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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4848, 2021 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381037

RESUMO

There is currently a lack of effective drugs to treat people infected with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 Non-structural protein 13 (NSP13) has been identified as a target for anti-virals due to its high sequence conservation and essential role in viral replication. Structural analysis reveals two "druggable" pockets on NSP13 that are among the most conserved sites in the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Here we present crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 NSP13 solved in the APO form and in the presence of both phosphate and a non-hydrolysable ATP analog. Comparisons of these structures reveal details of conformational changes that provide insights into the helicase mechanism and possible modes of inhibition. To identify starting points for drug development we have performed a crystallographic fragment screen against NSP13. The screen reveals 65 fragment hits across 52 datasets opening the way to structure guided development of novel antiviral agents.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/química , RNA Helicases/química , SARS-CoV-2/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Apoenzimas/química , Apoenzimas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Desenho de Fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfatos/química , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , RNA Helicases/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , RNA Viral/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
2.
Cell Chem Biol ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174194

RESUMO

Designing covalent inhibitors is increasingly important, although it remains challenging. Here, we present covalentizer, a computational pipeline for identifying irreversible inhibitors based on structures of targets with non-covalent binders. Through covalent docking of tailored focused libraries, we identify candidates that can bind covalently to a nearby cysteine while preserving the interactions of the original molecule. We found âˆ¼11,000 cysteines proximal to a ligand across 8,386 complexes in the PDB. Of these, the protocol identified 1,553 structures with covalent predictions. In a prospective evaluation, five out of nine predicted covalent kinase inhibitors showed half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values between 155 nM and 4.5 µM. Application against an existing SARS-CoV Mpro reversible inhibitor led to an acrylamide inhibitor series with low micromolar IC50 values against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. The docking was validated by 12 co-crystal structures. Together these examples hint at the vast number of covalent inhibitors accessible through our protocol.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13208, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168183

RESUMO

Effective agents to treat coronavirus infection are urgently required, not only to treat COVID-19, but to prepare for future outbreaks. Repurposed anti-virals such as remdesivir and human anti-inflammatories such as barcitinib have received emergency approval but their overall benefits remain unclear. Vaccines are the most promising prospect for COVID-19, but will need to be redeveloped for any future coronavirus outbreak. Protecting against future outbreaks requires the identification of targets that are conserved between coronavirus strains and amenable to drug discovery. Two such targets are the main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro) which are essential for the coronavirus replication cycle. We describe the discovery of two non-antiviral therapeutic agents, the caspase-1 inhibitor SDZ 224015 and Tarloxotinib that target Mpro and PLpro, respectively. These were identified through extensive experimental screens of the drug repurposing ReFRAME library of 12,000 therapeutic agents. The caspase-1 inhibitor SDZ 224015, was found to be a potent irreversible inhibitor of Mpro (IC50 30 nM) while Tarloxotinib, a clinical stage epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, is a sub micromolar inhibitor of PLpro (IC50 300 nM, Ki 200 nM) and is the first reported PLpro inhibitor with drug-like properties. SDZ 224015 and Tarloxotinib have both undergone safety evaluation in humans and hence are candidates for COVID-19 clinical evaluation.


Assuntos
Antivirais/química , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Oligopeptídeos/química , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Serpinas/química , Proteínas Virais/química
4.
J Vis Exp ; (171)2021 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125095

RESUMO

In fragment-based drug discovery, hundreds or often thousands of compounds smaller than ~300 Da are tested against the protein of interest to identify chemical entities that can be developed into potent drug candidates. Since the compounds are small, interactions are weak, and the screening method must therefore be highly sensitive; moreover, structural information tends to be crucial for elaborating these hits into lead-like compounds. Therefore, protein crystallography has always been a gold-standard technique, yet historically too challenging to find widespread use as a primary screen. Initial XChem experiments were demonstrated in 2014 and then trialed with academic and industrial collaborators to validate the process. Since then, a large research effort and significant beamtime have streamlined sample preparation, developed a fragment library with rapid follow-up possibilities, automated and improved the capability of I04-1 beamline for unattended data collection, and implemented new tools for data management, analysis and hit identification. XChem is now a facility for large-scale crystallographic fragment screening, supporting the entire crystals-to-deposition process, and accessible to academic and industrial users worldwide. The peer-reviewed academic user program has been actively developed since 2016, to accommodate projects from as broad a scientific scope as possible, including well-validated as well as exploratory projects. Academic access is allocated through biannual calls for peer-reviewed proposals, and proprietary work is arranged by Diamond's Industrial Liaison group. This workflow has already been routinely applied to over a hundred targets from diverse therapeutic areas, and effectively identifies weak binders (1%-30% hit rate), which both serve as high-quality starting points for compound design and provide extensive structural information on binding sites. The resilience of the process was demonstrated by continued screening of SARS-CoV-2 targets during the COVID-19 pandemic, including a 3-week turn-around for the main protease.


Assuntos
Cristalografia por Raios X/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Proteínas/química , Humanos
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3201, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34045440

RESUMO

Fragment-based drug design has introduced a bottom-up process for drug development, with improved sampling of chemical space and increased effectiveness in early drug discovery. Here, we combine the use of pharmacophores, the most general concept of representing drug-target interactions with the theory of protein hotspots, to develop a design protocol for fragment libraries. The SpotXplorer approach compiles small fragment libraries that maximize the coverage of experimentally confirmed binding pharmacophores at the most preferred hotspots. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated with a pilot library of 96 fragment-sized compounds (SpotXplorer0) that is validated on popular target classes and emerging drug targets. Biochemical screening against a set of GPCRs and proteases retrieves compounds containing an average of 70% of known pharmacophores for these targets. More importantly, SpotXplorer0 screening identifies confirmed hits against recently established challenging targets such as the histone methyltransferase SETD2, the main protease (3CLPro) and the NSP3 macrodomain of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Proteases 3C de Coronavírus/química , Proteases Semelhantes à Papaína de Coronavírus/química , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Química Computacional , Cristalografia por Raios X , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Desenho de Fármacos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Ligantes , Ligação Proteica , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/química , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas , Células Vero
6.
Sci Adv ; 7(16)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853786

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) macrodomain within the nonstructural protein 3 counteracts host-mediated antiviral adenosine diphosphate-ribosylation signaling. This enzyme is a promising antiviral target because catalytic mutations render viruses nonpathogenic. Here, we report a massive crystallographic screening and computational docking effort, identifying new chemical matter primarily targeting the active site of the macrodomain. Crystallographic screening of 2533 diverse fragments resulted in 214 unique macrodomain-binders. An additional 60 molecules were selected from docking more than 20 million fragments, of which 20 were crystallographically confirmed. X-ray data collection to ultra-high resolution and at physiological temperature enabled assessment of the conformational heterogeneity around the active site. Several fragment hits were confirmed by solution binding using three biophysical techniques (differential scanning fluorimetry, homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence, and isothermal titration calorimetry). The 234 fragment structures explore a wide range of chemotypes and provide starting points for development of potent SARS-CoV-2 macrodomain inhibitors.


Assuntos
Domínio Catalítico/fisiologia , Ligação Proteica/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Domínio Catalítico/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
7.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269349

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 macrodomain (Mac1) within the non-structural protein 3 (Nsp3) counteracts host-mediated antiviral ADP-ribosylation signalling. This enzyme is a promising antiviral target because catalytic mutations render viruses non-pathogenic. Here, we report a massive crystallographic screening and computational docking effort, identifying new chemical matter primarily targeting the active site of the macrodomain. Crystallographic screening of diverse fragment libraries resulted in 214 unique macrodomain-binding fragments, out of 2,683 screened. An additional 60 molecules were selected from docking over 20 million fragments, of which 20 were crystallographically confirmed. X-ray data collection to ultra-high resolution and at physiological temperature enabled assessment of the conformational heterogeneity around the active site. Several crystallographic and docking fragment hits were validated for solution binding using three biophysical techniques (DSF, HTRF, ITC). Overall, the 234 fragment structures presented explore a wide range of chemotypes and provide starting points for development of potent SARS-CoV-2 macrodomain inhibitors.

8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5047, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028810

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, lacks effective therapeutics. Additionally, no antiviral drugs or vaccines were developed against the closely related coronavirus, SARS-CoV-1 or MERS-CoV, despite previous zoonotic outbreaks. To identify starting points for such therapeutics, we performed a large-scale screen of electrophile and non-covalent fragments through a combined mass spectrometry and X-ray approach against the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, one of two cysteine viral proteases essential for viral replication. Our crystallographic screen identified 71 hits that span the entire active site, as well as 3 hits at the dimer interface. These structures reveal routes to rapidly develop more potent inhibitors through merging of covalent and non-covalent fragment hits; one series of low-reactivity, tractable covalent fragments were progressed to discover improved binders. These combined hits offer unprecedented structural and reactivity information for on-going structure-based drug design against SARS-CoV-2 main protease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Domínio Catalítico , Proteases 3C de Coronavírus , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Desenho de Fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2 , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/química , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
9.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 26(11): 3021-3029, 2018 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764757

RESUMO

Screening a 3-aminopyridin-2-one based fragment library against a 26-kinase panel representative of the human kinome identified 3-amino-5-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (2) and 3-amino-5-(pyridin-4-yl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (3) as ligand efficient inhibitors of the mitotic kinase Monopolar Spindle 1 (MPS1) and the Aurora kinase family. These kinases are well recognised as attractive targets for therapeutic intervention for treating cancer. Elucidation of the binding mode of these fragments and their analogues has been carried out by X-ray crystallography. Structural studies have identified key interactions with a conserved lysine residue and have highlighted potential regions of MPS1 which could be targeted to improve activity and selectivity.


Assuntos
Aminopiridinas/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Aminopiridinas/síntese química , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Cristalografia por Raios X , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/farmacologia , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/síntese química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/química , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia
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