those of pyrimethamine.

7.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(1): 471-478, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622542

RESUMO

We report a switchable synthesis of acylindoles and quinoline derivatives via gold-catalyzed annulations of anthranils and ynamides. α-Imino gold carbenes, generated in situ from anthranils and an N,O-coordinated gold(III) catalyst, undergo electrophilic attack to the aryl π-bond, followed by unexpected and highly selective 1,4- or 1,3-acyl migrations to form 6-acylindoles or 5-acylindoles. With the (2-biphenyl)di-tert-butylphosphine (JohnPhos) ligand, gold(I) carbenes experienced carbene/carbonyl additions to deliver quinoline oxides. Some of these epoxides are valuable substrates for the preparation of 3-hydroxylquinolines, quinolin-3(4H)-ones, and polycyclic compounds via facile in situ rearrangements. The reaction can be efficiently conducted on a gram scale and the obtained products are valuable substrates for preparing other potentially useful compounds. A computational study explained the unexpected selectivities and the dependency of the reaction pathway on the oxidation state and ligands of gold. With gold(III) the barrier for the formation of the strained oxirane ring is too high; whereas with gold(I) this transition state becomes accessible. Furthermore, energetic barriers to migration of the substituents on the intermediate sigma-complexes support the observed substitution pattern in the final product.

8.
J Org Chem ; 85(2): 515-525, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876155

RESUMO

Density functional theory was utilized to investigate plausible mechanisms for amine and alcohol oxidation by an iodine(V) hypervalent reagent (IBX). In this contribution, we found that amine and alcohol oxidation both proceed by similar mechanisms. The reactions initiate from ligand exchange to give four coordinate intermediates followed by a redox process giving an iodine(III) species and oxidized substrates. Interestingly, for both the ligand-exchange and the redox steps a hypervalent twist is required for the reaction to proceed via an energetically more accessible route. The ligand-exchange process was found to be mediated by a proton-shuttling agent such as water, a second IBX, or a second substrate. While the ligand-exchange step for both amine and alcohol occurs with almost identical activation energy (particularly when water is considered as the shuttling agent), the redox step for the amine takes place with much lower activation energy than that for the alcohol. Finally, we ascertained that five coordinate amide iodine(V) complexes are unreactive toward redox reactions due to the fact that in such cases two electrons from the coordinated amide are required to occupy a 3c-4e σ* orbital which is too high in energy to be reachable.

9.
Chemistry ; 24(33): 8361-8368, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655208

RESUMO

Density functional theory (DFT) was utilized to explore the reduction of gold(III) complexes by the amino acid glycine (Gly). Interestingly, when the nitrogen atom of Gly coordinates to the gold(III) center, its Cα -hydrogen atom becomes so acidic that it can be easily deprotonated by a mild base like water. The deprotonation converts the amino acid into a potent reductant by which gold(III) is reduced to gold(I) with a moderate activation energy. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution suggesting that primary amines are oxidized to imines via direct α-carbon deprotonation. This finding may provide new insights into the mechanistic interpretation of amine oxidations catalyzed/mediated by a center with high cathodic reduction potential. This work also provides a rationalization behind why gold(III) complexes with amine-based polydentate ligands are reluctant to undergo a redox process. Gold(III) reduction occurs most efficiently if the Cα proton leaves in the plane of the Cα , N and Au atoms. Chelation prevents this alignment, resulting in the gold(III) complex being unreactive toward reduction. It has been experimentally found that gold(III) is capable of oxidizing Gly to glyoxylic acid (GA) as the initial product. The latter, in the presence of another gold(III) complex, has been reported to undergo oxidative decarboxylation to afford CO2 and HCOOH. This process is found to be mediated by formation of a geminal diol intermediate produced by reaction of water with the aldehyde functional group of the coordinated GA.

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