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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262784, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35108300

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Even if now we have available the weapon of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, the patients with cancer remains a very frail population in which frequently the immunologic response to vaccination may be impaired. In this setting, the SARS-CoV-2 infection screening retains a great value. However, there are still limited data on the feasibility and efficacy of combined screening procedures to assess the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (including asymptomatic cases) in cancer outpatients undergoing antineoplastic therapy. PATIENTS AND RESULTS: From May 1, 2020, to June 15, 2020, during the first wave of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, 860 consecutive patients, undergoing active anticancer therapy, were evaluated and tested for SARS-CoV-2 with a combined screening procedure, including a self-report questionnaire, a molecular nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and a rapid serological immunoassay (for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies). The primary endpoint of the study was to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection (including asymptomatic cases) in consecutive and unselected cancer outpatients by a combined screening modality. A total of 2955 SARS-CoV-2 NPS and 860 serological tests, in 475 patients with hematologic cancers and in 386 with solid tumors, were performed. A total of 112 (13%) patients self-reported symptoms potentially COVID-19 related. In 1/860 cases (< 1%) SARS-CoV-2 NPS was positive and in 14 cases (1.62%) the specific serological test was positive (overall prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection 1.62%). Of the 112 cases who declared symptoms potentially COVID-19-related, only 2.7% (3/112) were found SARS-CoV-2 positive. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study reporting the feasibility of a combined screening procedure (including triage, NPS and serologic test) to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients receiving active therapy, during the first epidemic wave and under the restrictive lockdown measures, in one of the active areas of the SARS-CoV-2 circulation. Lacking specific recommendations for the detection of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 cases, a combined diagnostic screening might be more effective to detect the exact prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in neoplastic patient population. The prevalence can obviously change according to the territorial context, the entity of the restrictive measures adopted and the phase of the epidemic curve. However, its exact and real-time knowledge could be important to balance risks/benefits of oncologic treatments, avoiding (if the prevalence is low) the reduction of dose intensity or the selection of less intensive (but also less effective) anti-cancer therapies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comorbidade , Programas de Triagem Diagnóstica/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Imunoglobulina M , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Testes Sorológicos
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(14)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298718

RESUMO

Different de-escalation strategies have been proposed to limit the risk of cumulative toxicity and guarantee quality of life during the treatment trajectory of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Programmed treatment interruptions, defined as drug holidays (DHs), have been implemented in clinical practice. We evaluated the association between DHs and overall survival (OS). This was a retrospective study, conducted at the University Hospital of Udine and the IRCCS CRO of Aviano. We retrieved records of 608 consecutive patients treated for mCRC from 1 January 2005 to 15 March 2017 and evaluated the impact of different de-escalation strategies (maintenance, DHs, or both) on OS through uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses. We also looked at attrition rates across treatment lines according to the chosen strategy. In our study, 19.24% of patients received maintenance therapy, 16.12% DHs, and 9.87% both, while 32.07% continued full-intensity first-line treatment up to progression or death. In uni- and multivariate analyses first-line continuous treatment and early discontinuation (treatment for less than 3 months) were associated to worse OS compared to non-continuous strategies (HR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.22-2.32; p = 0.002 and HR,4.89; 95% CI, 3.33-7.19; p < 0.001, respectively). Attrition rates were 22.8%, 20.61%, and 19.64% for maintenance, DHs, or both, respectively. For continuous therapy and for treatment of less than 3 months it was 21.57% and 49%. De-escalation strategies are safe and effective options. DHs after initial induction chemotherapy may be considered in clinically selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

3.
Tumori ; 107(6): 478-482, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180297

RESUMO

Oncology is going through the fastest innovation period in the history of medicine and a growing number of patients improve or experience increased chances of survival. The declining death rate, starting from 1991, resulted in 2.9 million deaths avoided in the United States so far. A growing prevalence of patients is observed in all Western countries. New cancer drug approvals between 2000 and 2016, linked to other diagnostic, surgical, and health care improvements, were significantly associated with death reduction for the most common cancers. Alongside many positive aspects, other effects of innovations in oncology also deserve attention, especially challenges associated with the substantial increase of knowledge volume, the sharp growth of prevalence, and a concomitant or consequent increase in clinical, social, and organizational complexity. We analyse some of the consequences of oncology innovation on healthcare systems and professionals and present some suggestions on how these could be addressed by healthcare systems.


Assuntos
Invenções , Oncologia/métodos , Oncologia/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Invenções/tendências , Oncologia/organização & administração , Oncologia/normas , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/terapia
4.
Breast ; 57: 104-112, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocrine therapy (ET) plus cyclin-dependent-kinases 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) represents the standard treatment for luminal-metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, prospective head-to-head comparisons are still lacking for 1st line (L) options, and it is still crucial to define the best strategy between 1st and 2nd L. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 717 consecutive luminal-MBC pts treated between 2008 and 2020 were analyzed at the Oncology Department of Aviano and Udine, Italy. Differences about survival outcomes (OS, PFS and PPS) were tested by log-rank test. The attrition rate (AR) between 1st and 2ndL was calculated. RESULTS: At 1stL, pts were treated with ET (49%), chemotherapy (CT) (31%) and ET-CDKi (20%) while, at 2ndL, 33% received ET, 33% CT and 8% ET-CDKi. Overall AR was 10%, 7% for CT, 8% for ET and 17% for ET-CDKi. By multivariate analysis, 1stL ET-CDK4/6i showed a better mPFS1 and OS. Moreover, 2ndL ET-CDK4/6i demonstrated better mPFS2 compared to ET and CT. Notably, 1stL ET-CDKi resulted in higher mPFS than 2ndL ET-CDKi. Intriguingly, 1stL ET-CDK4/6i was associated with worse mPPS compared to CT and ET. Secondarily, 1stL ET-CDK4/6i followed by CT had worse OS compared to 1stL ET-CDK4/6i followed by ET. Notably, none of baseline characteristics at 2ndL influenced 2ndL treatment choice (ET vs. CT) after ET-CDKi. CONCLUSION: Our real-world data demonstrated that ET-CDKi represents the best option for 1stL luminal-MBC compared to ET and CT. Also, the present study pointed out that 2ndL ET, potentially combined with other molecules, could be a feasible option after CDK4/6i failure, postponing CT on later lines.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Quinase 4 Dependente de Ciclina/uso terapêutico , Quinase 6 Dependente de Ciclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hormônios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 112-116, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743478

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been an overwhelming challenge for worldwide health systems. Since the beginning of year 2020, COVID-19 has represented a potential harm for cancer patients and has often hindered oncology care. The Collegio Italiano dei Primari Oncologi Medici (CIPOMO) is an Italian association of head physicians in oncology departments, which promotes working and research activities in oncology on a national basis. During the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic, the CIPOMO promoted a national survey aiming to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on oncologists' clinical activity and what changes have been made compared with the Italian situation during the first wave of the pandemic. Overall, 138 heads of medical oncology departments participated in this survey: 75 (54%) from the North, 24 (17%) from the Centre and 39 (28%) from the South of Italy and islands. This survey provides an overview of Italian oncologists facing the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic. The lesson learned during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic has led to a better organisation of clinical activities, and regular testing among healthcare practitioners, with better chances to grant patients' protection. However, the lack of standardised informatic platforms results in serious challenges in replacing frontal visits, often making a concrete reduction of patients' hospital accesses unfeasible. Oncologists need to keep preserving the continuum of care of patients. Standardisation of safety measures, together with the implementation of informatic platforms, can significantly improve oncology pathways during this second wave of COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Neoplasias/terapia , Oncologistas , Padrões de Prática Médica , Telemedicina , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Programas de Rastreamento , Serviço Hospitalar de Oncologia/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Oncologist ; 26(4): e694-e703, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triage procedures have been implemented to limit hospital access and minimize infection risk among patients with cancer during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. In the absence of prospective evidence, we aimed to evaluate the predictive performance of a triage system in the oncological setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study analyzes hospital admissions to the oncology and hematology department of Udine, Italy, during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 30 to April 30, 2020). A total of 3,923 triage procedures were performed, and data of 1,363 individual patients were reviewed. RESULTS: A self-report triage questionnaire identified 6% of triage-positive procedures, with a sensitivity of 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 43.0%-85.4%), a specificity of 94.3% (95% CI, 93.5%-95.0%), and a positive predictive value of 5.9% (95% CI, 4.3%-8.0%) for the identification of patients who were not admitted to the hospital after medical review. Patients with thoracic cancer (odds ratio [OR], 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13-2.53, p = .01), younger age (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.15-2.01, p < .01), and body temperature at admission ≥37°C (OR, 9.52; 95% CI, 5.44-16.6, p < .0001) had increased risk of positive triage. Direct hospital access was warranted to 93.5% of cases, a further 6% was accepted after medical evaluation, whereas 0.5% was refused at admission. CONCLUSION: A self-report questionnaire has a low positive predictive value to triage patients with cancer and suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) symptoms. Differential diagnosis with tumor- or treatment-related symptoms is always required to avoid unnecessary treatment delays. Body temperature measurement improves the triage process's overall sensitivity, and widespread SARS-CoV-2 testing should be implemented to identify asymptomatic carriers. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This is the first study to provide data on the predictive performance of a triage system in the oncological setting during the coronavirus disease outbreak. A questionnaire-based triage has a low positive predictive value to triage patients with cancer and suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) symptoms, and a differential diagnosis with tumor- or treatment-related symptoms is mandatory to avoid unnecessary treatment delays. Consequently, adequate recourses should be reallocated for a triage implementation in the oncological setting. Of note, body temperature measurement improves the overall sensitivity of the triage process, and widespread testing for SARS-CoV-2 infection should be implemented to identify asymptomatic carriers.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/complicações , Triagem/métodos , Idoso , Infecções Assintomáticas , Temperatura Corporal , Teste para COVID-19 , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(11): 1672-1677, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive vulvar Paget's disease with over-expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) protein is potentially suitable for targeted therapy, especially in a metastatic setting where no effective treatments are available. METHODS: Four consecutive patients with HER2 positive advanced vulvar Paget's disease, treated with weekly trastuzumab (loading dose 4 mg/kg, then 2 mg/kg) and paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) followed by 3-weekly trastuzumab maintenance (6 mg/kg), are reported. RESULTS: Median age and follow-up of patients were 62.5 years (45-74) and 16 months (6-54), respectively. Complete or partial responses were observed in all patients. Median time to response was 3 months (range 2-4), while median duration of response was 10 months (range 2-34). Case 1 presented with pulmonary and lymph nodes involvement. She experienced a radiological complete response after 24 treatment administrations, and a progression-free survival of 36 months. At disease progression, treatment re-challenge achieved partial response. She is currently receiving treatment with trastuzumab-emtansine. Case 2 was a 74-year-old woman who developed pulmonary metastasis after first-line cisplatin treatment. She had a partial response and a progression-free survival of 10 months. Case 3 had inguinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathy in complete response after 18 treatment administrations. She developed brain metastasis while receiving trastuzumab maintenance. Case 4 was treated for locally advanced disease and experienced a subjective benefit with relief in perineal pain and itching. No unexpected treatment-related side effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Advanced vulvar Paget's disease is a rare disorder and no standard treatment is available. In the sub-group of HER2 positive disease, weekly paclitaxel-trastuzumab appears to be active and safe, and may be considered a therapeutic option in these patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Doença de Paget Extramamária/tratamento farmacológico , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Vulvares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Uso Off-Label , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Doença de Paget Extramamária/patologia , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia
8.
Future Oncol ; 16(32): 2645-2660, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776795

RESUMO

Background: 'Drug holidays' (DH) for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were introduced to preserve quality of life. We studied factors associated to a DH offer in first line. Materials & methods: We retrospectively analyzed 754 consecutive patients treated with chemotherapy for mCRC in two Italian institutions between 2005 and 2017. Associations between baseline clinical-pathological factors and DH (56 or more days of treatment interruption) were investigated. Results: In 754 patients, previous metastasectomy, previous thermoablation and previous surgery of primary tumor were independently associated with DH. Excluding procedures or clinical trials: primary rectal cancer and resection of primary tumor were significantly associated to DH. Conclusions: DH was offered to patients with lower burden of disease, but further investigations are needed to safely guide a holiday strategy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Drugs Aging ; 37(9): 677-689, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) for the treatment of older patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still a matter of debate, despite the advent of immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with first-line PBC prescription and, secondly, to evaluate the impact of first-line PBC on survival, treatment intensity, risk of hospitalization, and subsequent treatments. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed a consecutive series of 474 older patients (age ≥ 70 years) diagnosed with stage IIIB-IV NSCLC at the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Udine, Italy from January 2009 to March 2017. RESULTS: Overall, 198 patients were deemed eligible, and 65.2% received a PBC. At multivariate analysis, older age was the only factor associated with PBC prescription. In the whole cohort, 46 patients (23.2%) were hospitalized for chemotherapy-related toxicity. Both PBC prescription (odds ratio [OR] 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-4.87, p = 0.04) and tumor burden (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.07-5.32, p = 0.03) emerged as independent risk factors for hospitalization. Moving to significant predictors of patterns of care, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status > 0 was associated with greater risk of first-line failure (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.15-4.20, p = 0.02), while bone metastases (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.12-0.69, p = 0.005) and a Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥ 3 (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.84, p = 0.016) independently predicted lower probability of receiving second-line therapy. Remarkably, PBC did not significantly impact overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.61-1.14, p = 0.24) and progression-free survival (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.70-1.28, p = 0.73) compared to single-agent chemotherapy (SAC). However, according to an exploratory landmark analysis, patients who received four cycles of treatment or maintenance therapy experienced prolonged overall survival, regardless of PBC use. CONCLUSIONS: This study evaluated the real-world use of PBC in older patients with NSCLC, offering an insight into the determinants of its prescription and the pattern of care of these patients. Of note, PBC use was associated with a higher likelihood of hospitalization for chemotherapy-related toxicity, with no benefit on survival compared to SAC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Future Oncol ; 16(27): 2059-2073, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598185

RESUMO

Aim: A monitoring strategy for metastatic breast cancer patients (M-MBC) has been little studied. Materials & methods: This retrospective study analyzed a consecutive cohort of 382 MBC patients to analyze different M-MBC strategies to identify factors influencing intensive M-MBC. Results: Elevated baseline serum tumor markers (STM) was the strongest factor associated with increased use of STM tests. Having more frequent oncology office visits was associated with more intensive chemotherapy/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using. Increased use of imaging tests was associated with participation to clinical trial. Single and elderly patients were less likely to have frequent testing. Having clinically measurable disease was less likely to have more intensive M-MBC. Conclusion: STM testing and scans were frequently ordered in M-MBC. In the present study, strategies are little influenced by clinico-pathological characteristics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Radiografia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Radiografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Conduta Expectante
11.
J Geriatr Oncol ; 11(8): 1268-1273, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging induces meaningful changes in the immune system and inflammation response with increase in monocyte-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. Aim of this study was to explore the prognostic role of MLR and LDH levels in older patients (pts) with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a consecutive cohort of 168 older (>70 years) patients with mCRC. The prognostic impact of MLR and LDH levels on overall survival (OS) was investigated through uni-and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Moreover, we categorized patients into three groups according to MLR and LDH levels (group 1: MLR-low and LDH-low; group 2: MLR-high or LDH-high; group 3: MLR-high and LDH-high). RESULTS: By univariate analysis, high LDH level (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.90) and high MLR level (HR 2.19, 95% CI 1.48-3.44) were significantly associated with a worse OS. Conversely, primary tumor resection and left-sidedness were significantly associated with a longer OS. By multivariate analysis, high LDH level (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.13-3.55) and high MLR level (HR 2.99, 95% CI 1.68-5.33) were independent prognostic factors of worse prognosis. Compared to group 1, a shorter survival was reported for patients included in group 2 (HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.21-3.23 in univariate; HR 2.54, 95% CI 1.43-4.51 in multivariate) or in group 3 (HR 2.42, 95% CI 24-4.74, p = .010 in univariate; HR 5.59, 95% CI 2.15-14.54 in multivariate) CONCLUSIONS: High baseline levels of LDH, MLR or both are independent unfavorable prognostic factors in older patients treated with first-line chemotherapy for mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Linfócitos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7010, 2020 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332763

RESUMO

High neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR) are respectively associated with systemic inflammation and immune suppression and have been associated with a poor outcome. Plasmatic exosomes are extracellular vesicles involved in the intercellular communication system that can exert an immunosuppressive function. Aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between the immune system and circulating exosomes in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A threshold capable to classify patients according to MLR, NLR and PLR, was computed through a receiving operator curve analysis after propensity score matching with a series of female blood donors. Exosomes were isolated from plasma by ExoQuick solution and characterized by flow-cytometry. NLR, MLR, PLR and exosomal subpopulations potentially involved in the pre-metastatic niche were significantly different in MBC patients with respect to controls. MLR was significantly associated with number of sites at the onset of metastatic disease, while high levels of MLR and NLR were found to be associated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, exosomal subpopulations varied according to NLR, MLR, PLR and both were associated with different breast cancer subtypes and sites of distant involvement. This study highlights the nuanced role of immunity in MBC spread, progression and outcome. Moreover, they suggest potential interaction mechanisms between immunity, MBC and the metastatic niche.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
13.
Oncologist ; 25(8): 661-668, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are circulating biomarkers that provide information about tumor-related inflammation and immune suppression. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of MLR and LDH in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This multicentric study analyzed a consecutive cohort of 528 patients with mCRC treated in 2009-2017. The whole population was randomly divided in training and validation cohort. The first was used to identify a threshold for MLR and to create the prognostic model with MLR and MLR-LDH combined (group 1: MLR-LDH low; group 2: MLR or LDH high; group 3: MLR-LDH high). The second cohort was used to validate the model. RESULTS: At the median follow-up of 55 months, median overall survival (OS) was 22 months. By multivariate analysis, high MLR >0.49 (hazard ratio [HR], 2.37; 95% confidence interval [C.I.], 1.39-4.04), high LDH (HR, 1.73; 95% C.I., 1.03-2.90) in the first model, group 2 (HR, 2.74; 95% C.I.; 1.62-4.66), and group 3 (HR, 3.73; 95% C.I., 1.94-7.18) in the combined model, had a worse prognosis in terms of OS. These data were confirmed both in the validation set and then in the whole cohort. CONCLUSION: MLR and LDH are circulating cost-effective biomarkers, readily available in clinical practice, that can be useful for predicting the prognosis of patients with mCRC. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: High monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels could be a sign of a tumor's recruitment of suppressive and inflammatory cells worsening prognosis of different types of cancer, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Currently, no data are available for metastatic CRC regarding a cutoff definition for MLR or the prognostic impact of MLR and MLR-LDH combined. The present study showed in the training cohort and confirmed in the validation and whole cohort that MLR is a reliable and independent laboratory biomarker, which is easy to use, to predict clinical outcomes in patients with mCRC. Moreover, MLR and composite MLR-LDH could potentially result in an incremental improvement in the prognostic value of these biomarkers, being used as stratification tools for patients with mCRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Lactato Desidrogenases , Linfócitos , Monócitos , Neutrófilos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
Lung Cancer ; 140: 59-64, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of any and of severe-grade immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with second-line nivolumab monotherapy is 31-65 % and 2-5 % respectively. While potentially serious and even fatal, in the absence of an appropriate therapy, such events might be indicators of the activation of the immune system and, potentially, of efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected the records of 1959 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with nivolumab in the Italian expanded access program, and we registered the appearance of any and of severe grade irAEs. We retrospectively searched for correlations between toxicity and efficacy parameters by using Cox's regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 342 (17.8%) patients developed an irAE of any grade. We observed that patients developing irAE of any grade achieved a significantly higher response rate (RR 27.2% vs 15.2%; p < 0.0001), disease control rate (DCR 60.5% vs 40.2%; p < 0.0001), median progression-free survival (mPFS 6.0 months [95% CI 4.9-7.1] vs 3.0 [95% CI: 2.8-3.2], p < 0.0001) and median overall survival (mOS 16.7 months [95% CI: 13.5-19.9] vs 9.4 [95% CI: 8.4-10.4], p < 0.00001) compared to patients who did not. At multivariate analysis the development of an irAE remained an independent indicator of nivolumab efficacy (HR 1.44 [95% CI: 1.22-1.71] p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This report, performed in Caucasian NSCLC patients, showed that the appearance of irAEs correlated with outcome.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/mortalidade , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 11: 1758835919885540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798692

RESUMO

Background: Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors represent novel therapeutic options for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, approximately 50% of patients do not benefit from therapy and experience rapid disease progression. PD-L1 expression is the only approved biomarker of benefit to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy. However, its weakness has been evidenced in many studies. More recently, tumor mutational burden (TMB) has proved to be a suitable biomarker, but its calculation is difficult to obtain for all patients. Methods: We tested specific NSCLC genetic alterations as potential immunotherapy biomarkers. Tumor DNA was obtained from advanced NSCLC patients treated with anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody nivolumab (n = 44) or pembrolizumab (n = 3). The mutational status of 22 genes was assessed by targeted next-generation sequencing and the association with survival was tested in uni- and multivariate models. The association between gene mutations and clinical benefit was also investigated. Results: The most frequently mutated genes were TP53 (49%), KRAS (43%), ERBB2 (13%), SMAD4 (13%), DDR2 (13%), STK11 (9%), ERBB4 (6%), EGFR (6%), BRAF (6%), and MET (6%). We confirmed that KRAS mut patients have a better response to PD-1 inhibitors, showing a longer progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than KRAS wt patients. In addition, we observed that patients with ERBB-family mutations, including EGFR, ERBB2, and ERBB4 all failed to respond to PD-1 antibodies, independently of KRAS status. Conclusions: This study suggests that the analysis of KRAS and ERBB-family gene mutational status is valuable when assessing the clinical practice for the selection of NSCLC patients to treat with PD-1 inhibitors.

16.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 144: 102815, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670225

RESUMO

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer of the pleural surfaces frequently related to asbestos exposure. It is characterized by a poor prognosis even for patients treated with trimodality therapy, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Moreover, the majority of patients are not candidates for surgery due to disease advanced stage or medical comorbidities. For these patients, the survival rate is even lower and few therapeutic options are currently available. Nevertheless, many interesting novel approaches are under investigation, among which immunotherapy represents one of the most promising emerging strategies. In this review, we will discuss the role of new therapeutic options, particularly immunotherapy, and present the results of the most important and promising clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunoterapia
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557965

RESUMO

The ICARUS trial is a phase II, open label, multicenter, single arm study conducted to investigate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a rechallenge treatment with the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) gefitinib in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients carrying activating mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The ICARUS trial enrolled 61 patients who were rechallenged with gefitinib at progression after second-line chemotherapy. Serum-derived circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) collected before the rechallenge from a cohort of 29 patients, was retrospectively analyzed for the EGFR exon 19 deletions and for the p.L858R and p.T790M single nucleotide variants (SNV). The analysis of cfDNA detected the same EGFR activating mutation reported in the tumor tissue in 20/29 patients, with a sensitivity of 69%. Moreover, a p.T790M variant was found in 14/29 patients (48.3%). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 2.7 months for p.T790M positive patients (CI 95% 1.4-3.1 months) versus 3.5 months for the p.T790M negative patients (CI 95% 1.6-5.3 months), resulting in a statistically significant difference (Long rank test p = 0.0180). These findings confirmed the role of the p.T790M mutation in the resistance to first-generation TKIs. More importantly, our data suggest that TKI rechallenge should be guided by biomarker testing.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450641

RESUMO

Background: Elevated plasmatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels are associated with worse prognosis in various malignancies, including metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Nevertheless, no data are available on the prognostic role of LDH as a dynamic biomarker during first-line treatment in unselected MBC. Methods: We reviewed data of 392 women with MBC to evaluate the association between LDH variation after 12 weeks of first-line treatment and survival. The prognostic impact was tested by multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results: Plasmatic LDH was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor in MBC. Patients who maintained elevated LDH levels after 12 weeks of first-line treatment experienced worse progression-free survival (PFS, HR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.40-5.89, p = 0.0038) and overall survival (OS, HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.16-5.86, p = 0.02) compared to patients with stable normal LDH levels, even after adjustment for other prognostic factors. Notably, LDH low-to-high variation emerged as an unfavorable prognostic factor for PFS (HR 3.96, 95% CI 2.00-7.82, p = 0.0001). Conclusions: Plasmatic LDH and its variation during first-line treatment predict PFS and OS in MBC, providing independent prognostic information. It would be worthwhile to prospectively evaluate the association between LDH variation and therapeutic benefit in MBC, and explore how it may affect treatment strategies.

20.
Lung Cancer ; 134: 121-126, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319970

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Considering the frequent expression of somatostatine receptors, we designed the G04.2011 trial to investigate the efficacy of the somatostatine analogue lanreotide in maintenance for SCLC patients after response to standard treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, phase 3 trial was conducted in SCLC expressing somatostatine receptors at baseline Octreoscan, responding after platinum-based chemotherapy with/without radiotherapy. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive maintenance lanreotide 120 mg subcutaneously every 28 days, up to 1 year or progression versus observation. Randomization was stratified according to stage (limited/extended, LD/ED). The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. RESULTS: Seventy-one patients were randomly assigned (39 to lanreotide, 32 to observation) in 9 Italian institutions. Median PFS was 3.6 (95% CI 3.2-3.9) with lanreotide versus 2.3 months (95% CI 1.7-2.9) with observation (HR 1.51, 95% CI 0.90-2.50; P = 0.11). Stage was an independent predictor for PFS (HR 3.14, 95% CI 1.77-5.57; P < 0.0001). Median PFS was 7.0 (95% CI <1-13.5) with lanreotide versus 3.8 months (95% CI <1-8.6) with observation in LD (P = 0.21), and 3.0 (95% CI 2.2-3.8) versus 2.2 (95% 1.7-2.7) in ED (P = 0.19). Median OS was 9.5 (95% CI 4.8-14.3) with lanreotide versus 4.7 months (95% CI <1-16.6) with observation (P = 0.47). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 28% of patients with lanreotide (grade 3 in two patients). CONCLUSION: Although survival outcomes were not significantly prolonged with lanreotide as a maintenance in SCLC expressing somatostatin receptors after response to standard treatment, lanreotide showed a slight PFS benefit in LD SCLC deserving further investigations.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Peptídeos Cíclicos/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Quimioterapia de Manutenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos Cíclicos/efeitos adversos , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/mortalidade , Somatostatina/administração & dosagem , Somatostatina/efeitos adversos , Somatostatina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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