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1.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320387

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between income and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Of the 5795 Medicare-eligible community-dwelling older Americans aged 65-100 years in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), 4518 (78%) were free of baseline CVD, defined as heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, or peripheral arterial disease. Of them, 1846 (41%) had lower income, defined as a total annual household income <$16,000. Using propensity scores for lower income, estimated for each of the 4518 participants, we assembled a matched cohort of 1078 pairs balanced on 42 baseline characteristics. Outcomes included centrally adjudicated incident CVD and mortality. RESULTS: Matched participants (n = 2156) had a mean age of 73 years, 63% were women, and 13% African American. During an overall follow-up of 23 years, incident CVD, all-cause mortality and the combined endpoint of incident CVD or mortality occurred in 1094 (51%), 1726 (80%) and 1867 (87%) individuals, respectively. Compared with the higher income group, hazard ratio (HR) for time to the first occurrence of incident CVD in the lower income group was 1.16 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.03 to 1.31. A lower income was also associated with a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.08-1.30), and consequently a higher risk of the combined endpoint of incident CVD or death (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09-1.31). CONCLUSION: Among community-dwelling older Americans free of baseline CVD, an annual household income <$16,000 is independently associated with significantly higher risks of new-onset CVD and death.

2.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may prolong the QT interval, a risk factor for torsade de pointes, a potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmia. We examined the cardiovascular safety of HCQ in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted an active comparator safety study of HCQ in a propensity score-matched cohort of 8852 Veterans newly diagnosed with RA between October 1, 2001, and December 31, 2017. Patients were initiated on HCQ (n=4426) or another non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD; n=4426) after RA diagnosis, up to December 31, 2018, and followed for 12 months after therapy initiation, up to December 31, 2019. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 64 (±12) years, 14% were women, 28% African American, and were balanced on 87 baseline characteristics. There were 3 (0.03%) long QT syndrome (LQTS) events, of which 2 belonged to the HCQ group. Of the 56 (0.63%) arrhythmia-related hospitalizations, 30 belonged to the HCQ group (hazard ratio associated with HCQ, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.68-1.95). All-cause mortality occurred in 144 (3.25%) and 136 (3.07%) patients in the HCQ and non-HCQ groups, respectively (hazard ratio associated with HCQ, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.84-1.34). During the first 30 days of follow-up, there was no LQTS event, 2 arrhythmia-related hospitalizations (none in the HCQ group), and 13 deaths (6 in the HCQ group). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of LQTS and arrhythmia-related hospitalization was low in patients with RA during the first year after the initiation of HCQ or another non-biologic DMARD. We found no evidence that HCQ therapy is associated with a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events or death.

3.
J Healthc Inform Res ; : 1-20, 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681695

RESUMO

This study was to understand the impacts of three key demographic variables, age, gender, and race, on the adverse outcome of all-cause hospitalization or all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19, using a deep neural network (DNN) analysis. We created a cohort of Veterans who were tested positive for COVID-19, extracted data on age, gender, and race, and clinical characteristics from their electronic health records, and trained a DNN model for predicting the adverse outcome. Then, we analyzed the association of the demographic variables with the risks of the adverse outcome using the impact scores and interaction scores for explaining DNN models. The results showed that, on average, older age and African American race were associated with higher risks while female gender was associated with lower risks. However, individual-level impact scores of age showed that age was a more impactful risk factor in younger patients and in older patients with fewer comorbidities. The individual-level impact scores of gender and race variables had a wide span covering both positive and negative values. The interaction scores between the demographic variables showed that the interaction effects were minimal compared to the impact scores associated with them. In conclusion, the DNN model is able to capture the non-linear relationship between the risk factors and the adverse outcome, and the impact scores and interaction scores can help explain the complicated non-linear effects between the demographic variables and the risk of the outcome.

4.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513410

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the association between exercise blood pressure (BP) and mortality risk. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed CRF in 15,004 US Veterans (mean age 57.5 ± 11.2 years) who completed a standardized treadmill test between January 1, 1988 and July 28, 2017 and had no evidence of ischemia. They were classified as Unfit or Fit according to the age-specific metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved <50% (6.2 ± 1.6 METs; n = 8440) or ≥ 50% (10.5 ± 2.4 METs; n = 6264). To account for the impact of resting systolic BP (SBP) on outcomes, we calculated the difference (Peak SBP-Resting SBP) and termed it SBP-Reserve. We noted a significant increase in mortality associated with SBP-Reserve ≤52 mmHg and stratified the cohort accordingly (SBP-Reserve ≤52 mmHg and > 52 mmHg). We applied multivariable Cox models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) for outcomes. RESULTS: Mortality risk was significantly elevated only in Unfit individuals with SBP-Reserve ≤52 mmHg compared to those with SBP-Reserve >52 mmHg (HR = 1.35; CI: 1.24-1.46; P < 0.001). We then assessed the CRF and SBP-Reserve interaction on mortality risk with Fit individuals with SBP-Reserve >52 mmHg serving as the referent. Mortality risk was 92% higher (HR = 1.92%; 95% CI: 1.77-2.09; P < 0.001) in Unfit individuals with SBP-Reserve ≤52 mmHg and 47% higher (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.33-1.62; P < 0.001) in those with SBP-Reserve >52 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Low CRF was associated with increased mortality risk regardless of peak exercise SBP. The risk was substantially higher in individuals unable to augment their exercise SBP >52 mmHg beyond resting levels.

5.
Am J Med ; 134(4): e252-e263, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New hypertension and heart failure guidelines recommend that systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and hypertension be lowered to <130 mm Hg. METHODS: Of the 6778 hospitalized patients with HFpEF and a history of hypertension in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 3111 had a discharge SBP <130 mm Hg. Using propensity scores for SBP <130 mm Hg, we assembled a matched cohort of 1979 pairs with SBP <130 versus ≥130 mm Hg, balanced on 66 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years; 69% women; 12% African American). We then assembled a second matched cohort of 1326 pairs with SBP <120 versus ≥130 mm Hg. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes associated with SBP <130 and <120 mm Hg were separately estimated in the matched cohorts using SBP ≥130 mm Hg as the reference. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day, 12-month, and 6-year all-cause mortality associated with SBP <130 mm Hg were 1.20 (0.91-1.59; P = 0.200), 1.11 (0.99-1.26; P = 0.080), and 1.05 (0.98-1.14; P = 0.186), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) associated with SBP <120 mm Hg were 1.68 (1.21-2.34; P = 0.002), 1.28 (1.11-1.48; P = 0.001), and 1.11 (1.02-1.22; P = 0.022). There was no association with readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Among older patients with HFpEF and hypertension, compared with SBP ≥130 mm Hg, the new target SBP <130 mm Hg had no association with outcomes but SBP <120 mm Hg was associated with a higher risk of death but not of readmission. Future prospective studies need to evaluate optimal SBP treatment goals in these patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hipertensão/complicações , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Medicare , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
6.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 19(3): 323-342, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) still remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is now established that inflammation plays a crucial role in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, and thus, it is closely linked to cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise the most relevant evidence regarding the potential use of inflammatory markers in the field of CVD. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive research of the relevant literature, searching MEDLINE from its inception until November 2018, primarily for meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials and observational studies. RESULTS: Established markers of inflammation, mainly C-reactive protein, have yielded significant results both for primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Newer markers, such as lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1, cytokines, myeloperoxidase, cell adhesion molecules, matrix metalloproteinases, and the CD40/CD40 ligand system, have been largely evaluated in human studies, enrolling both individuals from the general population and patients with established CVD. Some markers have yielded conflicting results; however, others are now recognized not only as promising biomarkers of CVD, but also as potential therapeutic targets, establishing the role of anti-inflammatory and pleiotropic drugs in CVD. CONCLUSION: There is significant evidence regarding the role of consolidated and novel inflammatory markers in the field of diagnosis and prognosis of CVD. However, multimarker model assessment, validation of cut-off values and cost-effectiveness analyses are required in order for those markers to be integrated into daily clinical practice.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/mortalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Transdução de Sinais
7.
Am J Med ; 134(6): 797-804, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of loop diuretics on clinical outcomes in heart failure has not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. In hospitalized patients with heart failure, a discharge loop diuretic prescription has been shown to be associated with improved 30-day outcomes, which appears to be more pronounced in subgroups with congestion. In the current study, we examined these associations and association modifications during longer follow-up. METHODS: We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 2191 pairs of hospitalized heart failure patients discharged with, vs without, a prescription for loop diuretics, balanced on 74 baseline characteristics (mean age 78 years; 54% women; 11% African American). RESULTS: Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 6-year combined endpoint of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality was 1.02 (0.96-1.09). HRs and 95% CIs for this combined endpoint in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe pulmonary rales were 1.19 (1.07-1.33), 0.95 (0.86-1.04), and 0.77 (0.63-0.94), respectively (P for interaction, < .001). Respective HRs (95% CIs) for no, mild-to-moderate, and severe lower extremity edema were 1.16 (1.06-1.28), 0.94 (0.85-1.04), and 0.71 (0.56-0.89; interaction P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The association between a discharge loop diuretic prescription and long-term clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with heart failure is modified by admission congestion with worse, neutral, and better outcomes in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe congestion, respectively. If these findings can be replicated, congestion may be used to risk-stratify patients with heart failure for potential optimization of loop diuretic prescription and outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/farmacologia , Tempo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/uso terapêutico
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(6): 669-679, 2020 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Fluid retention and shortness of breath are its cardinal manifestations for which loop diuretics are used. Although their usefulness is well accepted, less is known about their role in improving clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between loop diuretics and clinical outcomes in patients with HF. METHODS: Of the 25,345 older patients hospitalized for HF in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF (Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure) registry, 9,866 (39%) received no pre-admission diuretics. The study excluded 1,083 patients receiving dialysis and 847 discharged on thiazide diuretics. Of the remaining 7,936 patients, 5,568 (70%) were prescribed loop diuretics at discharge. Using propensity scores for receipt of loop diuretics estimated for each of the 7,936 patients, a matched cohort of 2,191 pairs of patients was assembled balanced on 74 baseline characteristics. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated in the matched cohort. RESULTS: Matched patients (n = 4,382) had a mean age of 78 years, 54% were women, and 11% were African American. The 30-day all-cause mortality occurred in 4.9% (107 of 2,191) and 6.6% (144 of 2,191) of patients in the loop diuretic and no loop diuretic groups, respectively (HR when the use of loop diuretics was compared with nonuse: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.94; p = 0.016). Patients in the loop diuretic group had a significantly lower risk of 30-day HF readmission (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.99; p = 0.037) but not of 30-day all-cause readmission (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.01; p = 0.081). None of the associations was statistically significant during 60 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized older patients not taking diuretics prior to hospitalization for HF decompensation who received a discharge prescription for loop diuretics had significantly better 30-day clinical outcomes than those not discharged on loop diuretics. These findings provide new information about short-term clinical benefits associated with loop diuretic use in HF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Am J Med ; 133(12): 1460-1470, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digoxin reduces the risk of heart failure hospitalization but has no effect on mortality in patients with heart failure without atrial fibrillation in the randomized controlled trial setting. Observational studies of digoxin use in patients with atrial fibrillation have suggested a higher risk for poor outcomes. Less is known about this association in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation, the examination of which was the objective of the current study. METHODS: We conducted an observational propensity score-matched study of predischarge digoxin initiation in 1768 hospitalized patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation in the Medicare-linked Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF) registry, balanced on 56 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years; 55% women; 7% African American). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated for the 884 patients initiated on digoxin compared with 884 not initiated on digoxin. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day, 2-year, and 4-year all-cause mortality were 0.80 (0.55-1.18; P = .261), 0.94 (0.87-1.16; P = .936), and 1.01 (0.90-1.14; P = .729), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) for heart failure readmission were 0.67 (0.49-0.92; P = .014), 0.81 (0.69-0.94; P = .005), and 0.85 (0.74-0.97; P = .022), and those for all-cause readmission were 0.78 (0.64-0.96; P = .016), 0.90 (0.81-1.00; P = .057), and 0.91 (0.83-1.01; P = .603). These associations were homogeneous between patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% vs >45%. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized older patients with heart failure (HFrEF and HFpEF) and atrial fibrillation, initiation of digoxin was associated with a lower risk of heart failure readmission but had no association with mortality.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 794-803, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319205

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypokalaemia is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in ambulatory patients with chronic heart failure (HF). The objective of this study was to examine the association between hypokalaemia and outcomes in hospitalized patients with decompensated HF in whom sudden death is less common. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of the 5881 hospitalized patients with HF, 1052 had consistent hypokalaemia (both admission and discharge serum potassium <4.0 mmol/L), and 2538 had consistent normokalaemia (both admission and discharge serum potassium 4.0-5.0 mmol/L). Propensity scores for consistent hypokalaemia, estimated for each of 3590 (1052 + 2538) patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 971 pairs of patients with consistent hypokalaemia vs. consistent normokalaemia, balanced on 54 baseline characteristics (mean age, 75 years; 60% women; 28% African American). We repeated the above process to assemble 2327 pairs of patients with discharge potassium <4.0 vs. 4.0-5.0 mmol/L and 449 pairs of patients with discharge serum potassium <3.5 vs. 4.0-5.0 mmol/L. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with hypokalaemia were estimated in matched cohorts. 30 day all-cause mortality occurred in 5% and 4% of patients with consistent normokalaemia vs. consistent hypokalaemia, respectively (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.52-1.18; P = 0.241). HRs (95% CI) for 30 day mortality associated with discharge serum potassium <4.0 and <3.5 mmol/L were 0.90 (0.70-1.16; P = 0.419) and 1.69 (0.94-3.04; P = 0.078), respectively. Hypokalaemia (<4.0 or <3.5 mmol/L) had no association with long-term mortality or other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized older patients with HF, compared with normokalaemia (serum potassium 4.0-5.0 mmol/L), hypokalaemia (<4.0 or <3.5 mmol/L) had no significant associations with outcomes.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipopotassemia , Idoso , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipopotassemia/complicações , Hipopotassemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Potássio , Pontuação de Propensão
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(6): 887-893, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983390

RESUMO

Several studies addressed cardiovascular risk and mortality in the general population, but data in veteran patients is lacking. This study was designed to investigate the association between echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and all-cause mortality in a male, high-risk group of veterans. Valid echocardiograms were evaluated in 10,406 male veterans, mean age 68.3 ± 13 years. Using the left ventricular mass/body surface area (LVM/BSA) method 6,575 (63.1%) patients had normal left LVMI and 3,831 (37.9%) had LVH, defined as LVMI ≥116 g/m2. Of those 1,371 (13.2%) had mild LVH, 1,025 (9.9%) moderate LVH, 605 (5.8%) severe, and 830 (8%) had extreme LVH. After a mean follow up of 5.9 ± 4.4 years, a total of 3,550 (34.1%) patients died. Cox proportional hazard analyses adjusted for co-morbidities revealed increased risk for individuals with mild LVH (hazard ratios [HR] 1.21; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.09 to 1.33); moderate LVH (HR 1.37; 95% CI: 1.23 to 1.52); severe (HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.19 to 1.56); and extreme LVH, (HR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.74 to 2.17). Similar findings were observed when LVMI was defined by LVM/m2.7. When LVM index was introduced as a continuous variable, mortality risk was 6.2% higher per 10-unit change in LVMI, and 9.4% higher when defined by the m2.7 method. There was no difference in mortality risk between black and white patients, or patients with concentric or eccentric LVH. We conclude that increased LVMI was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. The incremental risk was significantly higher in patients with extreme LVH.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/mortalidade , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Estados Unidos
14.
Am J Ther ; 27(4): e356-e365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of opioids is associated with poor outcomes. Less is known about this association in patients with heart failure (HF) and whether it varies by the receipt of hospice care. METHODS: Of the 7467 patients hospitalized for HF without previous opioid use, 124 received discharge opioids. We matched 123 of these patients with 123 not receiving opioids based on their propensity scores for opioid use, thus assembling a matched cohort of 246 patients balanced on 30 baseline characteristics (mean age, 76 years, 60% women, and 11% African American). We repeated the process in hospice (n = 155; 20 received opioids) and nonhospice (n = 7298; 104 received opioids) subgroups, thus assembling 2 matched cohorts of 22 and 208 patients, respectively. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with opioid use were estimated from matched cohorts. RESULTS: During 8.6 (median, 1.4) years of follow-up, all-cause mortality occurred in 80% and 68% of matched patients in the opioid and nonopioid groups, respectively (HR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-1.99; P = 0.008). There was evidence of heterogeneity in this association between hospice and nonhospice patients (P for interaction, 0.027). Among matched hospice and nonhospice patients, HRs (95% CIs) for mortality were 6.37 (2.06-19.69; P = 0.001) and 1.42 (1.03-1.96; P = 0.035), respectively. HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day and 1-year mortality were 1.98 (1.06-3.70; P = 0.033) and 1.72 (1.18-2.49; P = 0.004), respectively. HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause, HF, and non-HF readmissions were 1.31 (0.97-1.76; P = 0.079), 1.03 (0.71-1.49; P = 0.866), and 1.75 (1.05-2.91; P = 0.031), respectively. Readmission associations were similar among matched nonhospice patients. There was no readmission among matched hospice patients receiving opioids. CONCLUSIONS: In older patients with HF, opioid use is associated with a higher risk of mortality, which is greater in the hospice subgroup, and a higher risk of non-HF readmission in the nonhospice subgroup.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alabama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Curr Hypertens Rev ; 16(1): 19-23, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary aldosteronism is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. Patients with this endocrine syndrome are at increased cardiovascular risk, higher than hypertensive individuals with equal blood pressure levels. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to thoroughly present and critically discuss the novel insights into the field of primary aldosteronism, focusing on the clinically meaningful aspects. METHOD: We meticulously evaluated existing data in the field of primary aldosteronism in order to summarize future perspectives in this narrative review. RESULTS: Novel data suggests that a subclinical form of primary aldosteronism might exist. Interesting findings might simplify the diagnostic procedure of the disease, especially for the localization of primary aldosteronism. The most promising progress has been noted in the field of the molecular basis of the disease, suggesting new potential therapeutic targets. CONCLUSION: Several significant aspects are at early stages of evaluation. Future research is essential to investigate these well-promising perspectives.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperaldosteronismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hiperaldosteronismo/diagnóstico , Hiperaldosteronismo/epidemiologia , Hiperaldosteronismo/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Am J Med ; 133(2): e25-e31, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) treatment trial, similar clinical benefits were observed between starting doses of enalapril and the target dose achieved by postrandomization up-titration. In our current analysis, protecting the randomization, we examined the early effects of starting doses of enalapril. METHODS: There were 2569 patients with mild-to-moderate chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (ejection fraction ≤35%) randomized to receive starting doses (5-10 mg/day) of placebo (n = 1284) or enalapril (n = 1285). At day 14, both study drugs were blindly up-titrated to the target dose (20 mg/day). Overall, 96% (2458/2569) of the patients returned for dose up-titration, which was achieved in 59% (1444/2458), 48% (696/1444) of whom were in the enalapril group. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes in the enalapril group were estimated. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and the combined endpoint of heart failure hospitalization or all-cause mortality at 14 days after randomization were 0.80 (0.32-2.03), 0.63 (0.35-1.12), and 0.65 (0.39-1.06), respectively. Corresponding HRs (95% CIs) at 30 days were 0.82 (0.41-1.67), 0.43 (0.27-0.68), and 0.43 (0.27-0.68), respectively. The magnitude of these early effects of starting doses of enalapril is similar to its previously reported long-term effects at the target dose. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that in stable ambulatory patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, the magnitude of the early effect of starting doses of enalapril is similar to that observed during longer-term therapy with the target doses of the drug.


Assuntos
Enalapril/administração & dosagem , Enalapril/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Am J Ther ; 27(3): e235-e242, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs-ARBs) improve outcomes in heart failure (HF). Less is known about this association in nursing home (NH) residents. METHODS: Of the 8024 hospitalized HF patients, 542 were NH residents, of whom 250 received ACEIs-ARBs. We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 157 pairs of NH residents receiving and not receiving ACEIs-ARBs balanced on 29 baseline characteristics (mean age, 83 years, 74% women, 17% African American), in which we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes associated with ACEI-ARB use. We then checked for interaction in a matched cohort of 5130 patients (378 were NH residents) assembled from the 8024 patients. RESULTS: Among 314 matched NH residents, HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day all-cause readmission, HF readmission, and all-cause mortality were 0.78 (0.47-1.28), 0.68 (0.29-1.60), and 1.26 (0.70-2.27), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) at 1 year were 0.76 (0.56-1.02), 0.68 (0.42-1.09), and 1.04 (0.78-1.38). Among 5130 matched patients, ACEI-ARB use was associated with a significantly lower risk of all outcomes at both times, with no significant interactions, except for 1-year mortality, which was only significant in the non-NH subgroup (P for interaction, 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the use of ACEIs or ARBs is associated with improved outcomes in patients with HF in the NH setting. However, we also found no evidence that this association is different in NH residents with HF versus non-NH patients with HF. Future larger studies are needed to demonstrate effectiveness of these drugs in the NH setting.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alabama/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 18(2): 117-124, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic, non communicable, multisystem disease that has reached epidemic proportions. Chronic exposure to hyperglycaemia affects the microvasculature, eventually leading to diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy and neuropathy with high impact on the quality of life and overall life expectancy. Sexual dysfunction is an often-overlooked microvascular complication of T2DM, with a complex pathogenesis originating from endothelial dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to present current definitions, epidemiological data and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and sexual dysfunction. We also describe the clinical and laboratory evaluation that is mandatory for the diagnosis of these conditions. METHODS: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to identify data from clinical studies for the prevalence, risk factors and diagnostic methods of microvascular complications of T2DM. RESULTS: Diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy affect approximately 25% of patients with T2DM; diabetic neuropathy is encountered in almost 50% of the diabetic population, while the prevalence of erectile dysfunction ranges from 35-90% in diabetic men. The duration of T2DM along with glycemic, blood pressure and lipid control are common risk factors for the development of these complications. Criteria for the diagnosis of these conditions are well established, but exclusion of other causes is mandatory. CONCLUSION: Early detection of microvascular complications associated with T2DM is important, as early intervention leads to better outcomes. However, this requires awareness of their definition, prevalence and diagnostic modalities.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Retinopatia Diabética/epidemiologia , Retinopatia Diabética/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/diagnóstico , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia
20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(24): 3054-3063, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National guidelines recommend that systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and hypertension be maintained below 130 mm Hg. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine associations of SBP <130 mm Hg with outcomes in patients with HFrEF. METHODS: Of the 25,345 patients in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 10,535 had an ejection fraction (EF) ≤40%. Of these, 5,615 had stable SBP (≤20 mm Hg admission to discharge variation), and 3,805 (68%) had a discharge SBP <130 mm Hg. Propensity scores for SBP <130 mm Hg, estimated for each of the 5,615 patients, were used to assemble a matched cohort of 1,189 pairs of patients with SBP <130 versus ≥130 mm Hg, balanced on 58 baseline characteristics (mean age 76 years; mean EF 28%, 45% women, 13% African American). This process was repeated in 3,946 patients, after excluding 1,669 patients (30% of 5,615) with a discharge SBP <110 mm Hg and assembled a second matched balanced cohort of 1,099 pairs of patients with SBP 110 to 129 mm Hg versus ≥130 mm Hg. RESULTS: Thirty-day all-cause mortality occurred in 7% and 4% of matched patients with SBP <130 mm Hg versus ≥130 mm Hg, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 to 2.48; p = 0.001). HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, and HF readmission at 1 year, associated with SBP <130 mm Hg, were 1.32 (1.15 to 1.53; p < 0.001), 1.11 (1.01 to 1.23; p = 0.030), and 1.24 (1.09 to 1.42; p = 0.001), respectively. HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality associated with SBP 110 to 129 mm Hg (vs. ≥130 mm Hg) were 1.50 (1.03 to 2.19; p = 0.035), and 1.19 (1.02 to 1.39; p = 0.029), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized older patients with HFrEF, SBP <130 mm Hg is associated with poor outcomes. This association persisted when the analyses were repeated after excluding patients with SBP <110 mm Hg. There is an urgent need for randomized controlled trials to evaluate optimal SBP reduction goals in patients with HFrEF.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
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