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2.
Epilepsy Res ; 157: 106210, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605878

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Describe treatment patterns in patients from the United States with new-onset epilepsy, comparing those with and without lesional epilepsy. METHODS: In this observational study we used Truven Health MarketScan databases derived from commercial health insurance, Medicare and Medicaid claims covering at least 5 years, commencing in 2008. We identified incident epilepsy cases based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes indicating epilepsy or recurrent seizures, taking into account antiepileptic drug (AED) claims, consistent with International League Against Epilepsy Commission on Epidemiology recommendations. We identified patients with lesional epilepsy when associated diagnoses indicated central nervous system infection, neoplasm, traumatic brain injury, stroke, senile dementia and static encephalopathy. Lesional and nonlesional cohorts were matched 1:1 on baseline characteristics of age, sex and insurance type for group comparisons. RESULTS: In unmatched cohorts lesional epilepsy patients (N = 15,302) were more commonly older (mean age 48.7 years) compared with nonlesional epilepsy patients (N = 15,970; mean age 18.5 years). Among lesional patients <20 years of age, the leading putative etiology was static encephalopathy, while among ages ≥20 years and older, the leading putative etiology was stroke or cerebrovascular disease. In matched cohorts (7063 patients each), those with lesional epilepsy were significantly less likely to be untreated at 1 year versus those with nonlesional epilepsy (37.2% vs 56.1%). In children and adults among matched cohorts, levetiracetam was the most common AED prescribed for initial AED therapy for the lesional (39.5%) and nonlesional (32.1%) groups. Lesional epilepsy patients on monotherapy were only slightly less likely than nonlesional epilepsy patients to be on the same AED 1 year after treatment initiation (55.6% vs 59.7%). SIGNIFICANCE: Compared with patients with lesional epilepsy, a higher proportion of patients with nonlesional epilepsy remain untreated 1 year after diagnosis. There were differences in AED selection by epilepsy etiology; levetiracetam is the most commonly prescribed drug for both cohorts.

3.
Epilepsy Curr ; 19(5): 310-312, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456435

RESUMO

[Box: see text].

4.
Epilepsia ; 60(7): 1462-1471, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine health care costs in diverse older Medicare beneficiaries with epilepsy. METHODS: Using 2008-2010 claims data, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study of a random sample of Medicare beneficiaries augmented for minority representation. Epilepsy cases (n = 36 912) had ≥1 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition (ICD-9) 345.x or ≥2 ICD-9 780.3x claims, and ≥1 antiepileptic drug (AED) in 2009; new cases (n = 3706) had no seizure/epilepsy claims nor AEDs in the previous 365 days. Costs were measured by reimbursements for all care received. High cost was defined as follow-up 1-year cost ≥ 75th percentile. Logistic regressions examined association of high cost with race/ethnicity, adjusting for demographic, clinical, economic, and treatment quality factors. In cases with continuous 2-year data, we obtained costs in two 6-month periods before and two after the index event. RESULTS: Cohort was ~62% African Americans (AAs), 11% Hispanics, 5% Asians, and 2% American Indian/Alaska Natives. Mean costs in the follow-up were ~$30 000 (median = $11 547; new cases, mean = $44 642; median = $25 008). About 19% white compared to 27% AA cases had high cost. AA had higher odds of high cost in adjusted analyses (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11-1.29), although this was only marginally significant when adjusting for AED adherence (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01-1.18, P = 0.03). Factors associated with high cost included ≥1 comorbidity, neurological care, and low AED adherence. Costs were highest at ~$17 000 in the 6 months immediately before and after the index event (>$29 000 for new cases). SIGNIFICANCE: The financial sequelae of epilepsy among older Americans disproportionally affect minorities. Studies should examine contributors to high costs.

5.
Neurology ; 92(19): e2197-e2208, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the treatment gap between a new epilepsy diagnosis and antiepileptic drug (AED) initiation in the United States. METHODS: Retrospective claims-based cohort study using Truven Health MarketScan databases (commercial and supplemental Medicare, calendar years 2010-2015; Medicaid, 2010-2014) and a validation study using PharMetrics Plus Database linked to LRx claims database (2009-2014). Persons met epilepsy diagnostic criteria, had an index date (first epilepsy diagnosis) with a preceding 2-year baseline (1 year for persons aged 1 to <2 years; none for persons <1 year), and continuous medical and pharmacy enrollment without epilepsy/seizure diagnosis or AED prescription during baseline. Outcomes included percentage of untreated persons (no AED prescription) up to 3 years' follow-up and comparative outcomes (incidence rate ratio: untreated persons/treated persons), including medical events and health care resource utilization. RESULTS: In the primary study, 59,970 persons met selection (or inclusion) criteria; 36.7% of persons with newly diagnosed epilepsy remained untreated up to 3 years after diagnosis. In the validation study (N = 30,890), 31.8% of persons remained untreated up to 3 years after diagnosis. Lack of AED treatment was associated with an adjusted incidence rate ratio (95% confidence interval) of 1.2 (1.2-1.3) for medical events, 2.3 (2.2-2.3) for hospitalizations, and 2.8 (2.7-2.9) for emergency department visits. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of newly diagnosed persons remain untreated up to 3 years after epilepsy diagnosis. The increased risk of medical events and health care utilization highlights the consequences of delayed treatment after epilepsy diagnosis, which might be preventable.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Epilepsy Curr ; 19(2): 88-90, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955429

RESUMO

Antiepileptic Drug Treatment After an Unprovoked First Seizure: A Decision Analysis Bao EL, Chao LY, Ni P, et al. Neurology. 2018;91(15):e1429-e1439. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000006319 Objective: To compare the expected quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) in adult patients undergoing immediate versus deferred antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment after a first unprovoked seizure. METHODS: We constructed a simulated clinical trial (Markov decision model) to compare immediate versus deferred AED treatment after a first unprovoked seizure in adults. Three base cases were considered, representing patients with varying degrees of seizure recurrence risk and effect of seizures on quality of life (QOL). Cohort simulation was performed to determine which treatment strategy would maximize the patient's expected QALYs. Sensitivity analyses were guided by clinical data to define decision thresholds across plausible measurement ranges, including seizure recurrence rate, effect of seizure recurrence on QOL, and efficacy of AEDs. RESULTS: For patients with a moderate risk of recurrent seizures (52.0% over 10 years after first seizure), immediate AED treatment maximized QALYs compared to deferred treatment. Sensitivity analyses showed that for the preferred choice to change to deferred AED treatment, key clinical measures needed to reach implausible values were 10-year seizure recurrence rate ≤38.0%, QOL reduction with recurrent seizures ≤0.06, and efficacy of AEDs on lowering seizure recurrence rate ≤16.3%. CONCLUSION: Our model determined that immediate AED treatment is preferable to deferred treatment in adult first-seizure patients over a wide and clinically relevant range of variables. Furthermore, our analysis suggests that the 10-year seizure recurrence rate that justifies AED treatment (38.0%) is substantially lower than the 60% threshold used in the current definition of epilepsy.

7.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(7): 783-790, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933252

RESUMO

Importance: Limited population-based data are available on antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment patterns in women of childbearing age with epilepsy; the current population risk is not clear. Objectives: To examine the AED treatment patterns and identify differences in use of valproate sodium and topiramate by comorbidities among women of childbearing age with epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study used a nationwide commercial database and supplemental Medicare as well as Medicaid insurance claims data to identify 46 767 women with epilepsy aged 15 to 44 years. The eligible study cohort was enrolled between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from January 1, 2017, to February 22, 2018. Exposures: Cases required an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification-coded epilepsy diagnosis with continuous medical and pharmacy enrollment. Incident cases required a baseline of 2 or more years without an epilepsy diagnosis or AED prescription before the index date. For both incident and prevalent cases, focal and generalized epilepsy cohorts were matched by age, payer type, and enrollment period and then compared. Main Outcomes and Measures: Antiepileptic drug treatment pattern according to seizure type and comorbidities. Results: Of the 46 767 patients identified, there were 8003 incident cases (mean [SD] age, 27.3 [9.4] years) and 38 764 prevalent cases (mean [SD] age, 29.7 [9.0] years). Among 3219 women in the incident epilepsy group who received AEDs for 90 days or more, 3173 (98.6%) received monotherapy as first-line treatment; among 28 239 treated prevalent cases, 18 987 (67.2%) received monotherapy. In 3544 (44.3%) incident cases and 9480 (24.5%) prevalent cases, AED treatment was not documented during 180 days or more of follow-up after diagnosis. Valproate (incident: 35 [5.81%]; prevalent: 514 [13.1%]) and phenytoin (incident: 33 [5.48%]; prevalent: 178 [4.53%]) were more commonly used for generalized epilepsy and oxcarbazepine (incident: 53 [8.03%]; prevalent: 386 [9.89%]) was more often used for focal epilepsy. Levetiracetam (incident: focal, 267 [40.5%]; generalized, 271 [45.0%]; prevalent: focal, 794 [20.3%]; generalized, 871 [22.2%]), lamotrigine (incident: focal, 123 [18.6%]; generalized, 106 [17.6%]; prevalent: focal, 968 [24.8%]; generalized, 871 [22.2%]), and topiramate (incident: focal, 102 [15.5%]; generalized, 64 [10.6%]; prevalent: focal, 499 [12.8%]; generalized, 470 [12.0%]) were leading AEDs prescribed for both focal and generalized epilepsy. Valproate was more commonly prescribed for women with comorbid headache or migraine (incident: 53 of 1251 [4.2%]; prevalent: 839 of 8046 [10.4%]), mood disorder (incident: 63 of 860 [7.3%]; prevalent: 1110 of 6995 [15.9%]), and anxiety and dissociative disorders (incident: 57 of 881 [6.5%]; prevalent: 798 of 5912 [13.5%]). Topiramate was more likely prescribed for those with comorbid headache or migraine (incident: 335 of 1251 [26.8%]; prevalent: 2322 of 8046 [28.9%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Many women appear to be treated with valproate and topiramate despite known teratogenicity risks. Comorbidities may affect selecting certain AEDs despite their teratogenicity risks.

8.
Neurology ; 91(22): 989-990, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389895
9.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 18(12): 88, 2018 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298240

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose is to review evidence relating to the concept that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) impair brain performance. RECENT FINDINGS: Sophisticated measures of motor and cognitive performance have clarified older observations, confirming that in both animals and humans, IEDs affect aspects of performance, IED morphology, frequency, anatomical distribution, and duration matter. However, we now know that it is difficult to draw a line between IEDs and seizures, not only by electrical criteria but even by metabolic and molecular measures. IEDs impair performance acutely and probably chronically. Thus, there are good theoretical reasons for suppressing them, but no consensus has been reached on how much effort this deserves. Many antiepileptic medications effective for control of clinical seizures have little effect on IEDs. Better methods of measuring outcomes may allow selection of individual patients for whom treatment aimed at IEDs is worthwhile.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/fisiopatologia
10.
Epilepsy Curr ; 18(4): 260-268, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254527

RESUMO

Objective: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline for treating new-onset focal or generalized epilepsy (GE) with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods: The 2004 AAN criteria was used to systematically review literature (January 2003 to November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. Results: Several second-generation AEDs are effective for new-onset focal epilepsy. Data are lacking on efficacy in new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, or juvenile absence epilepsy, and on efficacy of third-generation AEDs in new-onset epilepsy. Recommendations: Lamotrigine (LTG) should (Level B) and levetiracetam (LEV) and zonisamide (ZNS) may (Level C) be considered in decreasing seizure frequency in adults with new-onset focal epilepsy. LTG should (Level B) and gabapentin (GBP) may (Level C) be considered in decreasing seizure frequency in patients ≥60 years with new-onset focal epilepsy. Unless there are compelling adverse-effect-related concerns, ethosuximide (ETS) or valproic acid (VPA) should be considered before LTG to decrease seizure frequency in treating absence seizures in childhood absence epilepsy (Level B). No high-quality studies suggest clobazam, eslicarbazepine, ezogabine, felbamate, GBP, lacosamide, LEV, LTG, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or ZNS is effective in treating new-onset epilepsy because no high-quality studies exist in adults of various ages. A recent FDA strategy allows extrapolation of efficacy across populations; therefore, for focal epilepsy, eslicarbazepine and lacosamide (oral only for pediatric use) as add-on or monotherapy in persons ≥4 years old and perampanel as monotherapy received FDA approval.

11.
Epilepsy Curr ; 18(4): 269-278, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254528

RESUMO

Objective: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline for managing treatment-resistant (TR) epilepsy with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods: 2004 criteria were used to systematically review literature (January 2003 to November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. Results: Forty-two articles were included. Recommendations: The following are established as effective to reduce seizure frequency (Level A): immediate-release pregabalin and perampanel for TR adult focal epilepsy (TRAFE); vigabatrin for TRAFE (not first-line treatment; rufinamide for Lennox-Gastuat syndrome (LGS) (add-on therapy). The following should be considered to decrease seizure frequency (Level B): lacosamide, eslicarbazepine, and extended-release topiramate for TRAFE (ezogabine production discontinued); immediate- and extended-release lamotrigine for generalized epilepsy with TR generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures in adults; levetiracetam (add-on therapy) for TR childhood focal epilepsy (TRCFE) (1 month to 16 years), TR GTC seizures, and TR juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; clobazam for LGS (add-on therapy); zonisamide for TRCFE (6-17 years); oxcarbazepine for TRCFE (1 month to 4 years). The text presents Level C recommendations. AED selection depends on seizure/syndrome type, patient age, concomitant medications, and AED tolerability, safety, and efficacy. This evidence-based assessment informs AED prescription guidelines for TR epilepsy and indicates seizure types and syndromes needing more evidence. A recent FDA strategy allows extrapolation of efficacy across populations; therefore, for focal epilepsy, eslicarbazepine and lacosamide (oral only for pediatric use) as add-on or monotherapy in persons ≥4 years of age and perampanel as monotherapy received FDA approval.

12.
Epilepsy Behav ; 85: 37-44, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906700

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine patient characteristics and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment patterns in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy in a United States (US) population followed for ≥180 days. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, Commercial, Supplemental Medicare, and Medicaid insurance claims from US-based Truven Health MarketScan® claims database were analyzed for incident epilepsy cases (index date: January 2010-June 2013; prior baseline of 2 years [1 year for ages 1 to <2 years; none for those <1 year]). Cases met epilepsy criteria consistent with the International League Against Epilepsy diagnostic guidelines, with continuous medical and pharmacy enrollment without an epilepsy or seizure diagnosis or AED prescription during baseline. Treatment was classified as monotherapy (one AED for ≥90 continuous days), polytherapy (at least two AEDs for ≥90 days), or untreated (no AED claims but other pharmacy or healthcare claims). Treatment pattern comparisons used matched cohorts across seizure types. RESULTS: Of 58,757 incident cases, 50,838 had a follow-up of ≥180 days. The median (range) follow-up duration was 529 (180-1096) days. Patient characteristics were similar across seizure types (matched focal vs. generalized epilepsy, N = 9949 each). At 6 and 12 months post-index, 46.8% and 52.2% of patients, respectively, had received AED treatment. Of 29,226 patients receiving treatment, 74.7% and 1.6% received monotherapy and polytherapy for ≥90 days, respectively, as first-line treatment; remaining patients received AED for <90 days and were excluded. The probability of remaining on initial treatment after 1 year was 61.0% for monotherapy and 36.5% for polytherapy. The most common first-line AEDs were levetiracetam (44.4%), phenytoin (6.5%), valproic acid (6.4%), lamotrigine (6.3%), oxcarbazepine (5.7%), topiramate (5.5%), and gabapentin (5.3%). CONCLUSION: Although the majority of treated patients received AED monotherapy consistent with guidelines, suboptimal rates of AED treatment and persistence of first-line treatment after initial epilepsy diagnosis suggest that efforts are needed to improve patient care.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/epidemiologia , Convulsões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neurology ; 91(2): 74-81, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898971

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline for treating new-onset focal or generalized epilepsy with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: The 2004 AAN criteria were used to systematically review literature (January 2003-November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. RESULTS: Several second-generation AEDs are effective for new-onset focal epilepsy. Data are lacking on efficacy in new-onset generalized tonic-clonic seizures, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, or juvenile absence epilepsy, and on efficacy of third-generation AEDs in new-onset epilepsy. RECOMMENDATIONS: Lamotrigine (LTG) should (Level B) and levetiracetam (LEV) and zonisamide (ZNS) may (Level C) be considered in decreasing seizure frequency in adults with new-onset focal epilepsy. LTG should (Level B) and gabapentin (GBP) may (Level C) be considered in decreasing seizure frequency in patients ≥60 years of age with new-onset focal epilepsy. Unless there are compelling adverse effect-related concerns, ethosuximide or valproic acid should be considered before LTG to decrease seizure frequency in treating absence seizures in childhood absence epilepsy (level B). No high-quality studies suggest clobazam, eslicarbazepine, ezogabine, felbamate, GBP, lacosamide, LEV, LTG, oxcarbazepine, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, or ZNS is effective in treating new-onset epilepsy because no high-quality studies exist in adults of various ages. A recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) strategy allows extrapolation of efficacy across populations; therefore, for focal epilepsy, eslicarbazepine and lacosamide (oral only for pediatric use) as add-on or monotherapy in persons ≥4 years old and perampanel as monotherapy received FDA approval.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Tipo Ausência/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
14.
Neurology ; 91(2): 82-90, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology guideline for managing treatment-resistant (TR) epilepsy with second- and third-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). METHODS: 2004 criteria were used to systemically review literature (January 2003 to November 2015), classify pertinent studies according to the therapeutic rating scheme, and link recommendations to evidence strength. RESULTS: Forty-two articles were included. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following are established as effective to reduce seizure frequency (Level A): immediate-release pregabalin and perampanel for TR adult focal epilepsy (TRAFE); vigabatrin for TRAFE (not first-line treatment); rufinamide for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) (add-on therapy). The following should be considered to decrease seizure frequency (Level B): lacosamide, eslicarbazepine, and extended-release topiramate for TRAFE (ezogabine production discontinued); immediate- and extended-release lamotrigine for generalized epilepsy with TR generalized tonic-clonic (GTC) seizures in adults; levetiracetam (add-on therapy) for TR childhood focal epilepsy (TRCFE) (1 month-16 years), TR GTC seizures, and TR juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; clobazam for LGS (add-on therapy); zonisamide for TRCFE (6-17 years); oxcarbazepine for TRCFE (1 month-4 years). The text presents Level C recommendations. AED selection depends on seizure/syndrome type, patient age, concomitant medications, and AED tolerability, safety, and efficacy. This evidence-based assessment informs AED prescription guidelines for TR epilepsy and indicates seizure types and syndromes needing more evidence. A recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) strategy allows extrapolation of efficacy across populations; therefore, for focal epilepsy, eslicarbazepine and lacosamide (oral only for pediatric use) as add-on or monotherapy in persons ≥4 years of age and perampanel as monotherapy received FDA approval.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Generalizada/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Lennox Gastaut/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Criança , Humanos
15.
Epilepsy Curr ; 18(2): 99-100, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643752
16.
Epilepsia ; 59(3): 715-723, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411348

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of older Americans with epilepsy receiving concomitant prescriptions for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and non-epilepsy drugs (NEDs) which could result in significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction, and to assess the contributions of racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and demographic factors. METHODS: Retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries ≥67 years old in 2009 augmented for minority representation. Prevalent cases had ≥1 ICD-9 345.x or ≥2 ICD-9 780.3x, and ≥1 AED. Among them, incident cases had no seizure/epilepsy claim codes nor AEDs in preceding 365 days. Drug claims for AEDs, and for the 50 most common NEDs within +/- 60 days of the index epilepsy date were tabulated. Interacting pairs of AEDs/NEDs were identified by literature review. Logistic regression models were used to examine factors affecting the likelihood of interaction risk. RESULTS: Interacting drug pairs affecting NED efficacy were found in 24.5% of incident, 39% of prevalent cases. Combinations affecting AED efficacy were found in 20.4% of incident, 29.3% of prevalent cases. Factors predicting higher interaction risk included having ≥ 1 comorbidity, being eligible for Part D low Income Subsidy, and not living in the northeastern US. Protective factors were Asian race/ethnicity, and treatment by a neurologist. SIGNIFICANCE: A substantial portion of older epilepsy patients received NED-AED combinations that could cause important PK interactions. The lower frequency among incident vs. prevalent cases may reflect changes in prescribing practices. Avoidance of interacting AEDs is feasible for most persons because of the availability of newer drugs.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/metabolismo , Interações de Medicamentos/fisiologia , Formulário de Reclamação de Seguro/tendências , Medicare/tendências , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Epilepsia ; 58(11): 1861-1869, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28980702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A prospective multicenter phase III trial was undertaken to evaluate the performance and tolerability in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU) of an investigational wearable surface electromyographic (sEMG) monitoring system for the detection of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs). METHODS: One hundred ninety-nine patients with a history of GTCSs who were admitted to the EMU in 11 level IV epilepsy centers for clinically indicated video-electroencephalographic monitoring also received sEMG monitoring with a wearable device that was worn on the arm over the biceps muscle. All recorded sEMG data were processed at a central site using a previously developed detection algorithm. Detected GTCSs were compared to events verified by a majority of three expert reviewers. RESULTS: For all subjects, the detection algorithm detected 35 of 46 (76%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.87) of the GTCSs, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.03 and a mean false alarm rate (FAR) of 2.52 per 24 h. For data recorded while the device was placed over the midline of the biceps muscle, the system detected 29 of 29 GTCSs (100%, 95% CI = 0.88-1.00), with a detection delay averaging 7.70 s, a PPV of 6.2%, and a mean FAR of 1.44 per 24 h. Mild to moderate adverse events were reported in 28% (55 of 199) of subjects and led to study withdrawal in 9% (17 of 199). These adverse events consisted mostly of skin irritation caused by the electrode patch that resolved without treatment. No serious adverse events were reported. SIGNIFICANCE: Detection of GTCSs using an sEMG monitoring device on the biceps is feasible. Proper positioning of this device is important for accuracy, and for some patients, minimizing the number of false positives may be challenging.


Assuntos
Eletromiografia/métodos , Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/diagnóstico , Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/fisiopatologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Epilepsia ; 58(10): 1742-1748, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in health care resource utilization following the initiation of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy in the United States. METHODS: Health care claims from Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse database between December 2012 and November 2015 were analyzed. Patients newly initiated on perampanel, having ≥1 epilepsy (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 345.xx, ICD-10-CM code G40.xxx) or nonfebrile convulsion (ICD-9-CM code 780.39, ICD-10-CM code R56.9) diagnosis, and having ≥6 months of baseline and observation periods were included. Patients <12 years old at perampanel initiation were excluded. RESULTS: Of the 2,508 perampanel patients included in the study, the mean [median] (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 35.8 [34] (±16.0) years and 56.2% were female. The mean [median] (±SD) observation duration was 459.8 [462] (±146.3) days in the postperampanel period. The postperampanel period was associated with significantly lower rates of all health care resource utilization outcomes than the pre-period. For the post- versus pre-period, perampanel users had 42.3 versus 53.8 overall hospitalizations per 100 person-years (rate ratio [RR] = 0.80, p < 0.001) and 1,240.2 versus 1,343.8 outpatient visits per 100 person-years (RR = 0.91, p < 0.001). Epilepsy-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits were 25.2 versus 33.6 per 100 person-years (RR = 0.76, p < 0.001) and 327.0 versus 389.0 per 100 person-years (RR = 0.84, p < 0.001), respectively. Additionally, a significantly lower rate of status epilepticus in the post-period (1.8 events per 100 person-years) was observed compared to the pre-period (4.4 events per 100 person-years; RR = 0.43, p < 0.001). The monthly time trend of hospitalizations showed an increasing trend leading up to the initiation of perampanel, after which the hospitalizations decreased steadily. SIGNIFICANCE: Use of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy was associated with significant reduction in all-cause and epilepsy-related health care resource utilization, including hospitalizations, especially for status epilepticus, and outpatient visits.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Piridonas/uso terapêutico , Estado Epiléptico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med Care ; 55(7): 677-683, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28437319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (EI-AEDs) are not recommended for older adults with epilepsy. Quality Indicator for Epilepsy Treatment 9 (QUIET-9) states that new patients should not receive EI-AEDs as first line of treatment. In light of reported racial/ethnic disparities in epilepsy care, we investigated EI-AED use and QUIET-9 concordance across major racial/ethnic groups of Medicare beneficiaries. RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective analyses of 2008-2010 Medicare claims for a 5% random sample of beneficiaries 67 years old and above in 2009 augmented for minority representation. Logistic regressions examined QUIET-9 concordance differences by race/ethnicity adjusting for individual, socioeconomic, and geography factors. SUBJECTS: Epilepsy prevalent (≥1 International Classification of Disease-version 9 code 345.x or ≥2 International Classification of Disease-version 9 code 780.3x, ≥1 AED), and new (same as prevalent+no seizure/epilepsy events nor AEDs in 365 d before index event) cases. MEASURES: Use of EI-AEDs and QUIET-9 concordance (no EI-AEDs for the first 2 AEDs). RESULTS: Cases were 21% white, 58% African American, 12% Hispanic, 6% Asian, 2% American Indian/Alaskan Native. About 65% of prevalent, 43.6% of new cases, used EI-AEDs. QUIET-9 concordance was found for 71% Asian, 65% white, 61% Hispanic, 57% African American, 55% American Indian/Alaskan new cases: racial/ethnic differences were not significant in adjusted model. Beneficiaries without neurology care, in deductible drug benefit phase, or in high poverty areas were less likely to have QUIET-9 concordant care. CONCLUSIONS: EI-AED use is high, and concordance with recommendations low, among all racial/ethnic groups of older adults with epilepsy. Potential socioeconomic disparities and drug coverage plans may affect treatment quality and opportunities to live well with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Medicare , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
Epilepsy Behav ; 70(Pt A): 253-258, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412154

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the provision of care to older adults with epilepsy and compliance with the "Quality Indicator for Epilepsy Treatment 15" (QUIET-15) measure. We analyzed 2008-2010, 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries augmented with data from all beneficiaries who identified as a minority with claims related to seizures (780.3x) or epilepsy (345.xx). Of 36,912 identified epilepsy cases, 12.6% had ≥1 emergency room (ER) visit for seizure(s). For those who presented to ER, among those taking anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), AED was changed in 15.4%, dose adjusted in 19.7%, and stopped in 14.9%; among those not taking AED, therapy was initiated in 68.5%. In adjusted logistic regressions, African-Americans were more likely to have recurrent seizures than Whites (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.27-1.56), while Asians were less likely to have recurrent seizures (OR 0.71, 95%CI 0.57-0.89). There were no significant racial/ethnic differences in the likelihood of a post-seizure intervention. The chance of seizure recurrence leading to ER visit decreased with age and increased with the number of comorbidities. Patients with seizure recurrence were more likely to be taking an enzyme-inducing AED (OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.57-1.82) and receiving Part D Low Income Subsidy (OR 1.36, 95%CI 1.22-1.51). The probability of AED change after a seizure was higher for patients with ≥4 comorbidities (OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.25-2.27), patients who saw a neurologist (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.30-1.70), and patients who were taking an enzyme-inducing AED (OR 1.47, 95%CI 1.27-1.71). Overall, a minority of Medicare beneficiaries experienced seizure recurrence that resulted in an ER visit. However, only half of them received treatment concordant with QUIET-15. Though racial differences were observed in occurrence of seizures, none were noted in the provision of care.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/etnologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Grupos Minoritários , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Convulsões/etnologia , Convulsões/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Epilepsia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicare/normas , Medicare/tendências , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Convulsões/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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