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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442364

RESUMO

Nanoscale, low-phase-noise, tunable transmitter-receiver links are key for enabling the progress of wireless communication. We demonstrate that vortex-based spin-torque nano-oscillators, which are intrinsically low-noise devices because of their topologically protected magnetic structure, can achieve frequency tunability when submitted to local ion implantation. In the experiments presented here, the gyrotropic mode is excited with spin-polarized alternating currents and anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements yield discrete frequencies from a single device. Indeed, chromium-implanted regions of permalloy disks exhibit different saturation magnetization than neighboring, non-irradiated areas, and thus different resonance frequency, corresponding to the specific area where the core is gyrating. Our study proves that such devices can be fabricated without the need for further lithographical steps, suggesting ion irradiation can be a viable and cost-effective fabrication method for densely packed networks of oscillators.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250635

RESUMO

Arrays of interacting 2D nanomagnets display unprecedented electromagnetic properties via collective effects, demonstrated in artificial spin ices and magnonic crystals. Progress toward 3D magnetic metamaterials is hampered by two challenges: fabricating 3D structures near intrinsic magnetic length scales (sub-100 nm) and visualizing their magnetic configurations. Here, we fabricate and measure nanoscale magnetic gyroids, periodic chiral networks comprising nanowire-like struts forming three-connected vertices. Via block copolymer templating, we produce Ni75Fe25 single-gyroid and double-gyroid (an inversion pair of single-gyroids) nanostructures with a 42 nm unit cell and 11 nm diameter struts, comparable to the exchange length in Ni-Fe. We visualize their magnetization distributions via off-axis electron holography with nanometer spatial resolution and interpret the patterns using finite-element micromagnetic simulations. Our results suggest an intricate, frustrated remanent state which is ferromagnetic but without a unique equilibrium configuration, opening new possibilities for collective phenomena in magnetism, including 3D magnonic crystals and unconventional computing.

3.
Langmuir ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011149

RESUMO

Synthetic nano- and micromotors interact with each other and their surroundings in a complex manner. Here, we report on the anisotropy of active-passive particle interaction in a soft matter system containing an immobile yet photochemical Ag/AgCl-based Janus particle embedded in a dense matrix of passive beads in pure water. The asymmetry in the chemical gradient around the Janus particle, triggered upon visible light illumination, distorts the isotropy of the surrounding electric potential and results in the repulsion of adjacent passive beads to a certain distance away from the Janus particle. This exclusion effect is found to be anisotropic with larger distances to passive beads in front of the Ag/AgCl cap of the Janus particle. We provide insight into this phenomenon by performing the angular analysis of the radii of exclusion and tracking their time evolution at the level of a single bead. Our study provides a novel fundamental insight into the collective behavior of a complex mixture of active and passive particles and is relevant for various application scenarios, e.g., particle transport at micro- and nanoscale and local chemical sensing.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009381

RESUMO

Interfaces separating ferromagnetic (FM) layers from non-ferromagnetic layers offer unique properties due to spin-orbit coupling and symmetry breaking, yielding effects such as exchange bias, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, spin-pumping, spin-transfer torques, and conversion between charge and spin currents and vice versa. These interfacial phenomena play crucial roles in magnetic data storage and transfer applications, which require the formation of FM nanostructures embedded in non-ferromagnetic matrices. Here, we investigate the possibility of creating such nanostructures by ion irradiation. We study the effect of lateral confinement on the ion-irradiation-induced reduction of nonmagnetic metal oxides (e.g., antiferro- or paramagnetic) to form ferromagnetic metals. Our findings are later exploited to form three-dimensional magnetic interfaces between Co, CoO, and Pt by spatial-selective irradiation of CoO/Pt multilayers. We demonstrate that the mechanical displacement of O atoms plays a crucial role in the reduction from insulating, non-ferromagnetic cobalt oxides to metallic cobalt. Metallic cobalt yields both perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the generated Co/Pt nanostructures and, at low temperatures, exchange bias at vertical interfaces between Co and CoO. If pushed to the limit of ion-irradiation technology, this approach could, in principle, enable the creation of densely packed, atomic-scale ferromagnetic point-contact spin-torque oscillator (STO) networks or conductive channels for current-confined-path-based current perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance read heads.

5.
Small ; 15(49): e1904315, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709700

RESUMO

The magnetization dynamics of individual Fe-filled multiwall carbon-nanotubes (FeCNT), grown by chemical vapor deposition, are investigated by microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and Brillouin light scattering (BLS) microscopy and corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Currently, only static magnetometry measurements are available. They suggest that the FeCNTs consist of a single-crystalline Fe nanowire throughout the length. The number and structure of the FMR lines and the abrupt decay of the spin-wave transport seen in BLS indicate, however, that the Fe filling is not a single straight piece along the length. Therefore, a stepwise cutting procedure is applied in order to investigate the evolution of the ferromagnetic resonance lines as a function of the nanowire length. The results show that the FeCNT is indeed not homogeneous along the full length but is built from 300 to 400 nm long single-crystalline segments. These segments consist of magnetically high quality Fe nanowires with almost the bulk values of Fe and with a similar small damping in relation to thin films, promoting FeCNTs as appealing candidates for spin-wave transport in magnonic applications.

6.
Small ; 15(52): e1904738, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31709733

RESUMO

Nanoscale modifications of strain and magnetic anisotropy can open pathways to engineering magnetic domains for device applications. A periodic magnetic domain structure can be stabilized in sub-200 nm wide linear as well as curved magnets, embedded within a flat non-ferromagnetic thin film. The nanomagnets are produced within a non-ferromagnetic B2-ordered Fe60 Al40 thin film, where local irradiation by a focused ion beam causes the formation of disordered and strongly ferromagnetic regions of A2 Fe60 Al40 . An anisotropic lattice relaxation is observed, such that the in-plane lattice parameter is larger when measured parallel to the magnet short-axis as compared to its length. This in-plane structural anisotropy manifests a magnetic anisotropy contribution, generating an easy-axis parallel to the short axis. The competing effect of the strain and shape anisotropies stabilizes a periodic domain pattern in linear as well as spiral nanomagnets, providing a versatile and geometrically controllable path to engineering the strain and thereby the magnetic anisotropy at the nanoscale.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4405, 2019 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562319

RESUMO

The emergence of smart electronics, human friendly robotics and supplemented or virtual reality demands electronic skins with both tactile and touchless perceptions for the manipulation of real and virtual objects. Here, we realize bifunctional electronic skins equipped with a compliant magnetic microelectromechanical system able to transduce both tactile-via mechanical pressure-and touchless-via magnetic fields-stimulations simultaneously. The magnetic microelectromechanical system separates electric signals from tactile and touchless interactions into two different regions, allowing the electronic skins to unambiguously distinguish the two modes in real time. Besides, its inherent magnetic specificity overcomes the interference from non-relevant objects and enables signal-programmable interactions. Ultimately, the magnetic microelectromechanical system enables complex interplay with physical objects enhanced with virtual content data in augmented reality, robotics, and medical applications.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Algoritmos , Eletricidade , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Eletrônica/instrumentação , Eletrônica/métodos , Humanos , Magnetismo , Robótica , Transdutores
8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(7): 077201, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491129

RESUMO

The main origin of the chiral symmetry breaking and, thus, for the magnetochiral effects in magnetic materials is associated with an antisymmetric exchange interaction, the intrinsic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI). Recently, numerous inspiring theoretical works predict that the bending of a thin film to a curved surface is often sufficient to induce similar chiral effects. However, these originate from the exchange or magnetostatic interactions and can stabilize noncollinear magnetic structures or influence spin-wave propagation. Here, we demonstrate that curvature-induced chiral effects are experimentally observable rather than theoretical abstraction and are present even in conventional soft ferromagnetic materials. We show that, by measuring the depinning field of domain walls in the simplest possible curve, a flat parabolic stripe, the effective exchange-driven DMI interaction constant can be quantified. Remarkably, its value can be as high as the interfacial DMI constant for thin films and can be tuned by the parabola's curvature.

9.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(48): 485702, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394508

RESUMO

Calculations based on density functional theory are performed to investigate the interaction of O-Y and O-Y-Ti clusters in bcc Fe with He atoms, vacancies (v) and self-interstitial atoms (SIA). The four different cluster structures studied in our previous work (J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 31 095701) are considered. He, v and SIA are inserted on different positions inside and in the environment of the clusters, the total energy of the corresponding supercell is minimized and the binding and incorporation energy of the three kinds of defects is determined. He in the center of a cage-like (CL) cluster is more stable than on interfacial vacant sites (IVS). In CL O-Y clusters He on an IVS is more stable than in the cluster structure with oxygen in the center, whereas there is no significant difference between the two kinds for clusters with Ti. Up to a distance of 1.5 times the iron lattice constant from the cluster center He is not stable on most of the octahedral and tetrahedral interstitial sites in the Fe matrix near the interface. Instead He is shifted towards positions closer to the cluster. Relaxation occurs to known IVS as well as to previously unknown interfacial interstitial sites. Moreover, two or three He atoms are placed on sites found to be stable after adding a single He. The corresponding binding and incorporation energies obtained after relaxation are nearly equal to the sum of the values for the interaction with a single He atom. However, placing He dimers or trimers in the environment of a vacancy may also lead to relatively low values of the incorporation energy. Also, barriers for jumps of He atoms between interfacial sites and the center of CL clusters are determined. In the CL O-Y cluster the barriers are lower than in the CL O-Y-Ti cluster, i.e. trapping and release of He is easier in the former than in the latter. v and SIA interaction with the clusters is also attractive. The binding energy of v strongly depends on the site where v is inserted while in all studied cases the SIA is annihilated at the cluster-iron interface. Present results clearly demonstrate that the oxide-based nanoclusters are strong traps for irradiation induced defects which is in agreement with experimental findings.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9541, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266999

RESUMO

Spin-transfer torques (STTs) can be exploited in order to manipulate the magnetic moments of nanomagnets, thus allowing for new consumer-oriented devices to be designed. Of particular interest here are tuneable radio-frequency (RF) oscillators for wireless communication. Currently, the structure that maximizes the output power is an Fe/MgO/Fe-type magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) with a fixed layer magnetized in the plane of the layers and a free layer magnetized perpendicular to the plane. This structure allows for most of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) to be converted into output power. Here, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate that the main mechanism sustaining steady-state precession in such structures is the angular dependence of the magnetoresistance. The TMR of such devices is known to exhibit a broken-linear dependence versus the applied bias. Our results show that the TMR bias dependence effectively quenches spin-transfer-driven precession and introduces a non-monotonic frequency dependence at high applied currents. This has an impact on devices seeking to work in the 'THz gap' due to their non-trivial TMR bias dependences.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(9)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071934

RESUMO

In the example of oxygen diffusion in dilute ferritic iron alloys it is shown that the calculation of the diffusion coefficient can be separated into a contribution related to the migration in the interaction region between oxygen and the substitutional solute and a part related to diffusion in pure body centered cubic (bcc) Fe. The corresponding diffusion times are determined by analytical expressions using Density-Functional-Theory (DFT) data for the respective binding energies. The diffusion coefficient in the interaction region must be determined by atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations with DFT values for the migration barriers as input data. In contrast to previous calculations, AKMC simulation must only be performed for one concentration of the substitutional solute, and the obtained results can be employed to obtain data for other concentrations in a very efficient manner. This leads to a tremendous decrease of computational efforts. Under certain conditions it is even possible to use analytical expressions where merely DFT data for the binding energies are needed. The limits of applicability of the presented calculation procedures are discussed in detail. The methods presented in this work can be generalized to interstitial diffusion in other host materials with small concentrations of substitutional solutes.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4020, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858481

RESUMO

Due to its negligible spontaneous magnetization, high spin polarization and giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, Mn2RuxGa (MRG) is an ideal candidate as an oscillating layer in THz spin-transfer-torque nano-oscillators. Here, the effect of ultrathin Al and Ta diffusion barriers between MRG and MgO in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated and compared to devices with a bare MRG/MgO interface. Both the compensation temperature, Tcomp, of the electrode and the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) of the device are highly sensitive to the choice and thickness of the insertion layer used. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, as well as analysis of the TMR, its bias dependence, and the resistance-area product allow us to compare the devices from a structural and electrical point of view. Al insertion leads to the formation of thicker effective barriers and gives the highest TMR, at the cost of a reduced Tcomp. Ta is the superior diffusion barrier which retains Tcomp, however, it also leads to a much lower TMR on account of the short spin diffusion length which reduces the tunneling spin polarization. The study shows that fine engineering of the Mn2RuxGa/barrier interface to improve the TMR amplitude is feasible.

13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(4): 328-333, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804478

RESUMO

Spin waves offer intriguing perspectives for computing and signal processing, because their damping can be lower than the ohmic losses in conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits. Magnetic domain walls show considerable potential as magnonic waveguides for on-chip control of the spatial extent and propagation of spin waves. However, low-loss guidance of spin waves with nanoscale wavelengths and around angled tracks remains to be shown. Here, we demonstrate spin wave control using natural anisotropic features of magnetic order in an interlayer exchange-coupled ferromagnetic bilayer. We employ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy to image the generation of spin waves and their propagation across distances exceeding multiples of the wavelength. Spin waves propagate in extended planar geometries as well as along straight or curved one-dimensional domain walls. We observe wavelengths between 1 µm and 150 nm, with excitation frequencies ranging from 250 MHz to 3 GHz. Our results show routes towards the practical implementation of magnonic waveguides in the form of domain walls in future spin wave logic and computational circuits.

14.
Nano Lett ; 19(3): 1682-1687, 2019 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702895

RESUMO

Antiferromagnets have recently emerged as attractive platforms for spintronics applications, offering fundamentally new functionalities compared with their ferromagnetic counterparts. Whereas nanoscale thin-film materials are key to the development of future antiferromagnetic spintronic technologies, existing experimental tools tend to suffer from low resolution or expensive and complex equipment requirements. We offer a simple, high-resolution alternative by addressing the ubiquitous surface magnetization of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets in a granular thin-film sample on the nanoscale using single-spin magnetometry in combination with spin-sensitive transport experiments. Specifically, we quantitatively image the evolution of individual nanoscale antiferromagnetic domains in 200 nm thin films of Cr2O3 in real space and across the paramagnet-to-antiferromagnet phase transition, finding an average domain size of 230 nm, several times larger than the average grain size in the film. These experiments allow us to discern key properties of the Cr2O3 thin film, including the boundary magnetic moment density, the variation of critical temperature throughout the film, the mechanism of domain formation, and the strength of exchange coupling between individual grains comprising the film. Our work offers novel insights into the magnetic ordering mechanism of Cr2O3 and firmly establishes single-spin magnetometry as a versatile and widely applicable tool for addressing antiferromagnetic thin films on the nanoscale.

15.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 31(9): 095701, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566919

RESUMO

Six different structural models for atomic clusters in bcc Fe are investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results for clusters with identical numbers of constituents (O, Y, Ti, and vacancies) are compared. It is found that the data on the stability or energetics of the relaxed clusters are comparable although their atomic configurations are often different. This contradicts the prevailing opinion in the related theoretical literature that favors the so-called structure matching model. In all studied cases, the absolute value of the total binding energy per cluster constituent becomes lower if Y is partially replaced by Ti. Therefore the driving force for the growth of O-Y clusters should be higher than that of O-Y-Ti clusters. This may be correlated with the experimental observation that the presence of Ti leads to a reduction of the size of the oxide clusters in nanostructured ferritic alloys and to a higher dispersion. Not only cage-like clusters but also clusters with oxygen in the center (cage) are investigated. In the absence of Ti, clusters with oxygen in the center attain more stability that cage-like clusters and the opposite holds for clusters with Ti. It is also shown that adding O atoms to cage-like clusters leads to structures with O in the center. In the present comprehensive DFT study only clusters with dimensions below 1 nm could be treated. This is still below or close to the limit of the experimental resolution of methods allowing for a simultaneous determination of atomic structure and composition of the clusters. These small clusters may be considered as nuclei for further structural evolution and growth during which a selection of the most favored cluster structures could occur.

16.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16040, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375413

RESUMO

Spin Hall oscillators (SHO) are promising candidates for the generation, detection and amplification of high frequency signals, that are tunable through a wide range of operating frequencies. They offer to be read out electrically, magnetically and optically in combination with a simple bilayer design. Here, we experimentally study the spatial dependence and spectral properties of auto-oscillations in SHO devices based on Pt(7 nm)/Ni80Fe20(5 nm) tapered nanowires. Using Brillouin light scattering microscopy, we observe two individual self-localized spin-wave bullets that oscillate at two distinct frequencies (5.2 GHz and 5.45 GHz) and are localized at different positions separated by about 750 nm within the SHO. This state of a tapered SHO has been predicted by a Ginzburg-Landau auto-oscillator model, but not yet been directly confirmed experimentally. We demonstrate that the observed bullets can be individually synchronized to external microwave signals, leading to a frequency entrainment, linewidth reduction and increase in oscillation amplitude for the bullet that is selected by the microwave frequency. At the same time, the amplitude of other parasitic modes decreases, which promotes the single-mode operation of the SHO. Finally, the synchronization of the spin-wave bullets is studied as a function of the microwave power. We believe that our findings promote the realization of extended spin Hall oscillators accomodating several distinct spin-wave bullets, that jointly cover an extended range of tunability.

17.
Small ; 14(48): e1803613, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369029

RESUMO

Visible light-driven nano/micromotors are promising candidates for biomedical and environmental applications. This study demonstrates blue light-driven Ag/AgCl-based spherical Janus micromotors, which couple plasmonic light absorption with the photochemical decomposition of AgCl. These micromotors reveal high motility in pure water, i.e., mean squared displacements (MSD) reaching 800 µm2 within 8 s, which is 100× higher compared to previous visible light-driven Janus micromotors and 7× higher than reported ultraviolet (UV) light-driven AgCl micromotors. In addition to providing design rules to realize efficient Janus micromotors, the complex dynamics revealed by individual and assemblies of Janus motors is investigated experimentally and in simulations. The effect of suppressed rotational diffusion is focused on, compared to UV light-driven AgCl micromotors, as a reason for this remarkable increase of the MSD. Moreover, this study demonstrates the potential of using visible light-driven plasmonic Ag/AgCl-based Janus micromotors in human saliva, phosphate-buffered saline solution, the most common isotonic buffer that mimics the environment of human body fluids, and Rhodamine B solution, which is a typical polluted dye for demonstrations of photocatalytic environmental remediation. This new knowledge is useful for designing visible light driven nano/micromotors based on the surface plasmon resonance effect and their applications in assays relevant for biomedical and ecological sciences.

18.
Small ; 14(44): e1802537, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238700

RESUMO

Insight is provided into the collective behavior of visible-light photochemically driven plasmonic Ag/AgCl Janus particles surrounded by passive polystyrene (PS) beads. The active diffusion of single Janus particles and their clusters (small: consisting of two or three Janus particles and large: consisting of more than ten Janus particles), and their interaction with passive PS beads, are analyzed experimentally and in simulations. The diffusivity of active Janus particles, and thus the exclusive effect to passive PS beads, can be regulated by the number of single Janus particles in the cluster. On the simulation side, the Langevin equations of motion for self-propelled Janus particles and diffusing passive PS beads are numerically solved using Molecular-Dynamics simulations. The complex interactions of both subsystems, including elastic core-to-core interactions, short-range attraction, and effective repulsion due to light-induced chemical reactions are considered. This complex mixed system not only provides insight to the interactive effect between active visible light-driven self-propelled micromotors and passive beads, but also offers promise for implications in light-controlled propulsion transport and chemical sensing.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(17): 15232-15239, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665332

RESUMO

Manipulation of magnetism using laser light is considered as a key to the advancement of data storage technologies. Until now, most approaches seek to optically switch the direction of magnetization rather than to reversibly manipulate the ferromagnetism itself. Here, we use ∼100 fs laser pulses to reversibly switch ferromagnetic ordering on and off by exploiting a chemical order-disorder phase transition in Fe60Al40, from the B2 to the A2 structure and vice versa. A single laser pulse above a threshold fluence causes nonferromagnetic B2 Fe60Al40 to disorder and form the ferromagnetic A2 structure. Subsequent laser pulsing below the threshold reverses the surface to B2 Fe60Al40, erasing the laser-induced ferromagnetism. Simulations reveal that the order-disorder transition is regulated by the extent of surface supercooling; above the threshold for complete melting throughout the film thickness, the liquid phase can be deeply undercooled before solidification. As a result, the vacancy diffusion in the resolidified region is limited and the region is trapped in the metastable chemically disordered state. Laser pulsing below the threshold forms a limited supercooled surface region that solidifies at sufficiently high temperatures, enabling diffusion-assisted reordering. This demonstrates that ultrafast lasers can achieve subtle atomic rearrangements in bimetallic alloys in a reversible and nonvolatile fashion.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 866, 2018 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29339741

RESUMO

Crystals with broken inversion symmetry can host fundamentally appealing and technologically relevant periodical or localized chiral magnetic textures. The type of the texture as well as its magnetochiral properties are determined by the intrinsic Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI), which is a material property and can hardly be changed. Here we put forth a method to create new artificial chiral nanoscale objects with tunable magnetochiral properties from standard magnetic materials by using geometrical manipulations. We introduce a mesoscale Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction that combines the intrinsic spin-orbit and extrinsic curvature-driven DMI terms and depends both on the material and geometrical parameters. The vector of the mesoscale DMI determines magnetochiral properties of any curved magnetic system with broken inversion symmetry. The strength and orientation of this vector can be changed by properly choosing the geometry. For a specific example of nanosized magnetic helix, the same material system with different geometrical parameters can acquire one of three zero-temperature magnetic phases, namely, phase with a quasitangential magnetization state, phase with a periodical state and one intermediate phase with a periodical domain wall state. Our approach paves the way towards the realization of a new class of nanoscale spintronic and spinorbitronic devices with the geometrically tunable magnetochirality.

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