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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319205

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypokalaemia is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The objective of this study was to examine the association between hypokalaemia and outcomes in hospitalized patients with decompensated HF in whom sudden death is less common. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 5881 hospitalized patients with HF, 1052 had consistent hypokalaemia (both admission and discharge serum potassium <4.0 mmol/L), and 2538 had consistent normokalaemia (both admission and discharge serum potassium 4.0-5.0 mmol/L). Propensity scores for consistent hypokalaemia, estimated for each of 3590 (1052 + 2538) patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 971 pairs of patients with consistent hypokalaemia vs. consistent normokalaemia, balanced on 54 baseline characteristics (mean age, 75 years; 60% women; 28% African American). We repeated the above process to assemble 2327 pairs of patients with discharge potassium <4.0 vs. 4.0-5.0 mmol/L and 449 pairs of patients with discharge serum potassium <3.5 vs. 4.0-5.0 mmol/L. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with hypokalaemia were estimated in matched cohorts. 30 day all-cause mortality occurred in 5% and 4% of patients with consistent normokalaemia vs. consistent hypokalaemia, respectively (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.52-1.18; P = 0.241). HRs (95% CI) for 30 day mortality associated with discharge serum potassium <4.0 and <3.5 mmol/L were 0.90 (0.70-1.16; P = 0.419) and 1.69 (0.94-3.04; P = 0.078), respectively. Hypokalaemia (<4.0 or <3.5 mmol/L) had no association with long-term mortality or other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized older patients with HF, compared with normokalaemia (serum potassium 4.0-5.0 mmol/L), hypokalaemia (<4.0 or <3.5 mmol/L) had no significant associations with outcomes.

2.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is now established that inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, and thus, it is closely linked to cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise the most relevant evidence regarding the potential use of inflammatory markers in the field of CVD. METHOD: We conducted a comprehensive research of the relevant literature, searching MEDLINE from its inception until November 2018, primarily for meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and observational studies. RESULTS: Established markers of inflammation, mainly C-reactive protein, have yielded significant results both for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Newer markers, such as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, cytokines, myeloperoxidase, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and the CD40/CD40 ligand system, have been largely evaluated in human studies, enrolling both individuals from the general population and patients with established CVD. Some markers have yielded conflicting results; however, other are now recognized not only as promising biomarkers of CVD, but also as potential therapeutic targets, establishing the role of anti-inflammatory and pleiotropic drugs in CVD. CONCLUSION: There is significant evidence regarding the role of consolidated and novel inflammatory markers in the field of diagnosis and prognosis of CVD. However, multimarker model assessment, validation of cut-off values and cost-effectiveness analyses are required, in order for those markers to be integrated into daily clinical practice.

3.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(6): 887-893, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983390

RESUMO

Several studies addressed cardiovascular risk and mortality in the general population, but data in veteran patients is lacking. This study was designed to investigate the association between echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and all-cause mortality in a male, high-risk group of veterans. Valid echocardiograms were evaluated in 10,406 male veterans, mean age 68.3 ± 13 years. Using the left ventricular mass/body surface area (LVM/BSA) method 6,575 (63.1%) patients had normal left LVMI and 3,831 (37.9%) had LVH, defined as LVMI ≥116 g/m2. Of those 1,371 (13.2%) had mild LVH, 1,025 (9.9%) moderate LVH, 605 (5.8%) severe, and 830 (8%) had extreme LVH. After a mean follow up of 5.9 ± 4.4 years, a total of 3,550 (34.1%) patients died. Cox proportional hazard analyses adjusted for co-morbidities revealed increased risk for individuals with mild LVH (hazard ratios [HR] 1.21; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.09 to 1.33); moderate LVH (HR 1.37; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.52); severe (HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.56); and extreme LVH, (HR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.74 to 2.17). Similar findings were observed when LVMI was defined by LVM/m2.7. When LVM index was introduced as a continuous variable, mortality risk was 6.2% higher per 10-unit change in LVMI, and 9.4% higher when defined by the m2.7 method. There was no difference in mortality risk between black and white patients, or patients with concentric or eccentric LVH. We conclude that increased LVMI was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. The incremental risk was significantly higher in patients with extreme LVH.

4.
Curr Hypertens Rev ; 16(1): 19-23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. Patients with this endocrine syndrome are at increased cardiovascular risk, higher than hypertensive individuals with equal blood pressure levels. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to thoroughly present and critically discuss the novel insights into the field of primary aldosteronism, focusing on the clinically meaningful aspects. METHOD: We meticulously evaluated existing data in the field of primary aldosteronism in order to summarize future perspectives in this narrative review. RESULTS: Novel data suggests that a subclinical form of primary aldosteronism might exist. Interesting findings might simplify the diagnostic procedure of the disease, especially for the localization of primary aldosteronism. The most promising progress has been noted in the field of the molecular basis of the disease, suggesting new potential therapeutic targets. CONCLUSION: Several significant aspects are at early stages of evaluation. Future research is essential to investigate these well-promising perspectives.

5.
Am J Med ; 133(2): e25-e31, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) treatment trial, similar clinical benefits were observed between starting doses of enalapril and the target dose achieved by postrandomization up-titration. In our current analysis, protecting the randomization, we examined the early effects of starting doses of enalapril. METHODS: There were 2569 patients with mild-to-moderate chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (ejection fraction ≤35%) randomized to receive starting doses (5-10 mg/day) of placebo (n = 1284) or enalapril (n = 1285). At day 14, both study drugs were blindly up-titrated to the target dose (20 mg/day). Overall, 96% (2458/2569) of the patients returned for dose up-titration, which was achieved in 59% (1444/2458), 48% (696/1444) of whom were in the enalapril group. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes in the enalapril group were estimated. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality at 14 days after randomization were 0.80 (0.32-2.03), 0.63 (0.35-1.12), and 0.65 (0.39-1.06), respectively. Corresponding HRs (95% CIs) at 30 days were 0.82 (0.41-1.67), 0.43 (0.27-0.68), and 0.43 (0.27-0.68), respectively. The magnitude of these early effects of starting doses of enalapril is similar to its previously reported long-term effects at the target dose. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that in stable ambulatory patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the magnitude of the early effect of starting doses of enalapril is similar to that observed during longer-term therapy with the target doses of the drug.

6.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 18(2): 117-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, non communicable, multisystem disease that has reached epidemic proportions. Chronic exposure to hyperglycaemia affects the microvasculature, eventually leading to diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy with high impact on the quality of life and overall life expectancy. Sexual dysfunction is an often-overlooked microvascular complication of T2DM, with a complex pathogenesis originating from endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present current definitions, epidemiological data and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and sexual dysfunction. We also describe the clinical and laboratory evaluation that is mandatory for the diagnosis of these conditions. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to identify data from clinical studies for the prevalence, risk factors and diagnostic methods of microvascular complications of T2DM. RESULTS: Diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy affect approximately 25% of patients with T2DM; diabetic neuropathy is encountered in almost 50% of the diabetic population, while the prevalence of erectile dysfunction ranges from 35-90% in diabetic men. The duration of T2DM along with glycemic, blood pressure and lipid control are common risk factors for the development of these complications. Criteria for the diagnosis of these conditions are well established, but exclusion of other causes is mandatory. CONCLUSION: Early detection of microvascular complications associated with T2DM is important, as early intervention leads to better outcomes. However, this requires awareness of their definition, prevalence and diagnostic modalities.

8.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3054-3063, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National guidelines recommend that systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and hypertension be maintained below 130 mm Hg. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine associations of SBP <130 mm Hg with outcomes in patients with HFrEF. METHODS: Of the 25,345 patients in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 10,535 had an ejection fraction (EF) ≤40%. Of these, 5,615 had stable SBP (≤20 mm Hg admission to discharge variation), and 3,805 (68%) had a discharge SBP <130 mm Hg. Propensity scores for SBP <130 mm Hg, estimated for each of the 5,615 patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 1,189 pairs of patients with SBP <130 versus ≥130 mm Hg, balanced on 58 baseline characteristics (mean age 76 years; mean EF 28%, 45% women, 13% African American). This process was repeated in 3,946 patients, after excluding 1,669 patients (30% of 5,615) with a discharge SBP <110 mm Hg and assembled a second matched balanced cohort of 1,099 pairs of patients with SBP 110 to 129 mm Hg versus ≥130 mm Hg. RESULTS: Thirty-day all-cause mortality occurred in 7% and 4% of matched patients with SBP <130 mm Hg versus ≥130 mm Hg, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 to 2.48; p = 0.001). HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, and HF readmission at 1 year, associated with SBP <130 mm Hg, were 1.32 (1.15 to 1.53; p < 0.001), 1.11 (1.01 to 1.23; p = 0.030), and 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42; p = 0.001), respectively. HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality associated with SBP 110 to 129 mm Hg (vs. ≥130 mm Hg) were 1.50 (1.03 to 2.19; p = 0.035), and 1.19 (1.02 to 1.39; p = 0.029), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized older patients with HFrEF, SBP <130 mm Hg is associated with poor outcomes. This association persisted when the analyses were repeated after excluding patients with SBP <110 mm Hg. There is an urgent need for randomized controlled trials to evaluate optimal SBP reduction goals in patients with HFrEF.

9.
Am J Ther ; 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of opioids is associated with poor outcomes. Less is known about this association in patients with heart failure (HF) and whether it varies by the receipt of hospice care. METHODS: Of the 7467 patients hospitalized for HF without previous opioid use, 124 received discharge opioids. We matched 123 of these patients with 123 not receiving opioids based on their propensity scores for opioid use, thus assembling a matched cohort of 246 patients balanced on 30 baseline characteristics (mean age, 76 years, 60% women, and 11% African American). We repeated the process in hospice (n = 155; 20 received opioids) and nonhospice (n = 7298; 104 received opioids) subgroups, thus assembling 2 matched cohorts of 22 and 208 patients, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with opioid use were estimated from matched cohorts. RESULTS: During 8.6 (median, 1.4) years of follow-up, all-cause mortality occurred in 80% and 68% of matched patients in the opioid and nonopioid groups, respectively (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-1.99; P = 0.008). There was evidence of heterogeneity in this association between hospice and nonhospice patients (P for interaction, 0.027). Among matched hospice and nonhospice patients, HRs (95% CIs) for mortality were 6.37 (2.06-19.69; P = 0.001) and 1.42 (1.03-1.96; P = 0.035), respectively. HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day and 1-year mortality were 1.98 (1.06-3.70; P = 0.033) and 1.72 (1.18-2.49; P = 0.004), respectively. HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause, HF, and non-HF readmissions were 1.31 (0.97-1.76; P = 0.079), 1.03 (0.71-1.49; P = 0.866), and 1.75 (1.05-2.91; P = 0.031), respectively. Readmission associations were similar among matched nonhospice patients. There was no readmission among matched hospice patients receiving opioids. CONCLUSIONS: In older patients with HF, opioid use is associated with a higher risk of mortality, which is greater in the hospice subgroup, and a higher risk of non-HF readmission in the nonhospice subgroup.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(4): 436-444, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779281

RESUMO

AIMS: Obesity is associated with increased risk of heart failure (HF). This risk may be modulated by improved cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as CRF is associated with favourable health outcomes. Thus, we assessed the interaction between body mass index (BMI), CRF and HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cardiorespiratory fitness and BMI were assessed in 20 254 US male veterans (mean age 58.0 ± 11.3 years), who completed a maximal exercise treadmill test between 1987 and 2017. All had no evidence of ischaemia or HF prior to the exercise test. They were classified based on age-stratified quartiles of peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved as: least-fit (4.5 ± 1.3), low-fit (6.7 ± 1.3), moderate-fit (8.1 ± 1.1), and high-fit (11.2 ± 2.4); and according to BMI as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2 ), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2 ), and obese (≥ 30.0 kg/m2 ). During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, there were 2979 HF events (10.8 events/1000 person-years). HF risk was significantly higher in the obese category [hazard ratio (HR) 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.36; P < 0.001], but was no longer significant after further adjustment for METs. When compared to the least-fit, HF risk declined progressively with increased CRF within all BMI categories. The risk was 63% (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.30-0.47; P < 0.001), 66% (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.28-0.40; P < 0.001), and 73% (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.22-0.34; P < 0.001) lower for high-fit individuals within normal weight, overweight and obese categories, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increased CRF was associated with progressively lower HF risk regardless of BMI, suggesting that the elevated HF risk associated with obesity may be modulated by improved CRF.

11.
Am J Med ; 132(1): 71-80.e1, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists or aldosterone antagonists in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is well known. Less is known about their effectiveness in real-world older patients with HFrEF. METHODS: Of the 8206 patients with heart failure and ejection fraction ≤35% without prior spironolactone use in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 6986 were eligible for spironolactone therapy based on serum creatinine criteria (men ≤2.5 mg/dL, women ≤2.0 mg/dL) and 865 received a discharge prescription for spironolactone. Using propensity scores for spironolactone use, we assembled a matched cohort of 1724 (862 pairs) patients receiving and not receiving spironolactone, balanced on 58 baseline characteristics (Creatinine Cohort: mean age, 75 years, 42% women, 17% African American). We repeated the above process to assemble a secondary matched cohort of 1638 (819 pairs) patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (eGFR Cohort: mean age, 75 years, 42% women, 17% African American). RESULTS: In the matched Creatinine Cohort, spironolactone-associated hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality, heart failure readmission, and combined endpoint of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality were 0.92 (0.81-1.03), 0.87 (0.77-0.99), and 0.87 (0.79-0.97), respectively. Respective hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) in the matched eGFR Cohort were 0.87 (0.77-0.98), 0.92 (0.80-1.05), and 0.91 (0.82-1.02). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide evidence of consistent, albeit modest, clinical effectiveness of spironolactone in older patients with HFrEF regardless of renal eligibility criteria used. Additional strategies are needed to improve the effectiveness of aldosterone antagonists in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Registros , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Am J Ther ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs-ARBs) improve outcomes in heart failure (HF). Less is known about this association in nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: Of the 8024 hospitalized HF patients, 542 were NH residents, of whom 250 received ACEIs-ARBs. We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 157 pairs of NH residents receiving and not receiving ACEIs-ARBs balanced on 29 baseline characteristics (mean age, 83 years, 74% women, 17% African American), in which we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes associated with ACEI-ARB use. We then checked for interaction in a matched cohort of 5130 patients (378 were NH residents) assembled from the 8024 patients. RESULTS: Among 314 matched NH residents, HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day all-cause readmission, HF readmission, and all-cause mortality were 0.78 (0.47-1.28), 0.68 (0.29-1.60), and 1.26 (0.70-2.27), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) at 1 year were 0.76 (0.56-1.02), 0.68 (0.42-1.09), and 1.04 (0.78-1.38). Among 5130 matched patients, ACEI-ARB use was associated with a significantly lower risk of all outcomes at both times, with no significant interactions, except for 1-year mortality, which was only significant in the non-NH subgroup (P for interaction, 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the use of ACEIs or ARBs is associated with improved outcomes in patients with HF in the NH setting. However, we also found no evidence that this association is different in NH residents with HF versus non-NH patients with HF. Future larger studies are needed to demonstrate effectiveness of these drugs in the NH setting.

13.
Curr Pharm Des ; 24(31): 3658-3664, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major Cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Accumulating evidence supports a linear association between LDL-C levels and CV risk. However, the lower limit of LDL-C that might offer CV benefits without any safety concerns is still a topic of debate. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present the safety of reducing LDL-C to low levels as it comes from major lipid-lowering drug studies, and to discuss data on several safety events that have been associated with low LDL-C levels. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify available data from clinical studies evaluating the association of low LDL-C with safety outcomes. RESULTS: Several large trials have evaluated the safety or reducing LDL-C to levels lower than 50 mg/dl or even lower than 25 mg/dl, more commonly with the use of a combination of statins with ezetimibe or proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. In almost all trials, CV benefits were observed with LDL-C levels of 50 mg/dl or less compared with higher levels. In terms of safety, reduction of LDL-C to such levels was not associated with any significant adverse event. Of importance, cancer and hemorrhagic stroke incidences were not increased in patients attaining LDL-C lower than 40-50 mg/dl. Data regarding the impact of lowering LDL-C with neurocognitive disorders are contradictory; nevertheless, most studies stand in favor of neurocognitive safety with LDL-C reductions to low levels. CONCLUSION: Achieving an LDL-C of 40-50 mg/dl seems to be safe, and importantly might offer CV beneficial effects. Data for attaining levels below 25 mg/dl is limited, however in favor of such reductions.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Homeostase , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(4): 288-297, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450487

RESUMO

Importance: Lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels are associated with poor outcomes in patients with heart failure. Less is known about this association in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Objective: To determine the associations of SBP levels with mortality and other outcomes in HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: A propensity score-matched observational study of the Medicare-linked Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF) registry included 25 354 patients who were discharged alive; 8873 (35.0%) had an ejection fraction of at least 50%, and of these, 3915 (44.1%) had stable SBP levels (≤20 mm Hg admission to discharge variation). Data were collected from 259 hospitals in 48 states between March 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2003, to December 31, 2008. Exposure: Discharge SBP levels less than 120 mm Hg. A total of 1076 of 3915 (27.5%) had SBP levels less than 120 mm Hg, of whom 901 (83.7%) were matched by propensity scores with 901 patients with SBP levels of 120 mm Hg or greater who were balanced on 58 baseline characteristics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thirty-day, 1-year, and overall all-cause mortality and heart failure readmission through December 31, 2008. Results: The 1802 matched patients had a mean (SD) age of 79 (10) years; 1147 (63.7%) were women, and 134 (7.4%) were African American. Thirty-day all-cause mortality occurred in 91 (10%) and 45 (5%) of matched patients with discharge SBP of less than 120 mm Hg vs 120 mm Hg or greater, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.45-2.95; P < .001). Systolic blood pressure level less than 120 mm Hg was also associated with a higher risk of mortality at 1 year (39% vs 31%; HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.16-1.59; P < .001) and during a median follow-up of 2.1 (overall 6) years (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.30; P = .005). Systolic blood pressure level less than 120 mm Hg was associated with a higher risk of heart failure readmission at 30 days (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.08-2.01; P = .02) but not at 1 or 6 years. Hazard ratios for the combined end point of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality associated with SBP level less than 120 mm at 30 days, 1 year, and overall were 1.71 (95% CI, 1.34-2.18; P < .001), 1.21 (95% CI, 1.07-1.38; P = .004), and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.24; P = .03), respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among hospitalized patients with HFpEF, an SBP level less than 120 mm Hg is significantly associated with poor outcomes. Future studies need to prospectively evaluate optimal SBP treatment goals in patients with HFpEF.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
15.
Curr Pharm Des ; 24(46): 5500-5507, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists are a second-line class of antihypertensive drugs, which have been accounted for as the optimal add-on therapy in the triple algorithm for the management of resistant hypertension. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in the treatment of patients with essential hypertension and resistant hypertension. METHOD: We conducted a meticulous review of the literature and comprehensive identification of the clinical trials assessing the efficacy of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in individuals with primary and resistant hypertension. RESULTS: MRAs have been thoroughly tested in several clinical studies in relevance to blood pressure lowering effects, over the last six decades. Accumulating data observed that MRAs resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure level in patients with resistant hypertension. In addition, spironolactone was found to beneficially affect the management of resistant hypertension. CONCLUSION: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists exert a significant antihypertensive effect. Future welldesigned randomized controlled studies are greatly needed to address crucial clinical aspects in the field.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/classificação , Humanos
17.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 93(3): 333-336, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174511

RESUMO

An inverse association between physical activity or fitness status and health outcomes has been reported by several cohort studies. When fitness categories are established in quartiles or quintiles based on the peak exercise capacity achieved, the association is graded. Although significant health benefits of increased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have been uniformly reported, the degree of protection has varied substantially between studies. This variability is likely due to varying methods used to define CRF categories, and not considering age, despite its strong effect on CRF. To ameliorate these methodological discrepancies, we propose standardized guidelines by which age-specific CRF categories should be defined.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Equivalente Metabólico , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Padrões de Referência
18.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 16(3): 239-245, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28637408

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common diseases worldwide, affecting more than 30% of general population. High-fat diets, physical inactivity and obesity, all prevalent in the western societies, are strongly associated with the development and progression of NAFLD. Current drug therapies have not consistently shown substantial beneficial effects. Thus, lifestyle modification appears to be the optimal intervention in combating the disease. Accordingly, several studies have concluded that weight loss, via increase in physical activity, and dietary interventions could potential ameliorate biochemical, histological, and structural abnormalities of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of these lifestyle intervention studies and discuss the implementation of each intervention, and its effectiveness in the management of the disease in everyday clinical practice.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Mediterrânea , Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Estado Nutricional , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Perda de Peso
19.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 16(3): 209-213, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676024

RESUMO

First described in 1980, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become more common although the exact incidence and prevalence is unknown. While the exact prevalence varies from region to region, the overall trend shows an increased number of patients with NAFLD. Risk factors for the development of NAFLD includes advanced age, male gender, obesity, and having elements of the metabolic syndrome. There is also an association between the presence of NAFLD and coronary atherosclerosis. Persons of Hispanic descent tend to have higher rates of NAFLD when compared with other populations. Genetics, specifically polymorphisms in the gene PNPLA3, may explain the difference among these different groups. As the rates of obesity increases throughout the world, it is anticipated that the rate of NAFLD will continue to increase. This has large scale implications on the rates of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplantation and cardiovascular events that could impact hundreds of millions of people.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Saúde Global , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Incidência , Lipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(11)2017 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29101118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence indicates that reducing systolic blood pressure (BP) to <140 mm Hg improves health outcomes; however, an optimal level has not yet been determined. Many population studies or post hoc analyses suggest a target systolic BP between 120 and 140 mm Hg with increased risk above and below that range. We tested the hypothesis that consistent control of systolic BP between 120 and 140 mm Hg-time in therapeutic range-is a strong determinant of all-cause mortality among US veterans. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 689 051 individuals from 15 Veterans Administration Medical Centers were followed over a 10-year period. Participants were classified as hypertensive, intermediate hypertensive, and normotensive according to the number of elevated BP recordings (>3, 1 or 2, and none, respectively). Time within, above, or below therapeutic range (120-140 mm Hg) was considered in quartiles and related to all-cause mortality. The study population consisted of 54% hypertensive, 19.9% intermediate, and 26.1% normotensive participants; the corresponding mortality rates for the 3 groups were 11.5%, 8%, and 1.9%, respectively (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Mortality rates for hypertensive participants with BP consistently within, above, or below the therapeutic range were 6.5%, 21.9%, and 33.1%, respectively (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). Mortality rates in hypertensive participants increased from 6.5% in the most consistently controlled quartile (>75%) to 8.9%, 15.6%, and 23.5% towards the less consistently controlled quartiles (50-75%, 25-50%, and <25%, respectively; P<0.0001 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS: An inverse and gradual association between time in therapeutic range and all-cause mortality was observed in this large veteran cohort. Consistency of BP control over time is a strong determinant of all-cause mortality, and consistency of BP control should be monitored in everyday clinical practice.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
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