Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 26
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Memory ; 28(2): 237-260, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959064

RESUMO

Studies have shown that when aloud and silent items are studied together, silent items are remembered more poorly than when they are studied independently. We hypothesise that this cost to silent items emerges because, at test, participants search for memories of having said items aloud and when those memory searches fail, participants become uncertain about whether silent items were studied. This effect should be exaggerated if other unique distinctive encoding conditions are also included at study (e.g., mumbling, writing, typing, etc.). To test this prediction, we examined the impact of introducing mumbled, "important" (i.e., words that participants are told are the most important to remember), and mouthed words to a study list of aloud and silent words. Introducing mumbled and "important" words further impaired the recollection of silent items. Introducing mouthed items did not further impair the memorability of silent items because mouthing and speaking aloud are so similar and hence, are not fully unique from each other. The memorability of aloud items was unaffected in all conditions. These results suggest that participants search for distinctive encoding information at test, and only for items that fail those searches (i.e., silent items) do they lose confidence.

2.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(4)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of anxiety disorders in pregnant and postpartum women and identify predictors accounting for variability across estimates. DATA SOURCES: An electronic search of PsycINFO and PubMed was conducted from inception until July 2016, without date or language restrictions, and supplemented by articles referenced in the obtained sources. A Boolean search phrase utilized a combination of keywords related to pregnancy, postpartum, prevalence, and specific anxiety disorders. STUDY SELECTION: Articles reporting the prevalence of 1 or more of 8 common anxiety disorders in pregnant or postpartum women were included. A total of 2,613 records were retrieved, with 26 studies ultimately included. DATA EXTRACTION: Anxiety disorder prevalence and potential predictor variables (eg, parity) were extracted from each study. A Bayesian multivariate modeling approach estimated the prevalence and between-study heterogeneity of each disorder and the prevalence of having 1 or more anxiety disorder. RESULTS: Individual disorder prevalence estimates ranged from 1.1% for posttraumatic stress disorder to 4.8% for specific phobia, with the prevalence of having at least 1 or more anxiety disorder estimated to be 20.7% (95% highest density interval [16.7% to 25.4%]). Substantial between-study heterogeneity was observed, suggesting that "true" prevalence varies broadly across samples. There was evidence of a small (3.1%) tendency for pregnant women to be more susceptible to anxiety disorders than postpartum women. CONCLUSIONS: Peripartum anxiety disorders are more prevalent than previously thought, with 1 in 5 women in a typical sample meeting diagnostic criteria for at least 1 disorder. These findings highlight the need for anxiety screening, education, and referral in obstetrics and gynecology settings.

3.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 27(4): e1742, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epidemiological research plays an important role in public health, facilitated by the meta-analytic aggregation of epidemiological trials into a single, more powerful estimate. This form of aggregation is complicated when estimating the prevalence of a superordinate category of disorders (e.g., "any anxiety disorder," "any cardiac disorder") because epidemiological studies rarely include all of the disorders selected to define the superordinate category. In this paper, we suggest that estimating the prevalence of a superordinate category based on studies with differing operationalization of that category (in the form of different disorders measured) is both common and ill-advised. Our objective is to provide a better approach. METHODS: We propose a multivariate method using individual disorder prevalences to produce a fully Bayesian estimate of the probability of having one or more of those disorders. We validate this approach using a recent case study and parameter recovery simulations. RESULTS: Our approach produced less biased and more reliable estimates than other common approaches, which were at times highly biased. CONCLUSION: Although our approach entails additional effort (e.g., contacting authors for individual participant data), the improved accuracy of the prevalence estimates obtained is significant and therefore recommended.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Metanálise como Assunto , Modelos Estatísticos , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência
4.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196246, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29672641

RESUMO

Understanding what leads people to reverse their choices is important in many domains. We introduce a contrast paradigm for studying reversals in choices-here between pairs of abstract paintings-implemented in both within-subject (Experiment 1; N = 320) and between-subject (Experiment 2; N = 384) designs. On each trial, participants chose between a pair of paintings. A critical pair of average-beauty paintings was presented before and after either a reversal or control block. In the reversal block, we made efforts to bias preference away from the chosen average-beauty painting (by pairing it with more-beautiful paintings) and toward the non-chosen average-beauty painting (by pairing it with less-beautiful paintings). Meta-analysis revealed more reversals after reversal blocks than after control blocks, though only when the biasing manipulations succeeded. A second meta-analysis revealed that reversals were generally more likely for participants who later misidentified their initial choice, demonstrating that memory for initial choices influences later choices. Thus, the contrast paradigm has utility both for inducing choice reversals and identifying their causes.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Estética/psicologia , Pinturas , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Beleza , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Controle Comportamental/psicologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Can J Exp Psychol ; 70(2): 99-115, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27244352

RESUMO

Five experiments explored the basis of the between-subjects production effect in recognition memory as represented by differences in the recollection and familiarity of produced (read aloud) and nonproduced (read silently) words. Using remember-know judgments (Experiment 1b) and a dual-process signal-detection approach applied to confidence ratings (Experiments 2b and 3), we observed that production influences familiarity but not recollection when manipulated between-subjects. This is in contrast to within-subject designs, which reveal a clear effect of production on both recollection and familiarity (Experiments 1a and 2a). Our findings resolve contention concerning apparent design effects: Whereas the within-subject production effect is subserved by separable recollective- and familiarity-based components, the between-subjects production effect is subserved by the familiarity-based component alone. Our findings support a role for the relative distinctiveness of production as a means of guiding recognition judgments (at least when manipulated within-subjects), but we also propose that production influences the strength of produced items, explaining the persistence of the effect in between-subjects designs. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Leitura , /fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 133(3): 277-83, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although pica has long been associated with pregnancy, the exact prevalence in this population remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of pica during pregnancy and the postpartum period, and to explain variations in prevalence estimates by examining potential moderating variables. SEARCH STRATEGY: PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Google Scholar were searched from inception to February 2014 using the keywords pica, prevalence, and epidemiology. SELECTION CRITERIA: Articles estimating pica prevalence during pregnancy and/or the postpartum period using a self-report questionnaire or interview were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Study characteristics, pica prevalence, and eight potential moderating variables were recorded (parity, anemia, duration of pregnancy, mean maternal age, education, sampling method employed, region, and publication date). Random-effects models were employed. MAIN RESULTS: In total, 70 studies were included, producing an aggregate prevalence estimate of 27.8% (95% confidence interval 22.8-33.3). In light of substantial heterogeneity within the study model, the primary focus was identifying moderator variables. Pica prevalence was higher in Africa compared with elsewhere in the world, increased as the prevalence of anemia increased, and decreased as educational attainment increased. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical region, anemia, and education were found to moderate pica prevalence, partially explaining the heterogeneity in prevalence estimates across the literature.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Pica/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Idade Materna , Paridade , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 145(1): 56-81, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709589

RESUMO

We investigated whether intentional forgetting impacts only the likelihood of later retrieval from long-term memory or whether it also impacts the fidelity of those representations that are successfully retrieved. We accomplished this by combining an item-method directed forgetting task with a testing procedure and modeling approach inspired by the delayed-estimation paradigm used in the study of visual short-term memory (STM). Abstract or concrete colored images were each followed by a remember (R) or forget (F) instruction and sometimes by a visual probe requiring a speeded detection response (E1-E3). Memory was tested using an old-new (E1-E2) or remember-know-no (E3) recognition task followed by a continuous color judgment task (E2-E3); a final experiment included only the color judgment task (E4). Replicating the existing literature, more "old" or "remember" responses were made to R than F items and RTs to postinstruction visual probes were longer following F than R instructions. Color judgments were more accurate for successfully recognized or recollected R than F items (E2-E3); a mixture model confirmed a decrease to both the probability of retrieving the F items as well as the fidelity of the representation of those F items that were retrieved (E4). We conclude that intentional forgetting is an effortful process that not only reduces the likelihood of successfully encoding an item for later retrieval, but also produces an impoverished memory trace even when those items are retrieved; these findings draw a parallel between the control of memory representations within working and long-term memory.


Assuntos
Atenção , Intenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Probabilidade , Repressão Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry ; 47: 1-8, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25462596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rumination is a major contributor to the maintenance of affective disorders and has been linked to memory control deficits. However, ruminators often report intentionally engaging in repetitive thought due to its perceived benefits. Deliberate re-processing may lead to the appearance of a memory control deficit that is better explained as a difference in cognitive style. METHODS: Ninety-six undergraduate students volunteered to take part in a direct-suppression variant of the Think/No-Think paradigm after which they completed self-report measures of rumination and the degree to which they deliberately re-processed the to-be-suppressed items. RESULTS: We demonstrate a relation between rumination and impaired suppression-induced forgetting. This relation is robust even when controlling for deliberate re-processing of the to-be-suppressed items, a behavior itself related to both rumination and suppression. Therefore, whereas conscious fixation on to-be-suppressed items reduced memory suppression, it did not fully account for the relation between rumination and memory suppression. LIMITATIONS: The current experiment employed a retrospective measure of deliberate re-processing in the context of an unscreened university sample; future research might therefore generalize our findings using an online measure of deliberate re-processing or within a clinical population. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that deliberate re-processing accounts for some--but not all--of the relation between rumination and suppression-induced forgetting. The present findings, observed in a paradigm known to engage top-down inhibitory modulation of mnemonic processing, provide the most theoretically focused evidence to date for the existence of a memory control deficit in rumination.


Assuntos
Cognição , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória , Pensamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 22(2): 349-65, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24853535

RESUMO

We review and meta-analyze how distinctive encoding alters encoding and retrieval processes and, thus, affects correct and false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Reductions in false recognition following distinctive encoding (e.g., generation), relative to a nondistinctive read-only control condition, reflected both impoverished relational encoding and use of a retrieval-based distinctiveness heuristic. Additional analyses evaluated the costs and benefits of distinctive encoding in within-subjects designs relative to between-group designs. Correct recognition was design independent, but in a within design, distinctive encoding was less effective at reducing false recognition for distinctively encoded lists but more effective for nondistinctively encoded lists. Thus, distinctive encoding is not entirely "cost free" in a within design. In addition to delineating the conditions that modulate the effects of distinctive encoding on recognition accuracy, we discuss the utility of using signal detection indices of memory information and memory monitoring at test to separate encoding and retrieval processes.


Assuntos
Ilusões , Julgamento , Rememoração Mental , Conscientização , Humanos , Repressão Psicológica
10.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 21(1): 149-54, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23884689

RESUMO

The production effect is a memory advantage for items studied aloud over items studied silently. Although it typically is found within subjects, here we also obtained it between subjects in a recognition task-providing new evidence that production can be an effective study strategy. Our experiment, and a set of meta-analyses, also evaluated whether the within effect reflects costs to silent items and/or benefits to aloud items. Contrary to a strong distinctiveness account, we found little evidence that aloud items show an additional within-subjects benefit. Instead, silent items suffered an additional within-subjects cost. Blocking silent and aloud items eliminated this cost, suggesting that the cost was due to mixing silent and aloud items. Our discussion focuses on implications for distinctiveness and strength accounts of the production effect and on how to implement production as an encoding strategy depending on the learner's goals.


Assuntos
/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neuroimage ; 84: 854-67, 2014 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24064067

RESUMO

Current models suggest that human form and motion information are initially processed through separate pathways, then integrated in action perception. Testing such a sequential model requires techniques with high temporal resolution. Prior work demonstrated sensitivity of a posterior temporal event-related potential (ERP) effect - the N2 - to biological motion, but did not test whether the N2 indexes biological motion perception specifically, or human form/action perception more generally. We recorded ERPs while participants viewed stimuli across 3 blocks: (1) static (non-moving) point-light displays of humans performing actions; (2) static stick figures with clear forms; and (3) point-light biological motion. A similar sequence of ERP components was elicited by human forms in all blocks (stationary and moving), and reliably discriminated between human and scrambled forms. The N2 showed similar scalp distribution and sensitivity to stimulus manipulations for both stick figures and biological motion, suggesting that it indexes integration of form and motion information, rather than biological motion perception exclusively - and that form and motion information are therefore integrated by approximately 200ms. We identified a component subsequent to the N2, which we label the medial parietal positivity/ventral-anterior negativity (MPP/VAN), that was also sensitive to both human form and motion information. We propose that the MPP/VAN reflects higher-order human action recognition that occurs subsequent to the integration of form and motion information reflected by the N2.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , /fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletrofisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 144(2): 332-43, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23933003

RESUMO

Videos were presented depicting events such as baking cookies or cleaning a fish tank. Periodically, the video paused and an instruction to Remember (R) or Forget (F) the preceding video segment was presented; the video then resumed. Participants later responded more accurately to cued-recall questions (E1) and to true/false statements (E2-5) regarding R segments than F segments. This difference was larger for specific information (the woman added 3 cups of flour) than for general information (the woman added flour). Participants were also slower to detect visual probes presented following F instructions compared to those presented following R instructions. These findings suggest that intentional forgetting is an effortful process that can be performed even on segments of otherwise continuous events and that the result is a relatively impoverished representation of the unwanted information in memory.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Percepção Visual , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Gravação de Videoteipe , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 74(4): 377-85, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23656845

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although pregnant and postpartum women are presumed to be at greater risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) than the general population, the evidence has been inconclusive. This meta-analysis provides an estimate of OCD prevalence in pregnant and postpartum women and synthesizes the evidence that pregnant and postpartum women are at greater risk of OCD compared to the general population. DATA SOURCES: An electronic search of Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES, and PubMed was performed by using the search terms OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pregnancy, postpartum, prevalence, and epidemiology. We supplemented our search with articles referenced in the obtained sources. The search was conducted until August 2012 without date restrictions. STUDY SELECTION: We included English-language studies reporting OCD prevalence (diagnosed according to DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, or ICD-10 criteria) in pregnant (12 studies) or postpartum (up to 12 months; 7 studies) women using structured diagnostic interviews. We also included a sample of regionally matched control studies (10 studies) estimating 12-month prevalence in the general female population for comparison. The control studies were limited to those conducted during the same time frame as the pregnant and postpartum studies. DATA EXTRACTION: We extracted author name, year of publication, diagnostic measure, sample size, diagnostic criteria, country, assessment time, subject population, and the point prevalence of OCD. RESULTS: Mixed- and random-effects models revealed an increase in OCD prevalence across pregnancy and the postpartum period with the lowest prevalence in the general population (mean = 1.08%) followed by pregnant (mean = 2.07%) and postpartum women (mean = 2.43%). An exploratory analysis of regionally matched risk-ratios revealed both pregnant (mean = 1.45) and postpartum (mean = 2.38) women to be at greater risk of experiencing OCD compared to the general female population, with an aggregate risk ratio of 1.79. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant and postpartum women are more likely to experience OCD compared to the general population.


Assuntos
Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Risco
14.
Memory ; 21(6): 675-94, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23301998

RESUMO

In a novel event method directed forgetting task, instructions to Remember (R) or Forget (F) were integrated throughout the presentation of four videos depicting common events (e.g., baking cookies). Participants responded more accurately to cued recall questions (E1) and true/false statements (E2-4) regarding R segments than F segments. This was true even when forced to attend to F segments by virtue of having to perform concurrent discrimination (E2) or conceptual segmentation (E3) tasks. The final experiment (E5) demonstrated a larger R >F difference for specific true/false statements (the woman added three cups of flour) than for general true/false statements (the woman added flour) suggesting that participants likely encoded and retained at least a general representation of the events they had intended to forget, even though this representation was not as specific as the representation of events they had intended to remember.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Adolescente , Cognição/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico/fisiologia , Gravação em Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 142(1): 1-5, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23142670

RESUMO

Producing (e.g., saying, mouthing) some items and silently reading others has been shown to result in a reliable advantage favoring retention of the produced compared to non-produced items at test. However, evidence has been mixed as to whether the benefits of production are limited to within- as opposed to between-subject designs. It has even been suggested that the within-subjects nature of the production effect may be one of its defining characteristics. Meta-analytic techniques were applied to evaluate this claim. Findings indicated a moderate effect of production on recognition memory when varied between-subjects (g=0.37). This outcome suggests that the production effect is not defined as an exclusively within-subject occurrence.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Fala , Humanos , Leitura , /fisiologia
16.
Behav Res Methods ; 45(2): 319-28, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23073730

RESUMO

We describe the creation of a set of point-light movies depicting 43 communicative gestures and 43 noncommunicative, pantomimed actions. These actions were recorded using a motion capture system that is worn on the body and provides accurate capture of the positions and movements of individual fingers. The movies created thus include point-lights on the fingers, allowing for representation of actions and gestures that would not be possible with a conventional, line-of-sight-based motion capture system. These videos would be suitable for use in cognitive and cognitive neuroscientific studies of biological motion and gesture perception. Each video is described, along with an H statistic indicating the consistency of the descriptive labels that 20 observers gave to the actions. We also produced a scrambled version of each movie, in which the starting position of each point was randomized but its local motion vector was preserved. These scrambled movies would be suitable for use as control stimuli in experimental studies. As supplementary materials, we provide QuickTime movie files of each action, along with text files specifying the three-dimensional coordinates of each point-light in each frame of each movie.


Assuntos
Gestos , Percepção Visual , Feminino , Dedos , Humanos , Luz , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Movimento , Postura , Gravação de Videoteipe , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn ; 39(1): 220-36, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22732028

RESUMO

In an item-method-directed forgetting task, Chinese words were presented individually, each followed by an instruction to remember or forget. Colored probe items were presented following each memory instruction requiring a speeded color-naming response. Half of the probe items were novel and unrelated to the preceding study item, whereas the remaining half of the probe items were a repetition of the preceding study item. Repeated probe items were either identical to the preceding study item (E1, E2), a phonetic reproduction of the preceding study item (E3), or perceptually matched to the preceding study item (E4). Color-naming interference was calculated by subtracting color-naming reaction times made in response to a string of meaningless symbols from that of the novel and repeated conditions. Across all experiments, participants recalled more to-be-remembered (TBR) than to-be-forgotten (TBF) study words. More importantly, Experiments 1 and 2 found that color-naming interference was reduced for repeated TBF words relative to repeated TBR words. Experiments 3 and 4 further found that this effect occurred at the perceptual rather than semantic level. These findings suggest that participants may bias processing resources away from the perceptual representation of to-be-forgotten information.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Intenção , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Nomes , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Semântica , Estudantes , Universidades , Vocabulário
18.
Conscious Cogn ; 21(3): 1186-97, 2012 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22687390

RESUMO

In an item-method directed forgetting paradigm, participants were required to attend to one of two colored words presented on opposite sides of a central fixation stimulus; they were instructed to Remember or Forget the attended item. On a subsequent recognition test, the Attended words showed a typical directed forgetting effect with better recognition of Remember words than Forget words. Our interest was in the fate of the Unattended words. When the study display disappeared before the memory instruction, there was no effect of that instruction on unattended words; when the study display remained visible during presentation of the memory instruction, there was a reverse directed forgetting effect with better recognition of unattended words from Forget trials than from Remember trials. Incidental encoding of task-irrelevant stimuli occurs following presentation of a Forget instruction - but only when those task-irrelevant stimuli are still visible in the external environment.


Assuntos
Rememoração Mental , Atenção , Humanos
19.
Memory ; 20(7): 655-66, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22734687

RESUMO

Three experiments explored the interaction between the production effect (greater memory for produced compared to non-produced study items) and the picture superiority effect (greater memory for pictures compared to words). Pictures and words were presented in a blocked (E1) or mixed (E2, E3) design, each accompanied by an instruction to silently name (non-produced condition) or quietly mouth (produced condition) the corresponding referent. Memory was then tested for all study items as well as an equal number of foil items using a speeded (E1, E2) or self-paced (E3) yes-no recognition task. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 all revealed a small but reliable production × stimulus interaction. Production was also found to result in a liberal shift in response bias that could result in the overestimation of the production effect when measured using hits instead of sensitivity. Together our findings suggest that the application of multiple distinctive processes at study produces an especially discriminative memory trace at test, more so than the summation of each process individually.


Assuntos
Estimulação Luminosa , Detecção de Sinal Psicológico/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Cor , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Schizophr Res ; 135(1-3): 55-61, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22225771

RESUMO

Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon that involves inhibited or delayed orienting to previously cued locations in favor of attending to novel locations. To date, research on IOR in patients with schizophrenia has generated mixed, and seemingly conflicting, results. Some researchers report patients with schizophrenia exhibit blunted or delayed IOR, while other researchers report normal IOR, in terms of time course and magnitude. This meta-analysis summarizes the literature that has employed an IOR task in patients with schizophrenia and with controls while focusing upon a procedural feature, the use of a cue back to fixation, between the cue and target that is known to be important when executive control has been hampered in non-clinical populations. Fifteen experiments were located yielding a total sample of 362 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 285 controls. Using a meta-analytic approach, results of the present analyses show that patients with schizophrenia demonstrate delayed IOR in the single cue procedure. In the cue back to fixation procedure, the time course of IOR among patients is more consistent with that of controls. Differences in measured IOR between patients with schizophrenia and controls are largely related to a deficit in endogenous disengagement of attention.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA