Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 31
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17964, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725658

RESUMO

Despite evidence suggesting race and ethnicity are important factors in responses to environmental exposures, drug therapies, and disease risk, few studies focus on the health needs of racially- and ethnically-diverse aging adults.The objective of this study was to determine the burden of 10 health conditions across race and ethnicity for a nationally-representative sample of aging Americans.Data from the 1998 to 2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, an ongoing longitudinal-panel study, were analyzed.Those aged over 50 years who identified as Black, Hispanic, or White were included. There were 5510 Blacks, 3423 Hispanics, and 21,168 Whites in the study.At each wave, participants reported if they had cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, back pain, hypertension, a fractured hip, myocardial infarction, rheumatism or arthritis, and a stroke. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated for each health condition by race and ethnicity. Ranked DALYs determined how race and ethnicity was differentially impacted by the burden of each health condition. Sample weights were utilized to make DALY estimates nationally-representative.Weighted DALY estimates (in thousands) ranged from 1405 to 55,631 for Blacks, 931 to 28,442 for Hispanics, and 15,313 to 295,623 for Whites. Although the health conditions affected each race and ethnicity differently, hypertension had the largest number of DALYs, and hip fractures had the fewest across race and ethnicity. In total, there were an estimated 198,621, 101,462, and 1,187,725 DALYs for older Black, Hispanic, and White aging adults.Our findings indicate that race and ethnicity may be influential on health and disease for aging adults in the United States. Monitoring DALYs may help guide the flow of health-related expenditures, improve the impact of health interventions, advance inclusive health care for diverse aging adult populations, and prepare healthcare providers for serving the health needs of aging adults.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3669, 2019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413261

RESUMO

Human longevity is heritable, but genome-wide association (GWA) studies have had limited success. Here, we perform two meta-analyses of GWA studies of a rigorous longevity phenotype definition including 11,262/3484 cases surviving at or beyond the age corresponding to the 90th/99th survival percentile, respectively, and 25,483 controls whose age at death or at last contact was at or below the age corresponding to the 60th survival percentile. Consistent with previous reports, rs429358 (apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4) is associated with lower odds of surviving to the 90th and 99th percentile age, while rs7412 (ApoE ε2) shows the opposite. Moreover, rs7676745, located near GPR78, associates with lower odds of surviving to the 90th percentile age. Gene-level association analysis reveals a role for tissue-specific expression of multiple genes in longevity. Finally, genetic correlation of the longevity GWA results with that of several disease-related phenotypes points to a shared genetic architecture between health and longevity.

3.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 950-961, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358974

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol consumption is one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. Alcohol consumption is a heritable complex trait. Here we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of alcohol consumption (g d-1) from the UK Biobank, the Alcohol Genome-Wide Consortium and the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Plus consortia, collecting data from 480,842 people of European descent to decipher the genetic architecture of alcohol intake. We identified 46 new common loci and investigated their potential functional importance using magnetic resonance imaging data and gene expression studies. We identify genetic pathways associated with alcohol consumption and suggest genetic mechanisms that are shared with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

4.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(11): 946-955, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use have been associated with common genetic variants in multiple loci. Rare variants within these loci hold promise in the identification of biological mechanisms in substance use. Exome arrays and genotype imputation can now efficiently genotype rare nonsynonymous and loss of function variants. Such variants are expected to have deleterious functional consequences and to contribute to disease risk. METHODS: We analyzed ∼250,000 rare variants from 16 independent studies genotyped with exome arrays and augmented this dataset with imputed data from the UK Biobank. Associations were tested for five phenotypes: cigarettes per day, pack-years, smoking initiation, age of smoking initiation, and alcoholic drinks per week. We conducted stratified heritability analyses, single-variant tests, and gene-based burden tests of nonsynonymous/loss-of-function coding variants. We performed a novel fine-mapping analysis to winnow the number of putative causal variants within associated loci. RESULTS: Meta-analytic sample sizes ranged from 152,348 to 433,216, depending on the phenotype. Rare coding variation explained 1.1% to 2.2% of phenotypic variance, reflecting 11% to 18% of the total single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of these phenotypes. We identified 171 genome-wide associated loci across all phenotypes. Fine mapping identified putative causal variants with double base-pair resolution at 24 of these loci, and between three and 10 variants for 65 loci. Twenty loci contained rare coding variants in the 95% credible intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Rare coding variation significantly contributes to the heritability of smoking and alcohol use. Fine-mapping genome-wide association study loci identifies specific variants contributing to the biological etiology of substance use behavior.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 237-244, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643251

RESUMO

Tobacco and alcohol use are leading causes of mortality that influence risk for many complex diseases and disorders1. They are heritable2,3 and etiologically related4,5 behaviors that have been resistant to gene discovery efforts6-11. In sample sizes up to 1.2 million individuals, we discovered 566 genetic variants in 406 loci associated with multiple stages of tobacco use (initiation, cessation, and heaviness) as well as alcohol use, with 150 loci evidencing pleiotropic association. Smoking phenotypes were positively genetically correlated with many health conditions, whereas alcohol use was negatively correlated with these conditions, such that increased genetic risk for alcohol use is associated with lower disease risk. We report evidence for the involvement of many systems in tobacco and alcohol use, including genes involved in nicotinic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmission. The results provide a solid starting point to evaluate the effects of these loci in model organisms and more precise substance use measures.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Fumar/genética , Tabagismo/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Risco , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
6.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30617275

RESUMO

Smoking is a major heritable and modifiable risk factor for many diseases, including cancer, common respiratory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Fourteen genetic loci have previously been associated with smoking behaviour-related traits. We tested up to 235,116 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) on the exome-array for association with smoking initiation, cigarettes per day, pack-years, and smoking cessation in a fixed effects meta-analysis of up to 61 studies (up to 346,813 participants). In a subset of 112,811 participants, a further one million SNVs were also genotyped and tested for association with the four smoking behaviour traits. SNV-trait associations with P < 5 × 10-8 in either analysis were taken forward for replication in up to 275,596 independent participants from UK Biobank. Lastly, a meta-analysis of the discovery and replication studies was performed. Sixteen SNVs were associated with at least one of the smoking behaviour traits (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery samples. Ten novel SNVs, including rs12616219 near TMEM182, were followed-up and five of them (rs462779 in REV3L, rs12780116 in CNNM2, rs1190736 in GPR101, rs11539157 in PJA1, and rs12616219 near TMEM182) replicated at a Bonferroni significance threshold (P < 4.5 × 10-3) with consistent direction of effect. A further 35 SNVs were associated with smoking behaviour traits in the discovery plus replication meta-analysis (up to 622,409 participants) including a rare SNV, rs150493199, in CCDC141 and two low-frequency SNVs in CEP350 and HDGFRP2. Functional follow-up implied that decreased expression of REV3L may lower the probability of smoking initiation. The novel loci will facilitate understanding the genetic aetiology of smoking behaviour and may lead to the identification of potential drug targets for smoking prevention and/or cessation.

7.
Soc Sci Med ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449520

RESUMO

Both social and genetic factors contribute to cognitive impairment and decline, yet genetic factors identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain only a small portion of trait variability. This "missing heritability" may be due to rare, potentially functional, genetic variants not assessed by GWAS, as well as gene-by-social factor interactions not explicitly modeled. Gene-by-social factor interactions may also operate differently across race/ethnic groups. We selected 39 genes that had significant, replicated associations with cognition, dementia, and related traits in published GWAS. Using gene-based analysis (SKAT/iSKAT), we tested whether common and/or rare variants were associated with episodic memory performance and decline either alone or through interaction with education in >10,000 European ancestry (EA) and >2200 African ancestry (AA) respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Nine genes in EA and five genes in AA were associated with memory performance or decline (p < 0.05), and these effects did not attenuate after adjusting for education. Interaction between education and CLPTM1 on memory performance was significant in AA (p = 0.003; FDR-adjusted p = 0.038) and nominally significant in EA (p = 0.026). In both ethnicities, low memory performance was associated with CLPTM1 genotype (rs10416261) only for those with less than high school education, and effects persisted after adjusting for APOE ε4. For over 70% of gene-by-education interactions across the genome that were at least nominally significant in either ethnic group (p < 0.05), genetic effects were only observed for those with less than high school education. These results suggest that genetic effects on memory identified in this study are not mediated by education, but there may be important gene-by-education interactions across the genome, including in the broader APOE genomic region, which operate independently of APOE ε4. This work illustrates the importance of developing theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches for integrating social and genomic data to study cognition across ethnic groups.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29258278

RESUMO

Inter-individual variability in blood pressure (BP) is influenced by both genetic and non-genetic factors including socioeconomic and psychosocial stressors. A deeper understanding of the gene-by-socioeconomic/psychosocial factor interactions on BP may help to identify individuals that are genetically susceptible to high BP in specific social contexts. In this study, we used a genomic region-based method for longitudinal analysis, Longitudinal Gene-Environment-Wide Interaction Studies (LGEWIS), to evaluate the effects of interactions between known socioeconomic/psychosocial and genetic risk factors on systolic and diastolic BP in four large epidemiologic cohorts of European and/or African ancestry. After correction for multiple testing, two interactions were significantly associated with diastolic BP. In European ancestry participants, outward/trait anger score had a significant interaction with the C10orf107 genomic region (p = 0.0019). In African ancestry participants, depressive symptom score had a significant interaction with the HFE genomic region (p = 0.0048). This study provides a foundation for using genomic region-based longitudinal analysis to identify subgroups of the population that may be at greater risk of elevated BP due to the combined influence of genetic and socioeconomic/psychosocial risk factors.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Afro-Americanos , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
10.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 910, 2017 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29030599

RESUMO

Genomic analysis of longevity offers the potential to illuminate the biology of human aging. Here, using genome-wide association meta-analysis of 606,059 parents' survival, we discover two regions associated with longevity (HLA-DQA1/DRB1 and LPA). We also validate previous suggestions that APOE, CHRNA3/5, CDKN2A/B, SH2B3 and FOXO3A influence longevity. Next we show that giving up smoking, educational attainment, openness to new experience and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels are most positively genetically correlated with lifespan while susceptibility to coronary artery disease (CAD), cigarettes smoked per day, lung cancer, insulin resistance and body fat are most negatively correlated. We suggest that the effect of education on lifespan is principally mediated through smoking while the effect of obesity appears to act via CAD. Using instrumental variables, we suggest that an increase of one body mass index unit reduces lifespan by 7 months while 1 year of education adds 11 months to expected lifespan.Variability in human longevity is genetically influenced. Using genetic data of parental lifespan, the authors identify associations at HLA-DQA/DRB1 and LPA and find that genetic variants that increase educational attainment have a positive effect on lifespan whereas increasing BMI negatively affects lifespan.


Assuntos
Cadeias alfa de HLA-DQ/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Estilo de Vida , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Longevidade/genética , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/etiologia , Educação , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28961216

RESUMO

Obesity, which develops over time, is one of the leading causes of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, hundreds of BMI (body mass index)-associated genetic loci identified through large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) only explain about 2.7% of BMI variation. Most common human traits are believed to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Past studies suggest a variety of environmental features that are associated with obesity, including socioeconomic status and psychosocial factors. This study combines both gene/regions and environmental factors to explore whether social/psychosocial factors (childhood and adult socioeconomic status, social support, anger, chronic burden, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms) modify the effect of sets of genetic variants on BMI in European American and African American participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). In order to incorporate longitudinal phenotype data collected in the HRS and investigate entire sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within gene/region simultaneously, we applied a novel set-based test for gene-environment interaction in longitudinal studies (LGEWIS). Childhood socioeconomic status (parental education) was found to modify the genetic effect in the gene/region around SNP rs9540493 on BMI in European Americans in the HRS. The most significant SNP (rs9540488) by childhood socioeconomic status interaction within the rs9540493 gene/region was suggestively replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) (p = 0.07).


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
13.
PLoS Genet ; 13(5): e1006728, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498854

RESUMO

Hypertension is a leading cause of global disease, mortality, and disability. While individuals of African descent suffer a disproportionate burden of hypertension and its complications, they have been underrepresented in genetic studies. To identify novel susceptibility loci for blood pressure and hypertension in people of African ancestry, we performed both single and multiple-trait genome-wide association analyses. We analyzed 21 genome-wide association studies comprised of 31,968 individuals of African ancestry, and validated our results with additional 54,395 individuals from multi-ethnic studies. These analyses identified nine loci with eleven independent variants which reached genome-wide significance (P < 1.25×10-8) for either systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, or for combined traits. Single-trait analyses identified two loci (TARID/TCF21 and LLPH/TMBIM4) and multiple-trait analyses identified one novel locus (FRMD3) for blood pressure. At these three loci, as well as at GRP20/CDH17, associated variants had alleles common only in African-ancestry populations. Functional annotation showed enrichment for genes expressed in immune and kidney cells, as well as in heart and vascular cells/tissues. Experiments driven by these findings and using angiotensin-II induced hypertension in mice showed altered kidney mRNA expression of six genes, suggesting their potential role in hypertension. Our study provides new evidence for genes related to hypertension susceptibility, and the need to study African-ancestry populations in order to identify biologic factors contributing to hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Loci Gênicos , Hipertensão/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Afro-Americanos/genética , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Caderinas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Biol Psychiatry ; 82(5): 322-329, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28049566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetics of depression has been explored in genome-wide association studies that focused on either major depressive disorder or depressive symptoms with mostly negative findings. A broad depression phenotype including both phenotypes has not been tested previously using a genome-wide association approach. We aimed to identify genetic polymorphisms significantly associated with a broad phenotype from depressive symptoms to major depressive disorder. METHODS: We analyzed two prior studies of 70,017 participants of European ancestry from general and clinical populations in the discovery stage. We performed a replication meta-analysis of 28,328 participants. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and genetic correlations were calculated using linkage disequilibrium score regression. Discovery and replication analyses were performed using a p-value-based meta-analysis. Lifetime major depressive disorder and depressive symptom scores were used as the outcome measures. RESULTS: The SNP-based heritability of major depressive disorder was 0.21 (SE = 0.02), the SNP-based heritability of depressive symptoms was 0.04 (SE = 0.01), and their genetic correlation was 1.001 (SE = 0.2). We found one genome-wide significant locus related to the broad depression phenotype (rs9825823, chromosome 3: 61,082,153, p = 8.2 × 10-9) located in an intron of the FHIT gene. We replicated this SNP in independent samples (p = .02) and the overall meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts (1.0 × 10-9). CONCLUSIONS: This large study identified a new locus for depression. Our results support a continuum between depressive symptoms and major depressive disorder. A phenotypically more inclusive approach may help to achieve the large sample sizes needed to detect susceptibility loci for depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hidrolases Anidrido Ácido/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Fenótipo
15.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 9(1): 209-246, 2017 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28077804

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that the basis for variation in late-life mobility is attributable, in part, to genetic factors, which may become increasingly important with age. Our objective was to systematically assess the contribution of genetic variation to gait speed in older individuals. We conducted a meta-analysis of gait speed GWASs in 31,478 older adults from 17 cohorts of the CHARGE consortium, and validated our results in 2,588 older adults from 4 independent studies. We followed our initial discoveries with network and eQTL analysis of candidate signals in tissues. The meta-analysis resulted in a list of 536 suggestive genome wide significant SNPs in or near 69 genes. Further interrogation with Pathway Analysis placed gait speed as a polygenic complex trait in five major networks. Subsequent eQTL analysis revealed several SNPs significantly associated with the expression of PRSS16, WDSUB1 and PTPRT, which in addition to the meta-analysis and pathway suggested that genetic effects on gait speed may occur through synaptic function and neuronal development pathways. No genome-wide significant signals for gait speed were identified from this moderately large sample of older adults, suggesting that more refined physical function phenotypes will be needed to identify the genetic basis of gait speed in aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Marcha/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Velocidade de Caminhada/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
16.
JAMA Intern Med ; 177(1): 51-58, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27893041

RESUMO

Importance: The aging of the US population is expected to lead to a large increase in the number of adults with dementia, but some recent studies in the United States and other high-income countries suggest that the age-specific risk of dementia may have declined over the past 25 years. Clarifying current and future population trends in dementia prevalence and risk has important implications for patients, families, and government programs. Objective: To compare the prevalence of dementia in the United States in 2000 and 2012. Design, Setting, and Participants: We used data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative, population-based longitudinal survey of individuals in the United States 65 years or older from the 2000 (n = 10 546) and 2012 (n = 10 511) waves of the HRS. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dementia was identified in each year using HRS cognitive measures and validated methods for classifying self-respondents, as well as those represented by a proxy. Logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic and health variables associated with change in dementia prevalence between 2000 and 2012. Results: The study cohorts had an average age of 75.0 years (95% CI, 74.8-75.2 years) in 2000 and 74.8 years (95% CI, 74.5-75.1 years) in 2012 (P = .24); 58.4% (95% CI, 57.3%-59.4%) of the 2000 cohort was female compared with 56.3% (95% CI, 55.5%-57.0%) of the 2012 cohort (P < .001). Dementia prevalence among those 65 years or older decreased from 11.6% (95% CI, 10.7%-12.7%) in 2000 to 8.8% (95% CI, 8.2%-9.4%) (8.6% with age- and sex-standardization) in 2012 (P < .001). More years of education was associated with a lower risk for dementia, and average years of education increased significantly (from 11.8 years [95% CI, 11.6-11.9 years] to 12.7 years [95% CI, 12.6-12.9 years]; P < .001) between 2000 and 2012. The decline in dementia prevalence occurred even though there was a significant age- and sex-adjusted increase between years in the cardiovascular risk profile (eg, prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and obesity) among older US adults. Conclusions and Relevance: The prevalence of dementia in the United States declined significantly between 2000 and 2012. An increase in educational attainment was associated with some of the decline in dementia prevalence, but the full set of social, behavioral, and medical factors contributing to the decline is still uncertain. Continued monitoring of trends in dementia incidence and prevalence will be important for better gauging the full future societal impact of dementia as the number of older adults increases in the decades ahead.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 28(3): 981-994, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27920155

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified >50 common variants associated with kidney function, but these variants do not fully explain the variation in eGFR. We performed a two-stage meta-analysis of associations between genotypes from the Illumina exome array and eGFR on the basis of serum creatinine (eGFRcrea) among participants of European ancestry from the CKDGen Consortium (nStage1: 111,666; nStage2: 48,343). In single-variant analyses, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms at seven new loci associated with eGFRcrea (PPM1J, EDEM3, ACP1, SPEG, EYA4, CYP1A1, and ATXN2L; PStage1<3.7×10-7), of which most were common and annotated as nonsynonymous variants. Gene-based analysis identified associations of functional rare variants in three genes with eGFRcrea, including a novel association with the SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 gene, SOS2 (P=5.4×10-8 by sequence kernel association test). Experimental follow-up in zebrafish embryos revealed changes in glomerular gene expression and renal tubule morphology in the embryonic kidney of acp1- and sos2-knockdowns. These developmental abnormalities associated with altered blood clearance rate and heightened prevalence of edema. This study expands the number of loci associated with kidney function and identifies novel genes with potential roles in kidney formation.


Assuntos
Exoma/genética , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/genética , Rim/embriologia , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Son Of Sevenless/genética , Animais , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Peixe-Zebra
18.
Nat Genet ; 48(10): 1162-70, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27618448

RESUMO

Meta-analyses of association results for blood pressure using exome-centric single-variant and gene-based tests identified 31 new loci in a discovery stage among 146,562 individuals, with follow-up and meta-analysis in 180,726 additional individuals (total n = 327,288). These blood pressure-associated loci are enriched for known variants for cardiometabolic traits. Associations were also observed for the aggregation of rare and low-frequency missense variants in three genes, NPR1, DBH, and PTPMT1. In addition, blood pressure associations at 39 previously reported loci were confirmed. The identified variants implicate biological pathways related to cardiometabolic traits, vascular function, and development. Several new variants are inferred to have roles in transcription or as hubs in protein-protein interaction networks. Genetic risk scores constructed from the identified variants were strongly associated with coronary disease and myocardial infarction. This large collection of blood pressure-associated loci suggests new therapeutic strategies for hypertension, emphasizing a link with cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Variação Genética , Exoma , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 19(5): 407-17, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27546527

RESUMO

Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.


Assuntos
Afeto , Herança Multifatorial , Satisfação Pessoal , Desenvolvimento da Personalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Reino Unido
20.
Aging Cell ; 15(5): 792-800, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27325353

RESUMO

Decline in muscle strength with aging is an important predictor of health trajectory in the elderly. Several factors, including genetics, are proposed contributors to variability in muscle strength. To identify genetic contributors to muscle strength, a meta-analysis of genomewide association studies of handgrip was conducted. Grip strength was measured using a handheld dynamometer in 27 581 individuals of European descent over 65 years of age from 14 cohort studies. Genomewide association analysis was conducted on ~2.7 million imputed and genotyped variants (SNPs). Replication of the most significant findings was conducted using data from 6393 individuals from three cohorts. GWAS of lower body strength was also characterized in a subset of cohorts. Two genomewide significant (P-value< 5 × 10(-8) ) and 39 suggestive (P-value< 5 × 10(-5) ) associations were observed from meta-analysis of the discovery cohorts. After meta-analysis with replication cohorts, genomewide significant association was observed for rs752045 on chromosome 8 (ß = 0.47, SE = 0.08, P-value = 5.20 × 10(-10) ). This SNP is mapped to an intergenic region and is located within an accessible chromatin region (DNase hypersensitivity site) in skeletal muscle myotubes differentiated from the human skeletal muscle myoblasts cell line. This locus alters a binding motif of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-ß (CEBPB) that is implicated in muscle repair mechanisms. GWAS of lower body strength did not yield significant results. A common genetic variant in a chromosomal region that regulates myotube differentiation and muscle repair may contribute to variability in grip strength in the elderly. Further studies are needed to uncover the mechanisms that link this genetic variant with muscle strength.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Força Muscular/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA