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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750708

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are characterized by distinct genotype-phenotype relationships according to studies largely restricted to Caucasian populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess for possible differences in genetic landscapes and genotype-phenotype relationships of PPGLs in Chinese versus European populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Two tertiary-care centers in China and nine in Europe. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with pathologically-confirmed diagnosis of PPGL, including 719 from China and 919 Europeans. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Next generation sequencing performed in tumor specimens with mutations confirmed by Sanger sequencing and tested in peripheral blood if available. Frequencies of mutations were examined according to tumor location and catecholamine biochemical phenotypes. RESULTS: Among all patients, higher frequencies of HRAS, FGFR1 and EPAS1 mutations were observed in Chinese than Europeans, whereas the reverse was observed for NF1, VHL, RET and SDHx. Among patients with apparently sporadic PPGLs, the most frequently mutated genes in Chinese were HRAS (16.5[13.6-19.3]% vs 9.8[7.6-12.1]%) and FGFR1 (9.8[7.6-12.1]% vs 2.2[1.1-3.3]%), whereas among Europeans the most frequently mutated genes were NF1 (15.9[13.2-18.6]% vs 6.6[4.7-8.5]%) and SDHx (10.7[8.4-13.0]% vs 4.2[2.6-5.7]%). Among Europeans, almost all paragangliomas lacked appreciable production of epinephrine and identified gene mutations were largely restricted to those leading to stabilization of hypoxia inducible factors. In contrast, among Chinese there was a larger proportion of epinephrine-producing paragangliomas, mostly due to HRAS and FGFR1 mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study establishes Sino-European differences in the genetic landscape and presentation of PPGLs, including ethnic differences in genotype-phenotype relationships indicating a paradigm shift in our understanding of the biology of these tumors.

3.
Endocr Connect ; 9(7): 705-714, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698135

RESUMO

Background: The prognosis of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is heterogeneous. Genomic studies have identified ACC subgroups characterized by specific molecular alterations, including features measured at DNA level (somatic mutations, chromosome alterations, DNA methylation), which are closely associated with outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate intratumor heterogeneity of prognostic molecular markers at the DNA level. Methods: Two different tissue samples (primary tumor, local recurrence or metastasis) were analyzed in 26 patients who underwent surgery for primary or recurrent ACC. DNA-related biomarkers with prognostic role were investigated in frozen and paraffin-embedded samples. Somatic mutations of p53/Rb and Wnt/ß-catenin pathways were assessed using next-generation sequencing (n = 26), chromosome alteration profiles were determined using SNP arrays (n = 14) and methylation profiles were determined using four-gene bisulfite pyrosequencing (n = 12). Results: Somatic mutations for ZNRF3, TP53, CTNN1B and CDKN2A were found in 7, 6, 6 and 4 patients, respectively, with intratumor heterogeneity in 8/26 patients (31%). Chromosome alteration profiles were 'Noisy' (numerous and anarchic alterations) in 8/14 and 'Chromosomal' (extended patterns of loss of heterozygosity) in 5/14 of the study samples. For these profiles, no intratumor heterogeneity was observed. Methylation profiles were hypermethylated in 5/12 and non-hypermethylated in 7/12 of the study samples. Intratumor heterogeneity of methylation profiles was observed in 2/12 patients (17%). Conclusions: Intratumor heterogeneity impacts DNA-related molecular markers. While somatic mutation can differ, prognostic DNA methylation and chromosome alteration profile seem rather stable and might be more robust for the prognostic assessment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609829

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Catecholamines and adrenocortical steroids are important regulators of blood pressure. Bidirectional relationships between adrenal steroids and catecholamines have been established but whether this is relevant to patients with pheochromocytoma is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the hypothesis that patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) have altered steroid production compared to primary hypertensives. DESIGN: Multicenter cross-sectional study. SETTING: Twelve European referral centers. PATIENTS: Subjects included 182 patients with pheochromocytoma, 36 with paraganglioma and 270 primary hypertensives. Patients with primary aldosteronism (n=461) and Cushing syndrome (n=124) were included for additional comparisons. INTERVENTION: In patients with PPGLs, surgical resection of tumors. OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences in mass spectrometry-based profiles of 15 adrenal steroids between groups and after surgical resection of PPGLs. Relationships of steroids to plasma and urinary metanephrines and urinary catecholamines. RESULTS: Patients with pheochromocytoma had higher (P<0.05) circulating concentrations of cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone and corticosterone than primary hypertensives. Concentrations of cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone were also higher (P<0.05) in patients with pheochromocytoma than with paraganglioma. These steroids correlated positively with plasma and urinary metanephrines and catecholamines in patients with pheochromocytoma, but not paraganglioma. After adrenalectomy, there were significant decreases in cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, aldosterone and 18-oxocortisol. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large study in patients with PPGLs that supports in a clinical setting the concept of adrenal cortical-medullary interactions involving an influence of catecholamines on adrenal steroids. These findings could have implications for the cardiovascular complications of PPGLs and the clinical management of patients with the tumors.

5.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(3): 101434, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622829

RESUMO

Almost one decade ago, etoposide, doxorubicin, cisplatin and mitotane (EDP-M) has been established as first-line systemic therapy of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). Although heterogeneous, the prognosis of advanced stage ACC is still poor and novel treatments are urgently needed. This article provides a short summary of current systemic ACC treatment and provides a comprehensive overview of new therapeutic approaches that have been investigated in the past years, including drugs targeting the IGF pathway, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, radionuclide treatment, and immunotherapy. The results of most of these trials were disappointing and we will discuss possible reasons why these drugs failed (e.g. drug interactions with mitotane, disease heterogeneity with exceptional responses in very few patients, and resistance mechanisms to immunotherapy). We then will present potential new drug targets that have emerged from many molecular studies (e.g. wnt/ß-catenin, cyclin-dependent kinases, PARP1) that may be the foundation of next-generation therapies of ACC.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

7.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(1)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy. Tumor-related glucocorticoid excess is present in ~60% of patients and associated with particularly poor prognosis. Results of first clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors were heterogeneous. Here we characterize tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TILs) in ACC in association with glucocorticoids as potential explanation for resistance to immunotherapy. METHODS: We performed immunofluorescence analysis to visualize tumor-infiltrating T cells (CD3+), T helper cells (CD3+CD4+), cytotoxic T cells (CD3+CD8+) and regulatory T cells (Tregs; CD3+CD4+FoxP3+) in 146 ACC tissue specimens (107 primary tumors, 16 local recurrences, 23 metastases). Quantitative data of immune cell infiltration were correlated with clinical data (including glucocorticoid excess). RESULTS: 86.3% of ACC specimens showed tumor infiltrating T cells (7.7 cells/high power field (HPF)), including T helper (74.0%, 6.7 cells/HPF), cytotoxic T cells (84.3%, 5.7 cells/HPF) and Tregs (49.3%, 0.8 cells/HPF). The number of TILs was associated with better overall survival (HR for death: 0.47, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.87), which was true for CD4+- and CD8+ subpopulations as well. In localized, non-metastatic ACC, the favorable impact of TILs on overall and recurrence-free survival was manifested even independently of ENSAT (European Network for the Study of Adrenal Tumors) stage, resection status and Ki67 index. T helper cells were negatively correlated with glucocorticoid excess (Phi=-0.290, p=0.009). Patients with glucocorticoid excess and low TILs had a particularly poor overall survival (27 vs. 121 months in patients with TILs without glucocorticoid excess). CONCLUSION: Glucocorticoid excess is associated with T cell depletion and unfavorable prognosis. To reactivate the immune system in ACC by checkpoint inhibitors, an inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis might be pivotal and should be tested in prospective studies.

8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We sought to refine the clinical picture of primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL), a rare lymphoid malignancy with predominant adrenal manifestation and risk of adrenal insufficiency. METHODS: 97 patients from 14 centers in Europe, Canada and the United States were included in this retrospective analysis between 1994 and 2017. RESULTS: Of 81 patients with imaging data, 19 (23%) had isolated adrenal involvement (iPAL), while 62 (77%) had additional extra-adrenal involvement (PAL+). Among patients who had both CT and PET scans, 18FDG-PET revealed extra-adrenal involvement not detected by CT scan in 9/18 cases (50%). The most common clinical manifestations were B symptoms (55%), fatigue (45%), and abdominal pain (35%). Endocrinological assessment was often inadequate. With a median follow-up of 41.6 months, 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival rates in the entire cohort were 35.5% and 39.4%, respectively. The hazard ratios of iPAL for PFS and OS were 40.1 (95% CI: 2.63-613.7, p=0.008) and 2.69 (95% CI: 0.61-11.89, p=0.191), respectively. PFS was much shorter in iPAL versus PAL+ (median 4 months vs. not reached, p=0.006), and OS also appeared to be shorter (median 16 months vs. not reached), but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.16). Isolated PAL was more frequent in females (OR=3.81; P=0.01) and less frequently associated with B symptoms (OR= 0.159; p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We found unexpected heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of PAL. Further studies are needed to clarify whether clinical distinction between iPAL and PAL+ is corroborated by differences in molecular biology.

9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(8)2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449514

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Objective response rate to mitotane in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is approximately 20%, and adverse drug effects are frequent. To date, there is no marker established that predicts treatment response. Mitotane has been shown to inhibit sterol-O-acyl transferase 1 (SOAT1), which leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell death in ACC cells. OBJECTIVE: To investigate SOAT1 protein expression as a marker of treatment response to mitotane. PATIENTS: A total of 231 ACC patients treated with single-agent mitotane as adjuvant (n = 158) or advanced disease therapy (n = 73) from 12 ENSAT centers were included. SOAT1 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. SETTING: Retrospective study at 12 ACC referral centers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Recurrence-free survival (RFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS: Sixty-one of 135 patients (45%) with adjuvant mitotane treatment had recurrences and 45/68 patients (66%) with mitotane treatment for advanced disease had progressive disease. After multivariate adjustment for sex, age, hormone secretion, tumor stage, and Ki67 index, RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.85; P = 0.82), and DSS (HR = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.58-2.93; P = 0.53) in adjuvantly treated ACC patients did not differ significantly between tumors with high and low SOAT1 expression. Similarly, in the advanced stage setting, PFS (HR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.63-2.84; P = 0.45) and DSS (HR = 0.72; 95% CI, 0.31-1.70; P = 0.45) were comparable and response rates not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: SOAT1 expression was not correlated with clinical endpoints RFS, PFS, and DSS in ACC patients with mitotane monotherapy. Other factors appear to be relevant for mitotane treatment response and ACC patient survival.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373071

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC) are aggressive tumors with a heterogeneous prognosis and limited therapeutic options for advanced stages. This study aims to identify novel drug targets for a personalized treatment in ACC. RNA was isolated from 40 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded ACC samples. We evaluated gene expression of 84 known cancer drug targets by reverse transcriptase quantitative real time-PCR and calculated fold change using 5 normal adrenal glands as reference (overexpression by fold change >2.0). The most promising candidate cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was investigated at protein level in 104 ACC samples and tested by in vitro experiments in two ACC cell lines (NCI-H295R and MUC1). The most frequently overexpressed genes were TOP2A (100% of cases, median fold change = 16.5), IGF2 (95%, fold change = 52.9), CDK1 (80%, fold change = 6.7), CDK4 (62%, fold change = 2.6), PLK4 (60%, fold change = 2.8), and PLK1 (52%, fold change = 2.3). CDK4 was chosen for functional validation, as it is actionable by approved CDK4/6-inhibitors (e.g., palbociclib). Nuclear immunostaining of CDK4 significantly correlated with mRNA expression (R = 0.52, P < 0.005). We exposed both NCI-H295R and MUC1 cell lines to palbociclib and found a concentration- and time-dependent reduction of cell viability, which was more pronounced in the NCI-H295R cells in line with higher CDK4 expression. Furthermore, we tested palbociclib in combination with insulin-like growth factor 1/insulin receptor inhibitor linsitinib showing an additive effect. In conclusion, we demonstrate that RNA profiling is useful to discover potential drug targets and that CDK4/6 inhibitors are promising candidates for treatment of selected patients with ACC.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32349159

RESUMO

CONTEXT: NCI-H295 cells are the most widely used model for adrenal steroidogenesis and adrenocortical carcinoma and have been used for decades in laboratories worldwide. However, reported steroidogenic properties differ considerably. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate heterogeneity of steroidogenesis among NCI-H295 cell strains, clarify the influence of culture media and test response to inhibitors of steroidogenesis by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). METHODS: NCI-H295 cells were obtained from two cell banks and cultivated in different media. An LC-MS/MS-based panel analysis of thirteen steroids was adapted for cell culture supernatant. Cells were treated with metyrapone, abiraterone and mitotane. RESULTS: Mineralocorticoid synthesis was strongly affected by passaging as reflected by reduction of aldosterone secretion from 0.158±0.006 to 0.017±0.001 µg/106 cells (p<0.05). Relevant differences were also found for cells from two vendors in terms of aldosterone secretion (0.180±0.001 vs. 0.09±0.002 µg/106 cells, p<0.05). Selection of medium strongly impacted on cortisol secretion with>4-fold difference (40.6±5.5 vs. 182.1±23 µg/106 cells) and reflected differential activation of the glucocorticoid pathway. Exposure to abiraterone, metyrapone and mitotane resulted in characteristic steroidogenic profiles consistent with known mechanism of drug action with considerable differences in metabolites upstream of the blocked enzyme. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that steroid hormone secretion in NCI-H295 cells is strongly affected by the individual strain, passage and growing conditions. These factors should be taken into account in the evaluation of experiments analyzing steroid parameters directly or as surrogate parameters of cell viability.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(3): 192, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184394

RESUMO

Conditions of impaired adrenal function and tissue destruction, such as in Addison's disease, and treatment resistance of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) necessitate improved understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal cell death. Due to relevant oxidative processes in the adrenal cortex, our study investigated the role of ferroptosis, an iron-dependent cell death mechanism and found high adrenocortical expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and long-chain-fatty-acid CoA ligase 4 (ACSL4) genes, key factors in the initiation of ferroptosis. By applying MALDI mass spectrometry imaging to normal and neoplastic adrenocortical tissue, we detected high abundance of arachidonic and adrenic acid, two long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids which undergo peroxidation during ferroptosis. In three available adrenal cortex cell models (H295R, CU-ACC1 and CU-ACC-2) a high susceptibility to GPX4 inhibition with RSL3 was documented with EC50 values of 5.7 × 10-8, 8.1 × 10-7 and 2.1 × 10-8 M, respectively, while all non-steroidogenic cells were significantly less sensitive. Complete block of GPX4 activity by RSL3 led to ferroptosis which was completely reversed in adrenal cortex cells by inhibition of steroidogenesis with ketoconazole but not by blocking the final step of cortisol synthesis with metyrapone. Mitotane, the only approved drug for ACC did not induce ferroptosis, despite strong induction of lipid peroxidation in ACC cells. Together, this report is the first to demonstrate extraordinary sensitivity of adrenal cortex cells to ferroptosis dependent on their active steroid synthetic pathways. Mitotane does not induce this form of cell death in ACC cells.

14.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 145(3): 135-139, 2020 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018284

RESUMO

While effects of vitamin D on bone metabolism are widely acknowledged, many questions regarding extraskeletal actions of vitamin D have emerged. In-vitro data show the expression of the nuclear vitamin D receptor in a variety of different extraskeletal tissues. However, it's relevance in clinical practice is still unclear. Numerous observational studies suggest that low vitamin D levels might represent a risk factor for several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Very recently, several randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of vitamin D supplementation on prevention of different diseases have been published with disappointing results. In this review we focus on assessment of vitamin D status, as well as results of currently published randomized controlled trials on vitamin D and disease prevention.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Vitamina D , Vitamina D , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
15.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072159

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The clinical relevance of bone metastases (BM) in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is poorly described. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this work are to describe the prevalence of BM, frequency of skeletal related events (SREs), and impact of BM morphology and SREs on prognosis, and to assess the role of antiresorptive treatment (ART). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. SETTING: This study was conducted at 4 German referral centers. PATIENTS: A total of 1060 MTC patients were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Main outcome measures include descriptive statistics, overall survival (OS) by the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors by Cox proportional hazards modeling. RESULTS: A total of 120 of 416 patients (29%) with metastatic MTC had BM, of which 97% had concurrent nonosseous metastases. BM occurred 2.1 years (median, range -0.1 to 20.6 years) after initial diagnosis, were multifocal in 79%, and were located preferentially in the spine (86%) and pelvis (60%). BM morphology was osteolytic in 32%, osteoblastic in 25%, and mixed in 22% of cases (unknown: 21%). Within a median observation period of 26.6 months (range, 0-188 months) after BM diagnosis, 47% of patients experienced one or more SREs (bone radiation 50%, pathological fractures 32%), of which 42% occurred in osteolytic and 17% in osteoblastic BM (P = .047). Presence of osteolytic metastases (hazard ratio 3.85, 95% CI 1.52-9.77, P = .005) but not occurrence of SREs was associated with impaired OS. Among the 36 patients who received ART (no ART: n = 71), SREs were significantly less frequent than in untreated patients (P = .04). CONCLUSION: BM are common in metastatic MTC and most often with an osteolytic morphology and an unfavorable prognosis. The majority of SREs occur in osteolytic metastases and may be prevented by ART.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900481

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective response of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) to mitotane and cytotoxic chemotherapy regimen is only ~20% and early tumor progression is frequent. Previous clinical trials with oral multikinase inhibitors were negative, which has been attributed in part to inadvertent drug interaction with mitotane. Cabozantinib (CABO) is an inhibitor of c-MET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, AXL, and RET and approved for advanced kidney cancer, liver carcinoma after previous sorafenib, and medullary thyroid carcinoma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of CABO monotherapy in ACC patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three referral centers for ACC (Germany, United States). RESULTS: Sixteen patients (13 female) with progressive ACC received CABO after previous mitotane in 15/16 and 3 (median, range 0-8) further systemic treatments. Prior CABO therapy, mitotane was discontinued in all patients. Mitotane plasma concentration was <2 mg/L in 7/16 patients and discontinued >12 months in 6 additional patients before CABO use. In 4/5 cases with available plasma samples, CABO concentration was in the expected steady-state range. Adverse events of grade 1/2 and 3 were observed in 13 and 3 patients, respectively, and consistent with the known safety profile of CABO. Best response was partial response in 3, stable disease in 5, and progressive disease in 8 patients. Median progression-free and overall survival was 16 and 58 weeks, respectively. CONCLUSION: CABO monotherapy appears to be safe and effective as a monotherapy in advanced ACC after failing prior treatments. Therefore, prospective investigation of CABO in ACC patients is warranted.

17.
Invest New Drugs ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984451

RESUMO

Background Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with very limited treatment options. Nevanimibe HCl (formerly ATR-101), a novel adrenal-specific sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) inhibitor, has been shown in nonclinical studies to decrease adrenal steroidogenesis at lower doses and to cause apoptosis of adrenocortical cells at higher doses. Methods This phase 1, multicenter, open-label study assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics (PK) of nevanimibe in adults with metastatic ACC (NCT01898715). A "3 + 3" dose-escalation design was used. Adverse events (AEs), PK, and tumor response based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 were evaluated every 2 months. Results 63 patients with metastatic ACC, all of whom had previously failed systemic chemotherapy and only 2 of whom were mitotane-naïve, were dosed with oral nevanimibe at doses ranging from 1.6 mg/kg/day to 158.5 mg/kg/day. Subjects who did not experience tumor progression or a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) could continue to receive additional cycles. No patients experienced a complete or partial response; however, 13 of the 48 (27%) patients who underwent imaging at 2 months had stable disease (SD), and 4 of these had SD > 4 months. In addition, drug-related adrenal insufficiency, considered a pharmacologic effect of nevanimibe, was observed in two patients. The most common treatment-emergent AEs were gastrointestinal disorders (76%), including diarrhea (44%) and vomiting (35%). A maximum tolerated dose (MTD) could not be defined, as very few dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) occurred. Because the large number of tablets required at the highest dose (i.e., ~24 tablets/day) resulted in low-grade gastrointestinal adverse effects, a maximum feasible dose of 128.2 mg/kg/day was established as a dose that could be taken on a long-term basis. Conclusions This study demonstrated the safety of nevanimibe at doses of up to ~6000 mg BID. As the total number of tablets required to achieve an MTD exceeded practical administration limits, a maximum feasible dose was defined. Given that the expected exposure levels necessary for an apoptotic effect could not be achieved, the current formulation of nevanimibe had limited efficacy in patients with advanced ACC.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665449

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Urine steroid metabolomics, combining mass spectrometry-based steroid profiling and machine learning, has been described as a novel diagnostic tool for detection of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). OBJECTIVE, DESIGN, SETTING: This proof-of-concept study evaluated the performance of urine steroid metabolomics as a tool for postoperative recurrence detection after microscopically complete (R0) resection of ACC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 135 patients from 14 clinical centers provided postoperative urine samples, which were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We assessed the utility of these urine steroid profiles in detecting ACC recurrence, either when interpreted by expert clinicians or when analyzed by random forest, a machine learning-based classifier. Radiological recurrence detection served as the reference standard. RESULTS: Imaging detected recurrent disease in 42 of 135 patients; 32 had provided pre- and post-recurrence urine samples. 39 patients remained disease-free for ≥3 years. The urine "steroid fingerprint" at recurrence resembled that observed before R0 resection in the majority of cases. Review of longitudinally collected urine steroid profiles by 3 blinded experts detected recurrence by the time of radiological diagnosis in 50% to 72% of cases, improving to 69% to 92%, if a preoperative urine steroid result was available. Recurrence detection by steroid profiling preceded detection by imaging by more than 2 months in 22% to 39% of patients. Specificities varied considerably, ranging from 61% to 97%. The computational classifier detected ACC recurrence with superior accuracy (sensitivity = specificity = 81%). CONCLUSION: Urine steroid metabolomics is a promising tool for postoperative recurrence detection in ACC; availability of a preoperative urine considerably improves the ability to detect ACC recurrence.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717455

RESUMO

Cushing's disease (CD) is a rare condition caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, which lead to hypercortisolism that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment options in case of persistent or recurrent disease are limited, but new insights into the pathogenesis of CD are raising hope for new therapeutic avenues. Here, we have performed a meta-analysis of the available sequencing data in CD to create a comprehensive picture of CD's genetics. Our analyses clearly indicate that somatic mutations in the deubiquitinases are the key drivers in CD, namely USP8 (36.5%) and USP48 (13.3%). While in USP48 only Met415 is affected by mutations, in USP8 there are 26 different mutations described. However, these different mutations are clustering in the same hotspot region (affecting in 94.5% of cases Ser718 and Pro720). In contrast, pathogenic variants classically associated with tumorigenesis in genes like TP53 and BRAF are also present in CD but with low incidence (12.5% and 7%). Importantly, several of these mutations might have therapeutic potential as there are drugs already investigated in preclinical and clinical setting for other diseases. Furthermore, network and pathway analyses of all somatic mutations in CD suggest a rather unified picture hinting towards converging oncogenic pathways.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(44): 22269-22274, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611400

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare and highly malignant cancers associated with poor survival of patients. Currently, mitotane, a nonspecific derivative of the pesticide DDT (1,1-(dichlorobiphenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane), is used as the standard treatment, but its mechanism of action in ACCs remains elusive. Here we demonstrate that the human ACC NCI-H295R cell line is remarkably sensitive to induction of ferroptosis, while mitotane does not induce this iron-dependent mode of regulated necrosis. Supplementation with insulin, transferrin, and selenium (ITS) is commonly used to keep NCI-H295R cells in cell culture. We show that this supplementation prevents spontaneous ferroptosis, especially when it contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as linoleic acid. Inhibitors of apoptosis (zVAD, emricasan) do not prevent the mitotane-induced cell death but morphologically prevent membrane blebbing. The expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in H295R cells, however, is significantly higher when compared to HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, suggesting a role for ferroptosis. Direct inhibition of GPX4 in H295R cells led to high necrotic populations compared to control, while cotreatment with ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) completely reverted ferroptosis. Interestingly, the analysis of public databases revealed that several key players of the ferroptosis pathway are hypermethylated and/or mutated in human ACCs. Finally, we also detected that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) antagonists, such as MIA602, kill H295R cells in a nonapoptotic manner. In summary, we found elevated expression of GPX4 and higher sensitivity to ferroptosis in ACCs. We hypothesize that instead of treatment with mitotane, human adrenocortical carcinomas may be much more sensitive to induction of ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3 , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293 , Células HT29 , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mitotano/toxicidade , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Sermorelina/análogos & derivados , Sermorelina/farmacologia , Transferrina/metabolismo
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