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1.
Gut ; 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849943

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have found aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX)/pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked (ATRX)/death domain-associated protein (DAXX) and alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) to be promising prognostic biomarkers for non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NF-PanNETs). However, they have not been comprehensively evaluated, especially among small NF-PanNETs (≤2.0 cm). Moreover, their status in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) from other sites remains unknown. DESIGN: An international cohort of 1322 NETs was evaluated by immunolabelling for ARX/PDX1 and ATRX/DAXX, and telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridisation for ALT. This cohort included 561 primary NF-PanNETs, 107 NF-PanNET metastases and 654 primary, non-pancreatic non-functional NETs and NET metastases. The results were correlated with numerous clinicopathological features including relapse-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were associated with several adverse prognostic findings and distant metastasis/recurrence (p<0.001). The 5-year RFS rates for patients with ATRX/DAXX-negative and ALT-positive NF-PanNETs were 40% and 42% as compared with 85% and 86% for wild-type NF-PanNETs (p<0.001 and p<0.001). Shorter 5-year RFS rates for ≤2.0 cm NF-PanNETs patients were also seen with ATRX/DAXX loss (65% vs 92%, p=0.003) and ALT (60% vs 93%, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, ATRX/DAXX and ALT status were independent prognostic factors for RFS. Conversely, classifying NF-PanNETs by ARX/PDX1 expression did not independently correlate with RFS. Except for 4% of pulmonary carcinoids, ATRX/DAXX loss and ALT were only identified in primary (25% and 29%) and NF-PanNET metastases (62% and 71%). CONCLUSIONS: ATRX/DAXX and ALT should be considered in the prognostic evaluation of NF-PanNETs including ≤2.0 cm tumours, and are highly specific for pancreatic origin among NET metastases of unknown primary.

3.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 28(5): 2438-2446, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523364

RESUMO

AIMS: National studies have demonstrated disparities in the treatment and survival of pancreatic cancer patients based on socioeconomic status (SES). This study aimed to identify specific differences in perioperative management and outcomes based on patient SES and to study the role of a multidisciplinary clinic (MDC) in mitigating any variations. METHODS: The study analyzed patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a large hospital system. The patients were categorized into groups of high and low SES and whether they were managed by the authors' pancreatic cancer MDC or not. The study compared differences in disease characteristics, receipt of multimodality therapy, perioperative outcomes, and recurrence-free and overall survival. RESULTS: Of the 162 low-SES patients and 119 high-SES patients, 54% were managed in the MDC. Outside the MDC, low-SES patients were less likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy and had less minimally invasive surgery, a longer OR time, less enhanced recovery participation, and more major complications (p < 0.05). No SES disparities were observed among the MDC patients. Despite similar tumor characteristics, the low-SES patients had inferior median overall survival (21 vs 32 months; p = 0.005), but the MDC appeared to eliminate this disparity. Low SES correlated with inferior survival for the non-MDC patients (17 vs 32 months; p < 0.001), but not for the MDC patients (24 vs 25 months; p = 0.33). These findings persisted in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION: A pancreatic cancer MDC standardizes treatment decisions, eliminates disparities in surgical outcomes, and improves survival for low-SES patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Classe Social
4.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 94(1): 160-168.e3, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic, N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) use was required while performing aerosol-generating procedures. We studied the physiologic effects of N95 FFR use in a cohort of gastroenterologists performing simulated colonoscopies. METHODS: Data collection and comparisons included (1) symptoms and change in vital signs in 12 gastroenterologists performing simulated colonoscopy for 60 minutes while wearing a surgical mask (SM) and faceshield (FS); N95 FFR, SM, and FS; and powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR) and (2) respiratory belt plethysmography and continuous electrocardiographic frequency-based heart rate (HR) variability indices including very low frequency power (measures intracardiac sympathetic tone) and low frequency to high frequency ratios (intracardiac sympathetic to vagal ratio) in 11 gastroenterologists performing simulated colonoscopy while wearing an SM (15 minutes), N95 FFR and SM (60 minutes), and SM (15 minutes) in rapid sequence. RESULTS: Ten of 12 gastroenterologists (83%) reported symptoms with N95 FFR use, most commonly breathing difficulty, frustration, fatigue, and headache. Nine of these gastroenterologists (75%) had associated significant HR elevation. Respiratory peak to trough measurement showed a significant increase (F(2) = 7.543, P = .004) during the N95 FFR stage, which resolved after removal of the N95 FFR. Although not statistically different, all gastroenterologists showed a decrease in sympathetic to vagal ratios and an increase in intracardiac sympathetic effects in the N95 FFR stage. PAPR use was better tolerated but was associated with headache and elevated HR in 4 gastroenterologists (33%). CONCLUSIONS: N95 FFR use by gastroenterologists is associated with development of acute physiologic changes and symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastroenterologistas , Respiradores N95 , Exposição Ocupacional , Colonoscopia , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The assessment of therapeutic response after neoadjuvant treatment and pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been an ongoing challenge. Several limitations have been encountered when employing current grading systems for residual tumor. Considering endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) represents a sensitive imaging technique for PDAC, differences in tumor size between preoperative EUS and postoperative pathology after neoadjuvant therapy were hypothesized to represent an improved marker of treatment response. METHODS: For 340 treatment-naïve and 365 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs, EUS and pathologic findings were analyzed and correlated with patient overall survival (OS). A separate group of 200 neoadjuvant-treated PDACs served as a validation cohort for further analysis. RESULTS: Among treatment-naïve PDACs, there was a moderate concordance between EUS imaging and postoperative pathology for tumor size (r = 0.726, P < .001) and AJCC 8th edition T-stage (r = 0.586, P < .001). In the setting of neoadjuvant therapy, a decrease in T-stage correlated with improved 3-year OS rates (50% vs 31%, P < .001). Through recursive partitioning, a cutoff of ≥47% tumor size reduction was also found to be associated with improved OS (67% vs 32%, P < .001). Improved OS using a ≥47% threshold was validated using a separate cohort of neoadjuvant-treated PDACs (72% vs 36%, P < .001). By multivariate analysis, a reduction in tumor size by ≥47% was an independent prognostic factor for improved OS (P = .007). CONCLUSIONS: The difference in tumor size between preoperative EUS imaging and postoperative pathology among neoadjuvant-treated PDAC patients is an important prognostic indicator and may guide subsequent chemotherapeutic management.

6.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the significance of UDD in IPMNs. BACKGROUND: The uncinate process of the pancreas has an independent ductal drainage system. International consensus guidelines of IPMNs still consider it as a branch-duct, even though it is the main drainage system for the uncinate process. METHODS: A retrospective review of all surgically treated IPMNs at our institution after 2008 was performed. Preoperative radiological studies were reviewed by an abdominal radiologist who was blinded to the pathological results. In addition to the Fukuoka criteria, presence of UDD was recorded. Using multivariate analysis, the pathological significance of UDD in predicting advanced neoplasia [high grade dysplasia or invasive carcinoma (HGD/IC)] was determined. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty patients were identified (mean age at diagnosis was 68 years and 49% were females): 122 (47%) had HGD/IC. UDD was noted in 59 (23%), of which 36 (61%) had HGD/IC (P < 0.003). On multivariate analysis, UDD was an independent predictor of HGD/IC (odds ratio = 2.99, P < 0.04). Subgroup analysis on patients with IPMNs confined to the dorsal portion of the gland (n = 161), also demonstrated UDD to be a significant predictor of HGD/IC in those remote lesions (odds ratio: 4.41, P = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study to evaluate the significance of UDD in IPMNs and shows it to be a high-risk feature. This association persisted for remote IPMNs limited to the dorsal pancreas, suggesting UDD may be associated with an aggressive phenotype even in remote IPMN lesions.

7.
Histopathology ; 77(3): 481-491, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32431062

RESUMO

AIMS: Abnormal p53 protein expression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is reported to be a prognostic biomarker for progression to high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC). We evaluated our use of p53 IHC for patients with BO under surveillance from 2010 to 2016 in a single academic institution. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 78 patients under surveillance for BO who had biopsies evaluated for abnormal p53 expression in conjunction with routine histology and 892 patients who had histological evaluation alone. All available p53 IHC slides were rescored as wild-type or abnormal. We evaluated the risk of subsequent diagnosis with HGD and OAC. p53-tested patients were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with indefinite dysplasia (IND) or low-grade dysplasia (LGD), compared to patients who were not tested (79.5 versus 10.8%, P = 7.4 × 10-40 ). Almost half (46.9%) of patients with abnormal p53 expression were diagnosed with HGD or OAC within 5 years, compared to 5.9% with wild-type p53, and 7.6% of patients not tested (P = 2.6 × 10-18 ). However, this difference was heavily influenced by other risk factors, including dysplasia grade, in multivariate analyses. In the subgroup of patients diagnosed with IND (n = 109), abnormal p53 expression was associated with a fourfold increase (1.2-13.3, P = 0.023) in risk of HGD/OAC relative to untested patients diagnosed with IND, independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSION: In patients under surveillance for BO in a single academic institution, we found evidence that selective use of p53 IHC in conjunction with routine histology modestly improved risk stratification by identifying patients with IND at higher risk of a subsequent diagnosis of HGD or OAC.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(6): 843-852, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079863

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A risk prediction test was previously validated to predict progression to high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE). The aim of our study was to independently validate this test to predict the risk of progression to HGD/EAC in BE patients with nondysplastic (ND), indefinite for dysplasia and low-grade dysplasia (LGD). METHODS: A single-blinded, case-control study was conducted to stratify patients with BE as low, intermediate, or high risk for progression to HGD/EAC within 5 years using a previously described risk prediction test. Patients with BE who progressed to HGD/EAC after at least 1 year (n = 58) were matched to patients undergoing surveillance without progression (n = 210, median surveillance 7 years). Baseline biopsies with subspecialist diagnoses of ND, indefinite for dysplasia, or LGD were tested in a blinded manner, and the predictive performance of the test was assessed. RESULTS: This risk prediction test stratified patients with BE based on progression risk with the high-risk group at 4.7-fold increased risk for HGD/EAC compared with the low-risk group (95% confidence interval 2.5-8.8, P < 0.0001). Prevalence-adjusted positive predictive value at 5 years was 23%. The high-risk class and male sex provided predictive power that was independent of pathologic diagnosis, age, segment length, and hiatal hernia. Patients with ND BE who scored high risk progressed at a higher rate (26%) than patients with subspecialist-confirmed LGD (21.8%) at 5 years. DISCUSSION: A risk prediction test identifies patients with ND BE who are at high risk for progression to HGD/EAC and may benefit from early endoscopic therapy or increased surveillance.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/epidemiologia , Esôfago/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idoso , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Esôfago de Barrett/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Esôfago/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Queratina-20/metabolismo , Antígenos Comuns de Leucócito/metabolismo , Masculino , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Racemases e Epimerases/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Conduta Expectante
9.
Gut ; 69(1): 52-61, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite improvements in imaging, serum CA19-9 and pathological evaluation, differentiating between benign and malignant bile duct strictures remains a diagnostic conundrum. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have opened new opportunities for early detection and management of cancers but, to date, have not been rigorously applied to biliary specimens. DESIGN: We prospectively evaluated a 28-gene NGS panel (BiliSeq) using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-obtained biliary specimens from patients with bile duct strictures. The diagnostic performance of serum CA19-9, pathological evaluation and BiliSeq was assessed on 252 patients (57 trainings and 195 validations) with 346 biliary specimens. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of BiliSeq for malignant strictures was 73% and 100%, respectively. In comparison, an elevated serum CA19-9 and pathological evaluation had sensitivities of 76% and 48%, and specificities of 69% and 99%, respectively. The combination of BiliSeq and pathological evaluation increased the sensitivity to 83% and maintained a specificity of 99%. BiliSeq improved the sensitivity of pathological evaluation for malignancy from 35% to 77% for biliary brushings and from 52% to 83% for biliary biopsies. Among patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), BiliSeq had an 83% sensitivity as compared with pathological evaluation with an 8% sensitivity. Therapeutically relevant genomic alterations were identified in 20 (8%) patients. Two patients with ERBB2-amplified cholangiocarcinoma received a trastuzumab-based regimen and had measurable clinicoradiographic response. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of BiliSeq and pathological evaluation of biliary specimens increased the detection of malignant strictures, particularly in patients with PSC. Additionally, BiliSeq identified alterations that may stratify patients for specific anticancer therapies.


Assuntos
Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Doenças Biliares/diagnóstico , Doenças Biliares/genética , Doenças Biliares/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Antígeno CA-19-9/sangue , Constrição Patológica/diagnóstico , Constrição Patológica/genética , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/genética , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Gastroenterology ; 158(3): 573-582.e2, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasms (IOPNs) of the pancreas and bile duct contain epithelial cells with numerous, large mitochondria and are cystic precursors to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), respectively. However, IOPNs do not have the genomic alterations found in other pancreatobiliary neoplasms. In fact, no recurrent genomic alterations have been described in IOPNs. PDACs without activating mutations in KRAS contain gene rearrangements, so we investigated whether IOPNs have recurrent fusions in genes. METHODS: We analyzed 20 resected pancreatic IOPNs and 3 resected biliary IOPNs using a broad RNA-based targeted sequencing panel to detect cancer-related fusion genes. Four invasive PDACs and 2 intrahepatic CCAs from the same patients as the IOPNs, were also available for analysis. Samples of pancreatic cyst fluid (n = 5, collected before surgery) and bile duct brushings (n = 2) were analyzed for translocations. For comparison, we analyzed pancreatobiliary lesions from 126 patients without IOPN (controls). RESULTS: All IOPNs evaluated were found to have recurring fusions of ATP1B1-PRKACB (n = 13), DNAJB1-PRKACA (n = 6), or ATP1B1-PRKACA (n = 4). These fusions also were found in corresponding invasive PDACs and intrahepatic CCAs, as well as in matched pancreatic cyst fluid and bile duct brushings. These gene rearrangements were absent from all 126 control pancreatobiliary lesions. CONCLUSIONS: We identified fusions in PRKACA and PRKACB genes in pancreatic and biliary IOPNs, as well as in PDACs and pancreatic cyst fluid and bile duct cells from the same patients. We did not identify these gene fusions in 126 control pancreatobiliary lesions. These fusions might be used to identify patients at risk for IOPNs and their associated invasive carcinomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Subunidades Catalíticas da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ductos Biliares Intra-Hepáticos , Feminino , Fusão Gênica , Rearranjo Gênico , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP40/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cisto Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética
11.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 90(2): 213-214, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327336
13.
Gastroenterol Res Pract ; 2018: 2380596, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967636

RESUMO

Background: Adolescent obesity is a national epidemic that recently has been shown to increase risk for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) and is associated with an earlier age of PC onset. We hypothesized that PC patients who are overweight or obese at age 18 would have an earlier age of PC onset. Methods: Retrospective review of 531 patients in our PC registry was completed. Self-reported weight at age 18 and maximum lifetime weight were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) at age 18 (BMI-18) and maximum lifetime BMI. Results: Complete BMI and baseline covariate data was available in 319 PC patients. Mean age (in years) of PC diagnosis for patients whose BMI-18 was overweight (64.0) or obese (59.9) was significantly different when compared to patients with a normal BMI-18 (66.7). No significant difference was observed in the mean age of PC diagnosis in those patients who maintained a normal BMI-18 when compared to those patients who subsequently became overweight or obese (67.0 versus 66.6; p = 0.65). Conclusions: An elevated BMI at age 18 is associated with an earlier age of PC onset and should be factored into determining the optimal age of beginning screening for patients at high risk for PC.

14.
Gastroenterology ; 154(8): 2060-2063.e8, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486199

RESUMO

Despite prognostic grading and staging systems, it is a challenge to predict outcomes for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs). Sequencing studies of PanNETs have identified alterations in death domain-associated protein (DAXX) and alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation X-linked chromatin remodeler (ATRX). In tumors, mutations in DAXX or ATRX and corresponding loss of protein expression correlate with shorter times of disease-free survival and disease-specific survival of patients. However, DAXX or ATRX proteins were lost in only 50% of distant metastases analyzed. We performed whole-exome sequencing analyses of 20 distant metastases from 20 patients with a single nonsyndrome, nonfunctional PanNET. We found distant metastases contained alterations in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) (n = 8), ATRX (n = 5), DAXX (n = 5), TSC2 (n = 3), and DEP domain containing 5 (DEPDC5) (n = 3). We found copy number loss of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) in 15 metastases (75%) and alterations in genes that regulate chromatin remodeling, including set domain containing 2 (SETD2) (n = 4), AT-rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A) (n = 2), chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 8 (CHD8) (n = 2), and DNA methyl transferase 1 (DNMT1) (n = 2). In a separate analysis of 347 primary PanNETs, we found loss or deletion of DAXX and ATRX, disruption of SETD2 function (based on loss of H3 lysine 36 trimethylation), loss of ARID1A expression or deletions in CDKN2A in 81% of primary PanNETs with distant metastases. Among patients with loss or deletion of at least 1 of these proteins or genes, 39% survived disease-free for 5 years and 44% had disease-specific survival times of 10 years. Among patients without any of these alterations, 98% survived disease-free for 5 years and 95% had disease-specific survival times of 10 years. Therefore, primary PanNETs with loss of DAXX, ATRX, H3 lysine 36 trimethylation, ARID1A, and/or CDKN2A associate with shorter survival times of patients. Our findings indicate that alterations in chromatin-remodeling genes and CDKN2A contribute to metastasis of PanNETs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Gut ; 67(12): 2131-2141, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970292

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: DNA-based testing of pancreatic cyst fluid (PCF) is a useful adjunct to the evaluation of pancreatic cysts (PCs). Mutations in KRAS/GNAS are highly specific for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCNs), while TP53/PIK3CA/PTEN alterations are associated with advanced neoplasia. A prospective study was performed to evaluate preoperative PCF DNA testing. DESIGN: Over 43-months, 626 PCF specimens from 595 patients were obtained by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-fine needle aspiration and assessed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). Molecular results were correlated with EUS findings, ancillary studies and follow-up. A separate cohort of 159 PCF specimens was also evaluated for KRAS/GNAS mutations by Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: KRAS/GNAS mutations were identified in 308 (49%) PCs, while alterations in TP53/PIK3CA/PTEN were present in 35 (6%) cases. Based on 102 (17%) patients with surgical follow-up, KRAS/GNAS mutations were detected in 56 (100%) IPMNs and 3 (30%) MCNs, and associated with 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity for a mucinous PC. In comparison, KRAS/GNAS mutations by Sanger sequencing had a 65% sensitivity and 100% specificity. By NGS, the combination of KRAS/GNAS mutations and alterations in TP53/PIK3CA/PTEN had an 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity for advanced neoplasia. Ductal dilatation, a mural nodule and malignant cytopathology had lower sensitivities (42%, 32% and 32%, respectively) and specificities (74%, 94% and 98%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to Sanger sequencing, preoperative NGS of PCF for KRAS/GNAS mutations is highly sensitive for IPMNs and specific for mucinous PCs. In addition, the combination of TP53/PIK3CA/PTEN alterations is a useful preoperative marker for advanced neoplasia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Líquido Cístico/química , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Cromograninas/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/genética , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/cirurgia , Cisto Pancreático/genética , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Cisto Pancreático/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin J Gastroenterol ; 10(3): 229-231, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28265895

RESUMO

Silicones are inorganic compounds that have been used for the purpose of shunting ventricular fluid since the mid-20th century [1]. Complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunts have rarely been attributed to silicone allergy, with only a handful of cases reported in literature. The classic presentation of allergy to silicone ventriculoperitoneal shunt, i.e., abdominal pain with recurrent skin breakdown along the shunt tract, is nonspecific and difficult to distinguish clinically from other causes of shunt-related symptoms. It can be diagnosed by detection of antisilicone antibodies and is treated with removal of the shunt and replacement, if needed, with a polyurethane shunt system. We report the first case of suspected silicone allergy presenting as clinical peritonitis without overt colonic perforation.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Peritonite/etiologia , Silicones/efeitos adversos , Derivação Ventriculoperitoneal/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peritonite/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Derivação Ventriculoperitoneal/instrumentação
17.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 42(3): 877-883, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27738791

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate imaging features as well as pathologic and clinical findings of lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with surgically resected and pathologically proven LEC, found in a single institution database between 2000 and 2015, were evaluated in a retrospective fashion. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, co-morbidities, imaging features, cytology and histopathology results, and serum/aspirate biomarkers levels were recorded. RESULTS: Eighty percent of patients were male with median age of 59. All lesions were exophytic, with median size of 36 mm. 80% were classified as complex cystic lesions, showing enhancing septa or enhancing rim without measurable enhancing solid component. 80% were located in tail or body. In one patient with MRI, the lesion was mildly T1 hyperintense and markedly T2 hyperintense. All cases were anechoic or hypoechoic on EUS, and majority of them showed posterior acoustic enhancement. Of patients with available fluid aspirate analysis, 3 out of 4 had CEA level > 192 ng/mL and 1 out of 3 had elevated (>250 IU/ml) amylase level. Four out of 7 patients had elevated serum CA 19-9 levels (>37 U/mL); one patient with a value of 361 U/mL had co-existing pancreatic adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION: Round shape, mild complexity, and exophytic location in pancreatic body and tail can be suggestive of LECs. These features however are not specific and may be seen with other cystic pancreatic lesions. CT findings should be used in conjunction with EUS, cytology, and tumor marker studies to secure the diagnosis of LEC.


Assuntos
Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico por imagem , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Raras , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 83(6): 1107-1117.e2, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) recently reported evidence-based guidelines for the management of asymptomatic neoplastic pancreatic cysts. These guidelines advocate a higher threshold for surgical resection than prior guidelines and imaging surveillance for a considerable number of patients with pancreatic cysts. The aims of this study were to assess the accuracy of the AGA guidelines in detecting advanced neoplasia and present an alternative approach to pancreatic cysts. METHODS: The study population consisted of 225 patients who underwent EUS-guided FNA for pancreatic cysts between January 2014 and May 2015. For each patient, clinical findings, EUS features, cytopathology results, carcinoembryonic antigen analysis, and molecular testing of pancreatic cyst fluid were reviewed. Molecular testing included the assessment of hotspot mutations and deletions for KRAS, GNAS, VHL, TP53, PIK3CA, and PTEN. RESULTS: Diagnostic pathology results were available for 41 patients (18%), with 13 (6%) harboring advanced neoplasia. Among these cases, the AGA guidelines identified advanced neoplasia with 62% sensitivity, 79% specificity, 57% positive predictive value, and 82% negative predictive value. Moreover, the AGA guidelines missed 45% of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms with adenocarcinoma or high-grade dysplasia. For cases without confirmatory pathology, 27 of 184 patients (15%) with serous cystadenomas (SCAs) based on EUS findings and/or VHL alterations would continue magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) surveillance. In comparison, a novel algorithmic pathway using molecular testing of pancreatic cyst fluid detected advanced neoplasias with 100% sensitivity, 90% specificity, 79% positive predictive value, and 100% negative predictive value. CONCLUSIONS: The AGA guidelines were inaccurate in detecting pancreatic cysts with advanced neoplasia. Furthermore, because the AGA guidelines manage all neoplastic cysts similarly, patients with SCAs will continue to undergo unnecessary MRI surveillance. The results of an alternative approach with integrative molecular testing are encouraging but require further validation.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/diagnóstico , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Cromograninas/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Líquido Cístico , Cistadenoma Seroso/sangue , Cistadenoma Seroso/diagnóstico , Cistadenoma Seroso/genética , Cistadenoma Seroso/patologia , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Endossonografia , Feminino , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/sangue , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/genética , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/patologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Cisto Pancreático/sangue , Cisto Pancreático/genética , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Gastroenterol ; 49(4): 289-92, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24518797

RESUMO

GOALS: We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic ultrasound-guided endoscopic resection (ER) and endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for autoamputation of small duodenal carcinoids. BACKGROUND: The ideal management of small duodenal carcinoid tumors remains unclear. STUDY: A retrospective review of duodenal carcinoids over a 10-year period (2002 to 2012) was performed at our tertiary-care teaching hospital. All patients with duodenal carcinoids ≤10 mm in size treated with either ER or EBL were included. The main outcome measurements were the efficacy and safety of endotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 37 patients with 39 subcentimeter duodenal carcinoids were identified. In the EBL group, the mean (SD) tumor size was 6.7±2.1 mm compared with 6.7±1.7 mm in the ER group (P=0.943). The mean Ki-67 index was ≤2% in specimens available for histologic analysis in both groups (16/23 EBL and 15/16 ER). The positive deep margin rate in the ER group was 68.8%. Residual carcinoid tumor cells were detected on follow-up biopsies in 1 patient after EBL, and 2 patients after ER. All underwent subsequent successful endotherapy. No adverse events occurred in the EBL group compared with an 18.8% adverse event rate in the ER group (P=0.066). CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided EBL is a safe, effective method for removal of small superficial duodenal carcinoids and seems to be a lower risk alternative to conventional ER with cautery.


Assuntos
Tumor Carcinoide/cirurgia , Duodenoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Intestinais/cirurgia , Ligadura/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Tumor Carcinoide/patologia , Duodeno , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasia Residual , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção
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