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Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 1005-1015, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630790


Lissencephaly comprises a spectrum of malformations of cortical development. This spectrum includes agyria, pachygyria, and subcortical band heterotopia; each represents anatomical malformations of brain cortical development caused by neuronal migration defects. The molecular etiologies of neuronal migration anomalies are highly enriched for genes encoding microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins, and this enrichment highlights the critical role for these genes in cortical growth and gyrification. Using exome sequencing and family based rare variant analyses, we identified a homozygous variant (c.997C>T [p.Arg333Cys]) in TUBGCP2, encoding gamma-tubulin complex protein 2 (GCP2), in two individuals from a consanguineous family; both individuals presented with microcephaly and developmental delay. GCP2 forms the multiprotein γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) together with γ-tubulin and other GCPs to regulate the assembly of microtubules. By querying clinical exome sequencing cases and through GeneMatcher-facilitated collaborations, we found three additional families with bi-allelic variation and similarly affected phenotypes including a homozygous variant (c.1843G>C [p.Ala615Pro]) in two families and compound heterozygous variants consisting of one missense variant (c.889C>T [p.Arg297Cys]) and one splice variant (c.2025-2A>G) in another family. Brain imaging from all five affected individuals revealed varying degrees of cortical malformations including pachygyria and subcortical band heterotopia, presumably caused by disruption of neuronal migration. Our data demonstrate that pathogenic variants in TUBGCP2 cause an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental trait consisting of a neuronal migration disorder, and our data implicate GCP2 as a core component of γ-TuRC in neuronal migrating cells.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(8): 1395-1406, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31402629


OBJECTIVE: To characterize the molecular and clinical phenotypic basis of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies caused by rare biallelic variants in CACNA2D2. METHODS: Two affected individuals from a family with clinical features of early onset epileptic encephalopathy were recruited for exome sequencing at the Centers for Mendelian Genomics to identify their molecular diagnosis. GeneMatcher facilitated identification of a second family with a shared candidate disease gene identified through clinical gene panel-based testing. RESULTS: Rare biallelic CACNA2D2 variants have been previously reported in three families with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, and one family with congenital ataxia. We identified three individuals in two unrelated families with novel homozygous rare variants in CACNA2D2 with clinical features of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and cerebellar atrophy. Family 1 includes two affected siblings with a likely damaging homozygous rare missense variant c.1778G>C; p.(Arg593Pro) in CACNA2D2. Family 2 includes a proband with a homozygous rare nonsense variant c.485_486del; p.(Tyr162Ter) in CACNA2D2. We compared clinical and molecular findings from all nine individuals reported to date and note that cerebellar atrophy is shared among all. INTERPRETATION: Our study supports the candidacy of CACNA2D2 as a disease gene associated with a phenotypic spectrum of neurological disease that include features of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, ataxia, and cerebellar atrophy. Age at presentation may affect apparent penetrance of neurogenetic trait manifestations and of a particular clinical neurological endophenotype, for example, seizures or ataxia.

Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 132-150, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230720


Arthrogryposis is a clinical finding that is present either as a feature of a neuromuscular condition or as part of a systemic disease in over 400 Mendelian conditions. The underlying molecular etiology remains largely unknown because of genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. We applied exome sequencing (ES) in a cohort of 89 families with the clinical sign of arthrogryposis. Additional molecular techniques including array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) were performed on individuals who were found to have pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) and mosaicism, respectively. A molecular diagnosis was established in 65.2% (58/89) of families. Eleven out of 58 families (19.0%) showed evidence for potential involvement of pathogenic variation at more than one locus, probably driven by absence of heterozygosity (AOH) burden due to identity-by-descent (IBD). RYR3, MYOM2, ERGIC1, SPTBN4, and ABCA7 represent genes, identified in two or more families, for which mutations are probably causative for arthrogryposis. We also provide evidence for the involvement of CNVs in the etiology of arthrogryposis and for the idea that both mono-allelic and bi-allelic variants in the same gene cause either similar or distinct syndromes. We were able to identify the molecular etiology in nine out of 20 families who underwent reanalysis. In summary, our data from family-based ES further delineate the molecular etiology of arthrogryposis, yielded several candidate disease-associated genes, and provide evidence for mutational burden in a biological pathway or network. Our study also highlights the importance of reanalysis of individuals with unsolved diagnoses in conjunction with sequencing extended family members.

Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 171-187, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30032986


Premature termination codon (PTC)-bearing transcripts are often degraded by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) resulting in loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. However, not all PTCs result in LoF mutations, i.e., some such transcripts escape NMD and are translated to truncated peptide products that result in disease due to gain-of-function (GoF) effects. Since the location of the PTC is a major factor determining transcript fate, we hypothesized that depletion of protein-truncating variants (PTVs) within the gene region predicted to escape NMD in control databases could provide a rank for genic susceptibility for disease through GoF versus LoF. We developed an NMD escape intolerance score to rank genes based on the depletion of PTVs that would render them able to escape NMD using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC) control databases, which was further used to screen the Baylor-Center for Mendelian Genomics disease database. This analysis revealed 1,996 genes significantly depleted for PTVs that are predicted to escape from NMD, i.e., PTVesc; further studies provided evidence that revealed a subset as candidate genes underlying Mendelian phenotypes. Importantly, these genes have characteristically low pLI scores, which can cause them to be overlooked as candidates for dominant diseases. Collectively, we demonstrate that this NMD escape intolerance score is an effective and efficient tool for gene discovery in Mendelian diseases due to production of truncated or altered proteins. More importantly, we provide a complementary analytical tool to aid identification of genes associated with dominant traits through a mechanism distinct from LoF.