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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 251: 108831, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202368

RESUMO

The inoculum density is an important parameter for numerous experimental approaches in bacteriology, including antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), biocide susceptibility testing (BST) and biocide efficacy testing (BET). Methods to determine the inoculum density commonly refer to cell counts and have been described for BET according to the German Medical Veterinary Society (Deutsche Veterinärmedizinische Gesellschaft, DVG) and for AST according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). In this study, the DVG method using 1000 µL volumes of two different dilution steps and the AST method according to CLSI using a 100 µL volume of a single dilution step from the inoculum suspension were compared. For this, each of the four reference strains, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 6538, Enterococcus hirae ATCC® 10541, Escherichia coli ATCC® 10536 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC® 15442, was comparatively tested 28 times using the inoculum preparation according to DVG. The results were statistically analysed using Bland-Altman plots and 95 % limits of agreement (AL). Moreover, cell counts were correlated with the optical density of the bacterial suspensions used. In comparison, the CLSI method measured lower values for colony-forming units (CFU) of -0.12 log10 compared to the DVG method. Overall, both methods returned an AL of -0.52 to 0.27 log10. Since the variations observed between the two methods were within one log10 step and the measured CFUs did not differ systematically, both methods proved to be suitable for cell count determination. Therefore, the CLSI method, which is less complex and less time-consuming, is recommended.

2.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(9)2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911712

RESUMO

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major threat to public health. This study investigated the occurrence of MRSA in humans, chickens, chicken meat and environmental samples within poultry farms and live bird markets in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: MRSA were isolated using selective culture and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by broth microdilution. Selected isolates were characterized by whole genome sequencing (WGS). From WGS data, spa, dru, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec types, but also virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, were identified. Results: Fifty-six MRSA isolates were detected in 734 samples. They showed resistance to ß-lactams (100%), tetracycline (60.7%), ciprofloxacin (33.9%), erythromycin (28.6%), gentamicin (32.1%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (10.7%). All 30 isolates investigated by WGS carried mecA, dfrG, and tet(38) genes. Other resistance genes detected were blaZ (83.3%), fosB (73.3%), tet(K) (60.0%), aacA-aphD (36.6%), aphA3 (33.3%), msr(A) (30.0%), mph(C) (30.0%), dfrS1 (3.3%), and sat4 (3.3%). Seven spa types (t091, t314, t657, t1476, t2331, t4690 and t12236), four known (dt9aw, dt10ao, dt10cj, and dt11a) and two novel (dt10dr and dt11dw) dru types, as well as five sequence types (ST8, ST121, ST152, ST772 and ST789) were found among the MRSA isolates. All ST121 isolates carried an SCCmec type IV cassette and were not dru-typeable. ST152 and ST121 were found only in specific sample categories within defined locations, while ST8 and ST772 were distributed across most sample categories and locations. Three SCCmec types, IVa, V and Vc, were identified. All MRSA isolates possessed virulence genes including aur, clpP, coa, fnbA, esaA, hly, hla, ica, isdA, srtB, sspA, and vWbp, among others. The toxic shock syndrome toxin gene (tst) was not detected in any isolate, whereas the Pantone-Valentine leukocidin genes lukF-PV/lukS-PV were present in all ST121, all ST772, and all but one ST152 isolates. Conclusion: The results of this study (i) showed that chicken meat is contaminated by MRSA and (ii) suggested that live bird markets may serve as focal points for the dissemination of MRSA within the community.

3.
Vet Microbiol ; 248: 108791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827921

RESUMO

Biocide susceptibility testing (BST) of bacteria lacks standardised methods. Based on a recently established broth macrodilution BST method, a broth microdilution method for BST was developed. To establish the respective protocol, four reference strains Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 6538, Enterococcus hirae ATCC® 10541, Escherichia coli ATCC® 10536 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC® 15442 were investigated for their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) towards quaternary ammonium compounds (benzalkonium chloride), cationic compounds (chlorhexidine), aldehydes (glutardialdehyde) and alcohols (isopropanol) using tryptic soy broth. All combinations of (i) inoculum preparation according to the German Veterinary Medical Society (DVG) or the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) with some modifications, (ii) use of 1st subculture (SC) and 2nd SC, (iii) direct colony suspension (DCS) with/without glass beads, and (iv) incubation at 37 °C for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h were compared using seven independent replications. Overall, the reproducibility was high for all abovementioned strain/biocide/parameter combinations. In total, 86.9 % - 100 % of the results were within ± one dilution step of the mode value. The proposed method for a standardised BST protocol comprises (i) two different inoculum densities, (ii) the use of a fresh overnight culture (1st SC or 2nd SC), (iii) the preparation of the inoculum suspension by either of the two methods using DCS with or without glass beads, and (iv) the incubation at 37 °C for 24 h. This broth microdilution method will help to harmonize BST of bacterial pathogens in routine diagnostics.

4.
Microorganisms ; 8(8)2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751552

RESUMO

The mechanisms of linezolid resistance among 13 E. faecalis and 6 E. faecium isolates, recovered from six Spanish hospitals during 2017-2018, were investigated. The presence of acquired linezolid resistance genes and mutations in 23S rDNA and in genes encoding for ribosomal proteins was analyzed by PCR and amplicon sequencing. Moreover, the susceptibility to 18 antimicrobial agents was investigated, and the respective molecular background was elucidated by PCR-amplicon sequencing and whole genome sequencing. The transferability of the linezolid resistance genes was evaluated by filter-mating experiments. The optrA gene was detected in all 13 E. faecalis isolates; and one optrA-positive isolate also carried the recently described cfr(D) gene. Moreover, one E. faecalis isolate displayed the nucleotide mutation G2576T in the 23S rDNA. This mutation was also present in all six E. faecium isolates. All linezolid-resistant enterococci showed a multiresistance phenotype and harbored several antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as many virulence determinants. The fexA gene was located upstream of the optrA gene in 12 of the E. faecalis isolates. Moreover, an erm(A)-like gene was located downstream of optrA in two isolates recovered from the same hospital. The optrA gene was transferable in all but one E. faecalis isolates, in all cases along with the fexA gene. The cfr(D) gene was not transferable. The presence of optrA and mutations in the 23S rDNA are the main mechanisms of linezolid resistance among E. faecalis and E. faecium, respectively. We report the first description of the cfr(D) gene in E. faecalis. The presence of the optrA and cfr(D) genes in Spanish hospitals is a public health concern.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 246: 108731, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605743

RESUMO

The transferable optrA gene encodes an ABC-F protein which confers resistance to oxazolidinones and phenicols, and has so far been detected exclusively in Gram-positive bacteria, including enterococci, staphylococci and streptococci. Here, we identified for the first time the presence of optrA in naturally occurring Gram-negative bacteria. Seven optrA-positive Campylobacter coli were identified from 563 Campylobacter isolates of animal origin from Guangdong (n = 1, chicken) and Shandong (n = 6, duck) provinces of China in 2017-2018. The detected optrA genes were functionally active and mediated resistance or elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations of linezolid, florfenicol and chloramphenicol in the respective C. coli isolates. The optrA gene, together with other transferable resistance genes, such as fexA, catA9, tet(O), tet(L), erm(A)-like, spc, or aadE, was located in two different chromosome-borne multidrug resistance genomic islands (MDRGIs). In both MDRGIs, complete or truncated copies of the insertion sequence IS1216E were present in the vicinity of optrA. The IS1216E-bracketed genetic environment of optrA was almost identical to the optrA regions on enterococcal plasmids, suggesting that the optrA in Campylobacter probably originated from Enterococcus spp.. Moreover, the formation of an optrA-carrying translocatable unit by recombination of IS1216E indicated that this IS element may play an important role in the horizontal transfer of optrA in Campylobacter. Although optrA was only found in a small number of C. coli isolates, enhanced surveillance is needed to monitor the distribution and the potential emergence of optrA in Campylobacter.

6.
Heliyon ; 6(6): e04070, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613099

RESUMO

Surface disinfectants are regularly used in prophylactic and infection control measures. Concern has been raised whether residues of sub-inhibitory disinfectant concentrations may constitute a selective pressure and could contribute to the development of strains which are tolerant and/or resistant to biocides including antibiotics. The current study investigated whether Staphylococcus (S.) aureus ATCC® 29213™ and ATCC® 6538™ would change their growth characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles after prolonged treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). NaOCl is a fast-acting disinfectant with a broad-spectrum activity, inexpensive and widely used in healthcare and the food production industry. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for NaOCl was determined by broth macrodilution according to the guidelines for disinfectant efficacy testing provided by the German Veterinary Medical Society. Serial passages after 24 h and 72 h, respectively, in defined sub-inhibitory concentrations of NaOCl resulted in a number of phenotypic variants. Two of these variants, derived from S. aureus ATCC® 29213™, showed elevated MICs of oxacillin and were considered as in vitro-generated borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (BORSA). Transmission electron microscopy revealed a significantly thickened cell wall in these isolates, a phenomenon that has also been described for Listeria monocytogenes after low-level exposure to NaOCl. Whole genome sequencing revealed an early stop codon in the gene coding for the GdpP protein and thereby abolishing the function of this gene. GdpP represents a phosphodiesterase that regulates gene expression, and loss of function of the GdpP protein has been described in association with borderline oxacillin resistance. Our findings suggest that a mutation in the GdpP protein gene and morphological changes of the cell wall were induced by repeated exposure to sub-lethal NaOCl concentrations, and most likely accounted for a BORSA phenotype in two variants derived from S. aureus ATCC® 29213™.

7.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108687, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402352

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) have recently emerged as a major therapeutic challenge in small animal medicine because of their antimicrobial multidrug resistance and their role as nosocomial pathogens. This study focused on the prevalence, molecular characteristics and antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes of MRSP isolated from conjunctival swabs of dogs and cats. Conjunctival swabs were collected from 72 dogs and 24 cats suffering from conjunctivitis/blepharitis, keratitis or uveitis and screened for the presence of MRSP. S. pseudintermedius was isolated from 38 (39.6 %) of all samples. Three (7.9 %) S. pseudintermedius isolates were confirmed as MRSP. They harboured the mecA gene and originated from dogs. One MRSP isolate was from a case of uveitis while the other two MRSP isolates originated from cases of conjunctivitis/blepharitis. All MRSP isolates were subjected to broth microdilution and whole genome sequencing (WGS). Resistance and virulence genes, multilocus sequence (MLS), spa, dru and SCCmec types were deduced from WGS data. Two of the three MRSP isolates, IMT360/16 and IMT515/16, shared the same MLS type (ST71), spa type (t02), dru type (dt9a), SCCmec type (II-III), and indistinguishable multidrug resistance pheno- and genotypes, including resistance to ß-lactams (blaZ, mecA), erythromycin and clindamycin (erm(B)), streptomycin (aphA3), gentamicin (aacA-aphD), enrofloxacin (mutations in grlA and gyrA), tetracycline (tet(K)), and trimethoprim (dfrG)/sulfamethoxazole. The third isolate, IMT1670/16, differed in all those characteristics (MLST (ST1403), dru type (dt10h), SCCmec type (IVg), except the spa type (t02). In addition, isolate IMT1670/16 carried a different tetracycline resistance gene (tet(M)) and was susceptible to erythromycin and clindamycin.

8.
Microb Drug Resist ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456543

RESUMO

This study aimed at determining the mechanisms of linezolid resistance and the molecular characteristics of clinical Staphylococcus aureus (n = 2) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 15) isolates obtained from four Spanish hospitals. The detection of linezolid resistance mechanisms (mutations and acquisition of resistance genes) was performed by PCR/sequencing. The antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile was determined, and the isolates were typed by different molecular techniques. Moreover, the genetic environment of the cfr gene was determined by whole-genome sequencing. The cfr gene was detected in one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) that also displayed the amino acid change Val118Ala in the ribosomal protein L4. The second S. aureus isolate was methicillin susceptible and showed different alterations in the ribosomal protein L4. All remaining linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (n = 14) and Staphylococcus hominis isolates (n = 1) showed the mutation G2576T (n = 14) or C2534T (n = 1) in the 23S rRNA. Moreover, different amino acid changes were detected in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 in S. epidermidis isolates. All S. epidermidis isolates belonged to the multilocus sequence type ST2. Linezolid-resistant staphylococci (LRS) showed a multiresistance phenotype, including methicillin resistance that was detected in all isolates but one, and was mediated by the mecA gene. The cfr gene in the MRSA isolate was located together with the fexA gene on a conjugative 38,864 bp plasmid. Linezolid- and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis ST2 showing mutations in the 23S rRNA and in the ribosomal proteins L3 and L4 are spread among Spanish hospitals, whereas LRS carrying acquired linezolid resistance genes are rarely detected.

9.
Vet Microbiol ; 245: 108694, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456814

RESUMO

The choice of the most suitable antimicrobial agent for the treatment of an animal suffering from a bacterial infection is a complex issue. The results of bacteriological diagnostics and the in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) provide guidance of potentially suitable antimicrobials. However, harmonized AST methods, veterinary-specific interpretive criteria and quality control ranges, which are essential to conduct AST in-vitro and to evaluate the corresponding results lege artis, are not available for all antimicrobial compounds, bacterial pathogens, animal species and sites of infection of veterinary relevance. Moreover, the clinical benefit of an antimicrobial agent (defined as its in vivo efficacy) is not exclusively dependent on the in-vitro susceptibility of the target pathogen. Apart from the right choice of an antibacterial drug with suitable pharmacokinetic properties and an appropriate pharmaceutical formulation, the success of treatment depends substantially on its adequate use. Even if this is ensured and in-vitro susceptibility confirmed, an insufficient improvement of clinical signs might be caused by biofilm-forming bacteria, persisters, or specific physicochemical conditions at the site of infection, such as pH value, oxygen partial pressure and perfusion rate. This review summarizes relevant aspects that have an impact on the predictive value of in-vitro AST and points out factors, potentially leading to an ineffective outcome of antibacterial treatment in veterinary practice. Knowing the reasons of inadequate beneficial effects can help to understand possible discrepancies between in-vitro susceptibility and in vivo efficacy and aid in undertaking strategies for an avoidance of treatment failures.

10.
Vet Microbiol ; 243: 108631, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273010

RESUMO

This work aimed at characterizing four Staphylococcus aureus and 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), recovered from the air and liquid manure tank of two swine farms with intensive- and semi-extensive-production types, for their antimicrobial resistance pheno-/genotypes and their virulence gene content. Molecular typing was performed by spa typing, MLST, agr typing, and SCCmec typing, where applicable. Conjugation experiments were performed to assess the transferability of the linezolid resistance gene cfr, and its genetic environment was determined by Whole-Genome-Sequencing. The four S. aureus (intensive-production farm, IP-farm) were typed as t011-agrI-CC398-ST398, were scn-negative and two of them were methicillin-resistant (MRSA) with the mecA gene (SCCmec-V). Multidrug resistance was seen in 87 % of the CoNS. Statistically significant differences among the antimicrobial resistance rates of CoNS from the two farms were observed for cefoxitin, aminoglycosides, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Eight methicillin-resistant CoNS, which were recovered from the IP-farm, carried the mecA gene. One S. simulans isolate was PVL-positive and three S. cohnii eta-positive. One S. equorum and one S. arlettae showed linezolid resistance and carried the cfr gene (IP-farm), which was non-transferable by conjugation into S. aureus. The cfr genetic context in both isolates was identical, with the lsa(B) gene located upstream of cfr. The environment of swine farms might contribute to the dissemination of CoNS that show multidrug resistance and harbor important virulence factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Leucocidinas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/genética , Microbiologia do Ar , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Coagulase , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fazendas , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Suínos , Fatores de Virulência/genética
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108600, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122605

RESUMO

Based on antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), correct classifications as susceptible, intermediate or resistant are challenging for some antimicrobial agent-bacterial species combinations. In this study, we investigated 19 equine Staphylococcus aureus isolates for their susceptibility to the combination sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) by using broth microdilution (BMD), agar disk diffusion (DD) and automated test systems. To elucidate the presence of the corresponding genetic resistance properties among the isolates, whole genome sequence analysis was performed and the genomes were screened for trimethoprim (TMP) resistance genes and mutations in the deduced FolP amino acid (aa) sequences, known to confer sulfonamide resistance. To check for hetero-resistance, zone diameters in DD were screened after 18 and 42 h of incubation. All 19 isolates harboured one of the TMP resistance genes dfrG or dfrS1. Three isolates had an aa exchange in their FolP aa sequence (F17L), which has previously been described to result in sulfonamide resistance. These isolates were classified as SXT-resistant by all methods. The remaining 16 isolates were classified as SXT-susceptible or -intermediate (BMD and/or DD) or SXT-resistant (mainly automated test systems). None of the isolates had relevant aa variations in their FolP aa sequences. All 19 isolates showed slight growth within their SXT inhibition zone by DD, pointing towards hetero-resistance. Overall, automated test systems classified isolates lacking genetic resistance determinants more frequently as SXT-resistant than DD and BMD. Therefore, further studies are needed to define a reliable method for SXT susceptibility testing.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Cavalos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 22: 28-31, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884049

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Two linezolid-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates, C10004 and C10009, were recovered from air samples of a Spanish swine farm and comprehensively characterized. METHODS: Detection of linezolid resistance mechanisms (mutations and acquisition of resistance genes) was performed by PCR/sequencing. Isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), antimicrobial susceptibility testing, detection of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and analysis of the genetic environment of the linezolid resistance genes. The characterization of isolate C10009 was performed by Whole-Genome-Sequencing and of isolate C10004 by PCR and amplicon sequencing, where applicable. Conjugation experiments to assess the transferability of the optrA and poxtA genes implicated in linezolid resistance were performed. RESULTS: The linezolid-resistant E. faecium isolates C10004 and C10009, assigned to ST128 and ST437, respectively, harbored the optrA and poxtA genes. Neither mutations in the 23S rRNA nor in the genes for the ribosomal proteins L3, L4 and L22 were detected. C10004 and C10009 carried fourteen and thirteen antimicrobial resistance genes, respectively. The sequence alignment indicated that the genetic environment of the poxtA gene was identical in both isolates, with a downstream-located fexB gene. The poxtA gene was transferred by conjugation together with the fexB gene, and also with tet(M) and tet(L) in the case of isolate C10004. The optrA gene could not be transferred. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of the poxtA gene in Spain. The presence of poxtA- and optrA-carrying E. faecium isolates in air samples represents a public health concern, indicating an involvement of swine farms in the spread of linezolid-resistant bacteria.

14.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 9(1)2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861266

RESUMO

The present study was conducted from July to August 2018 on milk samples taken at dairy farms in the Northern Province and Kigali District of Rwanda in order to identify Staphylococcus spp. associated with bovine intramammary infection. A total of 161 staphylococcal isolates originating from quarter milk samples of 112 crossbred dairy cattle were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and isolates were examined for the presence of various resistance genes. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were also analyzed for the presence of virulence factors, genotyped by spa typing and further phenotypically subtyped for capsule expression using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Selected S. aureus were characterized using DNA microarray technology, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome sequencing. All mecA-positive staphylococci were further genotyped using dru typing. In total, 14 different staphylococcal species were detected, with S. aureus being most prevalent (26.7%), followed by S. xylosus (22.4%) and S. haemolyticus (14.9%). A high number of isolates was resistant to penicillin and tetracycline. Various antimicrobial and biocide resistance genes were detected. Among S. aureus, the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes, as well as bovine leukocidin (LukM/LukF-P83) genes, were detected in two and three isolates, respectively, of which two also carried the toxic shock syndrome toxin gene tsst-1 bovine variant. t1236 was the predominant spa type. FTIR-based capsule serotyping revealed a high prevalence of non-encapsulated S. aureus isolates (89.5%). The majority of the selected S. aureus isolates belonged to clonal complex (CC) 97 which was determined using DNA microarray based assignment. Three new MLST sequence types were detected.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15500, 2019 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664106

RESUMO

The gene optrA is the first gene that confers resistance to the oxazolidinone tedizolid, a last resort antimicrobial agent in human medicine. In this study we investigated the presence of optrA and the multi-resistance genes poxtA and cfr in enterococci and staphylococci from (i) pet animals known to be fed raw meat and vegetables and (ii) the respective food items. We examined 341 bacterial isolates from cats and dogs, 195 bacterial isolates from supermarket food items and only one E. faecium collected from industrial food in Beijing during 2016. Thirty-five (6.5%) of the 537 isolates, including 31/376 (8.2%) enterococci and 4/161 (2.5%) staphylococci, were positive for optrA, while all isolates were negative for poxtA and cfr. S1-nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and Southern blotting confirmed that optrA was located in the chromosomal DNA of 19 isolates and on a plasmid in the remaining 16 isolates. Whole genome sequencing revealed several different genetic environments of optrA in plasmid- or chromosome-borne optrA genes. PFGE, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and/or SNP analysis demonstrated that the optrA-carrying Staphylococcus and Enterococcus isolates were genetically heterogeneous. However, in single cases, groups of related isolates were identified which might suggest a transfer of closely related optrA-positive E. faecalis isolates between food items and dogs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540335

RESUMO

The detection of borderline oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (BORSA) represents a challenge to both, veterinary and human laboratories. Between 2015 and 2017, 19 equine S. aureus with elevated minimal inhibitory concentrations for oxacillin were detected in routine diagnostics. The aim of this study was to characterize these isolates to identify factors possibly associated with the BORSA phenotype. All S. aureus were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and whole genome sequencing (WGS). A quantifiable ß-lactamase activity assay was performed for a representative subset of 13 isolates. The WGS data analysis of the 19 BORSA isolates identified two different genomic lineages, sequence type (ST) 1 and ST1660. The core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) revealed a close relatedness of all isolates belonging to either ST1 or ST1660. The WGS analysis identified the resistance genes aadD, dfrG, tet(L), and/or blaZ and aacA-aphD. Phenotypic resistance to penicillins, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in the respective isolates. For the penicillin-binding proteins 1-4, amino acid substitutions were predicted using WGS data. Since neither transglycosylase nor transpeptidase domains were affected, these alterations might not explain the BORSA phenotype. Moreover, ß-lactamase activity was found to be associated with an inducible blaZ gene. The lineage-specific differences regarding the expression profiles were noted.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Cavalos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxacilina/farmacologia , Filogenia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
17.
Euro Surveill ; 24(32)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411133

RESUMO

BackgroundBrown rats (Rattus norvegicus) are an important wildlife species in cities, where they live in close proximity to humans. However, few studies have investigated their role as reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.AimWe intended to determine whether urban rats at two highly frequented sites in Vienna, Austria, carry extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, fluoroquinolone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and meticillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus spp. (MRS).MethodsWe surveyed the presence of antimicrobial resistance in 62 urban brown rats captured in 2016 and 2017 in Vienna, Austria. Intestinal and nasopharyngeal samples were cultured on selective media. We characterised the isolates and their antimicrobial properties using microbiological and genetic methods including disk diffusion, microarray analysis, sequencing, and detection and characterisation of plasmids.ResultsEight multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and two extensively drug-resistant New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamases-1 (NDM-1)-producing Enterobacter xiangfangensis ST114 (En. cloacae complex) were isolated from nine of 62 rats. Nine Enterobacteriaceae isolates harboured the bla CTX-M gene and one carried a plasmid-encoded ampC gene (bla CMY-2). Forty-four MRS were isolated from 37 rats; they belonged to seven different staphylococcal species: S. fleurettii, S. sciuri, S. aureus, S. pseudintermedius, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus (all mecA-positive) and mecC-positive S. xylosus.ConclusionOur findings suggest that brown rats in cities are a potential source of multidrug-resistant bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant En. xiangfangensis ST114. Considering the increasing worldwide urbanisation, rodent control remains an important priority for health in modern cities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Intestinos/virologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Nasofaringe/virologia , Ratos/virologia , Animais , Áustria , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Análise em Microsséries , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Plasmídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , População Urbana
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 118-126, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282369

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the diversity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that originated from Austrian companion animals during the last five-year period. A total of 90 non-repetitive MRSA isolates were obtained during diagnostic activities from autumn 2013 to autumn 2018. They originated from horses (n = 62), cats (n = 13), dogs (n = 10), rabbits (n = 2), a domestic canary, a zoo-kept hammer-headed bat (Hypsignathus monstrosus) and a semi-captive northern bald ibis (Geronticus eremita). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed. All isolates were mecA-positive and mecC-negative. The isolates were genotyped by SCCmec, spa and dru typing, Multiple-Locus Variable number of tandem repeat Analyses (MLVA), S. aureus DNA microarray, and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Eight sequence types (STs - ST398, ST5275 (new ST), ST225, ST8, ST22, ST152, ST1, and ST45), three SCCmec types (II, IV, and V), sixteen spa types (t003, t008, t011, t015, t032, t034, t1381, t1928, t1985, t223, t334, t355, t430, t6447, t6867, and t7105), fourteen dru types (dt10a, dt10az, dt10q, dt10r, dt11a, dt5e, dt6j, dt9a, dt9ak, dt9g, and four new types dt8as, dt7ak, dt4j, dt14n), and thirty-five MLVA types were detected. WGS-based core genome MLST (cgMLST) displayed five main clusters. Compared to the time period 2004-2013, the results of the present study show not only a higher diversity among the MRSA isolates within the population of Austrian companion animals, but also the introduction of new clones. Although ST398 isolates remained predominant, mainly due to high presence of this lineage among horses, increasing isolation rates of human-associated MRSA clones were observed in cats and dogs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Gatos/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(8): 2166-2170, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081013

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the occurrence, the genetic environment and the functionality of novel variants of the MDR gene cfr(C) in Campylobacter from China. METHODS: A total of 370 Campylobacter isolates of porcine and chicken origin collected from three regions of China in 2015 were screened for cfr(C) by PCR. The phenotypes and genotypes of cfr(C)-positive isolates were investigated by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PFGE, MLST, S1-PFGE, Southern blotting and WGS. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare the expression levels of the cfr(C) variants in their original isolate and clone constructs in Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. RESULTS: Four (1.1%) porcine Campylobacter coli isolates were positive for cfr(C). They failed to show elevated MICs of phenicols. The deduced Cfr(C) sequences identified exhibited 2-6 amino acid changes compared with the original Cfr(C) reported in the USA. Cloning of the cfr(C) variant genes into C. jejuni NCTC 11168 resulted in ≥32-fold increases in the MICs of phenicols, indicating that the cfr(C) variant genes are functional. The cfr(C)-carrying isolates belonged to three genotypes and WGS analysis revealed the cfr(C) genes were chromosomally located in MDR genomic islands, which contained multiple antibiotic resistance genes of Gram-positive origin. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified chromosomal cfr(C) genes in C. coli isolates from China. They appeared functionally dormant in the original isolates but were fully functional when cloned and expressed in C. jejuni. The cfr(C) genes were co-transferred with other antibiotic resistance genes, possibly from Gram-positive bacteria. These findings reveal new insights into the function and transmission of cfr(C) in Campylobacter.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Genes MDR , Variação Genética , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genótipo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Suínos/microbiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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