*Phys Rev E ; 106(1-1): 014143, 2022 Jul.*

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Recent predictions for quantum-mechanical enhancements in the operation of small heat engines have raised renewed interest in their study both from a fundamental perspective and in view of applications. One essential question is whether collective effects may help to carry enhancements over larger scales, when increasing the number of systems composing the working substance of the engine. Such enhancements may consider not only power and efficiency, that is, its performance, but, additionally, its constancy, that is, the stability of the engine with respect to unavoidable environmental fluctuations. We explore this issue by introducing a many-body quantum heat engine model composed by spin pairs working in continuous operation. We study how power, efficiency, and constancy scale with the number of spins composing the engine and introduce a well-defined macroscopic limit where analytical expressions are obtained. Our results predict power enhancements, in both finite-size and macroscopic cases, for a broad range of system parameters and temperatures, without compromising the engine efficiency, accompanied by coherence-enhanced constancy for finite sizes. We discuss these quantities in connection to thermodynamic uncertainty relations.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 128(8): 080603, 2022 Feb 25.*

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We introduce the concept of seeding of crystallization in time by studying the dynamics of an ensemble of coupled continuous time crystals. We demonstrate that a single subsystem in a broken-symmetry phase acting as a nucleation center may induce time-translation symmetry breaking across the entire ensemble. Seeding is observed for both coherent and dissipative coupling, as well as for a broad range of parameter regimes. In the spirit of mutual synchronization, we investigate the parameter regime where all subsystems are in the broken-symmetry phase. We observe that more broadly detuned time crystals require weaker coupling strength to be synchronized. This is in contrast to basic knowledge from classical as well as quantum synchronization theory. We show that this surprising observation is a direct consequence of the seeding effect.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 126(8): 080603, 2021 Feb 26.*

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We introduce and realize demons that follow a customary gambling strategy to stop a nonequilibrium process at stochastic times. We derive second-law-like inequalities for the average work done in the presence of gambling, and universal stopping-time fluctuation relations for classical and quantum nonstationary stochastic processes. We test experimentally our results in a single-electron box, where an electrostatic potential drives the dynamics of individual electrons tunneling into a metallic island. We also discuss the role of coherence in gambling demons measuring quantum jump trajectories.

*Phys Rev E ; 101(2-1): 020201, 2020 Feb.*

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Owing to the ubiquity of synchronization in the classical world, it is interesting to study its behavior in quantum systems. Though quantum synchronization has been investigated in many systems, a clear connection to quantum technology applications is lacking. We bridge this gap and show that nanoscale heat engines are a natural platform to study quantum synchronization and always possess a stable limit cycle. Furthermore, we demonstrate an intimate relationship between the power of a coherently driven heat engine and its phase-locking properties by proving that synchronization places an upper bound on the achievable steady-state power of the engine. We also demonstrate that such an engine exhibits finite steady-state power if and only if its synchronization measure is nonzero. Finally, we show that the efficiency of the engine sets a point in terms of the bath temperatures where synchronization vanishes. We link the physical phenomenon of synchronization with the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics by establishing quantum synchronization as a mechanism of stable phase coherence.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 123(18): 184301, 2019 Nov 01.*

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We study synchronization between periodically driven, interacting classical spins undergoing a Hamiltonian dynamics. In the thermodynamic limit there is a transition between a regime where all the spins oscillate synchronously for an infinite time with a period twice the driving period (synchronized regime) and a regime where the oscillations die after a finite transient (chaotic regime). We emphasize the peculiarity of our result, having been synchronization observed so far only in driven-dissipative systems. We discuss how our findings can be interpreted as a period-doubling time crystal and we show that synchronization can appear both for an overall regular and overall chaotic dynamics.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 122(22): 220602, 2019 Jun 07.*

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We employ martingale theory to describe fluctuations of entropy production for open quantum systems in nonequilbrium steady states. Using the formalism of quantum jump trajectories, we identify a decomposition of entropy production into an exponential martingale and a purely quantum term, both obeying integral fluctuation theorems. An important consequence of this approach is the derivation of a set of genuine universal results for stopping-time and infimum statistics of stochastic entropy production. Finally, we complement the general formalism with numerical simulations of a qubit system.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 120(16): 163601, 2018 Apr 20.*

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It is desirable to observe synchronization of quantum systems in the quantum regime, defined by the low number of excitations and a highly nonclassical steady state of the self-sustained oscillator. Several existing proposals of observing synchronization in the quantum regime suffer from the fact that the noise statistics overwhelm synchronization in this regime. Here, we resolve this issue by driving a self-sustained oscillator with a squeezing Hamiltonian instead of a harmonic drive and analyze this system in the classical and quantum regime. We demonstrate that strong entrainment is possible for small values of squeezing, and in this regime, the states are nonclassical. Furthermore, we show that the quality of synchronization measured by the FWHM of the power spectrum is enhanced with squeezing.

*Phys Rev E ; 97(2-1): 022202, 2018 Feb.*

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We study the effect of many-body quantum interference on the dynamics of coupled periodically kicked systems whose classical dynamics is chaotic and shows an unbounded energy increase. We specifically focus on an N-coupled kicked rotors model: We find that the interplay of quantumness and interactions dramatically modifies the system dynamics, inducing a transition between energy saturation and unbounded energy increase. We discuss this phenomenon both numerically and analytically through a mapping onto an N-dimensional Anderson model. The thermodynamic limit Nâ∞, in particular, always shows unbounded energy growth. This dynamical delocalization is genuinely quantum and very different from the classical one: Using a mean-field approximation, we see that the system self-organizes so that the energy per site increases in time as a power law with exponent smaller than 1. This wealth of phenomena is a genuine effect of quantum interference: The classical system for N≥2 always behaves ergodically with an energy per site linearly increasing in time. Our results show that quantum mechanics can deeply alter the regularity or ergodicity properties of a many-body-driven system.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(23): 230402, 2017 Jun 09.*

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Alkaline-earth(-like) atoms, trapped in optical lattices and in the presence of an external gauge field, can form insulating states at given fractional fillings. We will show that, by exploiting these properties, it is possible to realize a topological fractional pump. Our analysis is based on a many-body adiabatic expansion, on simulations with time-dependent matrix product states, and, for a specific form of atom-atom interaction, on an exactly solvable model of fractional pump. The numerical simulations allow us to consider a realistic setup amenable of an experimental realization. As a further consequence, the measure of the center-of-mass shift of the atomic cloud would constitute the first measurement of a many-body Chern number in a cold-atom experiment.

*Nat Commun ; 7: 12782, 2016 Sep 29.*

##### RESUMO

Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions.

*Nat Commun ; 7: 11895, 2016 06 20.*

##### RESUMO

Since its inception about two centuries ago thermodynamics has sparkled continuous interest and fundamental questions. According to the second law no heat engine can have an efficiency larger than Carnot's efficiency. The latter can be achieved by the Carnot engine, which however ideally operates in infinite time, hence delivers null power. A currently open question is whether the Carnot efficiency can be achieved at finite power. Most of the previous works addressed this question within the Onsager matrix formalism of linear response theory. Here we pursue a different route based on finite-size-scaling theory. We focus on quantum Otto engines and show that when the working substance is at the verge of a second order phase transition diverging energy fluctuations can enable approaching the Carnot point without sacrificing power. The rate of such approach is dictated by the critical indices, thus showing the universal character of our analysis.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 115(15): 156402, 2015 Oct 09.*

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In this Letter we present, in a number conserving framework, a model of interacting fermions in a two-wire geometry supporting nonlocal zero-energy Majorana-like edge excitations. The model has an exactly solvable line, on varying the density of fermions, described by a topologically nontrivial ground state wave function. Away from the exactly solvable line we study the system by means of the numerical density matrix renormalization group. We characterize its topological properties through the explicit calculation of a degenerate entanglement spectrum and of the braiding operators which are exponentially localized at the edges. Furthermore, we establish the presence of a gap in its single particle spectrum while the Hamiltonian is gapless, and compute the correlations between the edge modes as well as the superfluid correlations. The topological phase covers a sizable portion of the phase diagram, the solvable line being one of its boundaries.

*Nat Commun ; 6: 8134, 2015 Sep 09.*

##### RESUMO

The joint action of a magnetic field and of interactions is crucial for the appearance of exotic quantum phenomena, such as the quantum Hall effect. Owing to their rich nuclear structure, equivalent to an additional synthetic dimension, one-dimensional alkaline-earth(-like) fermionic gases with synthetic gauge potential and atomic contact repulsion may display similar related properties. Here we show the existence and the features of a hierarchy of fractional insulating and conducting states by means of analytical and numerical methods. We demonstrate that the gapped states are characterized by density and magnetic order emerging solely for gases with effective nuclear spin larger than 1/2, whereas the gapless phases can support helical modes. We finally argue that these states are related to an unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect in the thin-torus limit and that their properties can be studied in state-of-the-art laboratories.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 114(17): 177206, 2015 May 01.*

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We study transitionless quantum driving in an infinite-range many-body system described by the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model. Despite the correlation length being always infinite the closing of the gap at the critical point makes the driving Hamiltonian of increasing complexity also in this case. To this aim we develop a hybrid strategy combining a shortcut to adiabaticity and optimal control that allows us to achieve remarkably good performance in suppressing the defect production across the phase transition.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 111(3): 036801, 2013 Jul 19.*

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We study Coulomb interactions in the finite bias response of Mach-Zehnder interferometers, which exploit copropagating edge states in the integer quantum Hall effect. Here, interactions are particularly important since the coherent coupling of edge channels is due to a resonant mechanism that is spoiled by inelastic processes. We find that interactions yield a saturation, as a function of bias voltage, of the period-averaged interferometer current, which gives rise to unusual features, such as negative differential conductance, enhancement of the visibility of the current, and nonbounded or even diverging visibility of the differential conductance.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 110(25): 256801, 2013 Jun 21.*

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We present a theoretical study of an electronic quantum refrigerator based on four quantum dots arranged in a square configuration, in contact with as many thermal reservoirs. We show that the system implements the minimal mechanism for acting as a self-contained quantum refrigerator, by demonstrating heat extraction from the coldest reservoir and the cooling of the nearby quantum dot.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 110(16): 163605, 2013 Apr 19.*

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We introduce and study the properties of an array of QED cavities coupled by nonlinear elements, in the presence of photon leakage and driven by a coherent source. The nonlinear couplings lead to photon hopping and to nearest-neighbor Kerr terms. By tuning the system parameters, the steady state of the array can exhibit a photon crystal associated with a periodic modulation of the photon blockade. In some cases, the crystalline ordering may coexist with phase synchronization. The class of cavity arrays we consider can be built with superconducting circuits of existing technology.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 110(1): 015302, 2013 Jan 04.*

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By means of the time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group (TDMRG) method we are able to follow the real-time dynamics of a single impurity embedded in a one-dimensional bath of interacting bosons. We focus on the impurity breathing mode, which is found to be well described by a single oscillation frequency and a damping rate. If the impurity is very weakly coupled to the bath, a Luttinger-liquid description is valid and the impurity suffers an Abraham-Lorentz radiation-reaction friction. For a large portion of the explored parameter space, the TDMRG results fall well beyond the Luttinger-liquid paradigm.

*Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 370(1976): 4810-20, 2012 Oct 13.*

##### RESUMO

We construct a quantumness witness following the work of Alicki & van Ryn (AvR). We reformulate the AvR test by defining it for quantum states rather than for observables. This allows us to identify the necessary quantities and resources to detect quantumness for any given system. The first quantity turns out to be the purity of the system. When applying the witness to a system with even moderate mixedness, the protocol is unable to reveal any quantumness. We then show that having many copies of the system leads the witness to reveal quantumness. This seems contrary to the Bohr correspondence, which asserts that, in the large-number limit, quantum systems become classical, whereas the witness shows quantumness when several non-quantum systems, as determined by the witness, are considered together. However, the resources required to detect the quantumness increase dramatically with the number of systems. We apply the quantumness witness for systems that are highly mixed but in the large-number limit that resembles nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) systems. We make several conclusions about detecting quantumness in NMR-like systems.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 108(24): 245302, 2012 Jun 15.*

##### RESUMO

The nonequilibrium spin dynamics of a one-dimensional system of repulsively interacting fermions is studied by means of density-matrix renormalization group simulations. We focus on the short-time decay of the oscillation amplitudes of the centers of mass of spin-up and spin-down fermions. Because of many body effects, the decay is found to evolve from quadratic to linear in time, and eventually back to quadratic as the strength of the interaction increases. The characteristic rate of the decay increases linearly with the strength of repulsion in the weak-coupling regime, while it is inversely proportional to it in the strong-coupling regime. Our predictions can be tested in experiments on tunable ultracold few-fermion systems in one-dimensional traps.