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1.
Front Genet ; 12: 626685, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790945

RESUMO

Background: The rapid spread of personalized medicine requires professionals to manage the "omics revolution." Therefore, the genetics/genomics literacy of healthcare professionals should be in line with the continuous advances in this field, in order to implement its potential implications for diagnosis, control and treatment of diseases. The present study investigates the effectiveness of a distance learning course on genetics and genomics targeted at medical doctors. Methods: In the context of a project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, we developed a distance learning course, entitled Genetics and Genomics practice. The course focused on genetic/genomics testing, pharmacogenetics and oncogenomics and was developed according to andragogical training methods (Problem-based Learning and Case-based Learning). We used a pre-test vs. post-test study design to assess knowledge improvement on a set of 10 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs). We analyzed the proportion of correct answers for each question pre and post-test and the mean score difference stratified by gender, age, professional status and medical discipline. Moreover, the test was submitted to the participants 8 months after the conclusion of the course (follow-up), in order to assess the retained knowledge. Results: The course was completed by 1,637 Italian physicians, most of which were primary care physicians (20.8%), public health professionals (11.5%) and specialist pediatricians (10.6%). The proportion of correct answers increased in the post-test for all the MCQs. The overall mean score significantly increased, from 59.46 in the pre-test to 71.42 in the post-test (p < 0.0001). The comparison in test performance between follow-up and pre-test demonstrated an overall knowledge improvement. Conclusion: Genomics literacy among healthcare professionals is essential to ensure optimal translation to healthcare delivery of research. The results of this course suggest that distance-learning training in genetic/genomics practice represents an effective method to improve physicians' knowledge in the immediate and mid-term time scale. A preprint version of this paper is available at: https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-10083/v1.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1778, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33238924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High participation and performance are necessary conditions for the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. Here we describe the process to define and test a planning software application and an audit cycle based on the PRECEDE-PROCEED model applied to improving breast cancer screening. We developed a planning software application following the phases of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. The application was co-designed by local cancer screening program coordinators. An audit model was also developed. The revised application and the audit model were tested by all the coordinators of 15 breast cancer screening programs in the region of Lombardy in a 3-day workshop. The project plans produced using the application were compared with those produced in the previous year for clarity and completeness. RESULTS: The 9 phases of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model were adapted to screening as follows: 1) identification of program goals (i.e., participation, sensitivity, false positive); 2) epidemiological issues; 3) best practices analysis; 4) evidence-based actions to be implemented in the screening center and the relationships with partners and stakeholders; 5) priority setting and identification of solutions for each issue; 6) definition of indicators; 7) monitoring; 8) evaluation; 9) impact assessment. The application automatically generated reports for each phase. During the audit cycle, the regional health authority negotiated the targets to be reached with local authorities and collected the improvement plans generated by the application. The plans produced after the application was adopted were more standardized and had clearer indicators for monitoring and evaluation compared to those produced in the previous year. CONCLUSIONS: The software application helps standardize criteria for planning interventions to improve screening programs and facilitates the implementation of the audit cycle.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Auditoria Médica/organização & administração , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(4): 243-253, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: the Italian National Prevention Plan (PNP) posed the standard to be achieved by Regions for the prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence. The PNP also set up a monitoring system to assess the impact of implemented policies. OBJECTIVES: to develop a conceptual model to facilitate interpretation of variation in outcome indicators. METHODS: after a systematic review, the DPSEEA («Driving forces¼, «Pressures¼, «State¼, «Exposure¼, «Effect¼, «Actions¼) was identified as the more appropriate framework to assess the results of preventive policies. Factors for each component of the framework were identified and indicators that allow measuring the changing of each of these factors were defined. RESULTS: the included «driving forces¼ were related to the profit-led food industry, to the nutrition environment at school, and to household-level factors. Among the «pressures¼, parenting behaviours, food provided by school canteens, sociocultural factors, social context, physical activity (PA), opportunities at school or after-school were included. In the State, the high consumption of processed food, the large quantities of high-calorie food easy available, the consumption of carbonated and sugar-sweetened beverages, the reduced social function of mealtimes in families, the early cessation of breastfeeding, the reduction of outdoors activity, active transportation, and PA at school for children were identified. The «exposure¼ factors were the reduced opportunities of doing PA and the over-consumption of calories that influence the «effect¼, described as the prevalence of children and adolescents affected by obesity. CONCLUSIONS: through the DPSEEA, a conceptual model was set up; it allows to place in the causal chain the «actions¼ and the mechanisms through which these actions should impact on the «exposure¼ (PA and over-consumption of calories), making the rationale of process and impact indicators explicit.


Assuntos
Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Criança , Ingestão de Energia , Fast Foods , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609729

RESUMO

Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by pathogenic variants in mismatch repair (MMR) genes that predispose individuals to different malignancies, such as colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer. Current guidelines recommended testing for LS in individuals with newly diagnosed CRC to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality in relatives. Economic evaluations in support of such approach, however, are not available in Italy. We developed a decision-analytic model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of LS screening from the perspective of the Italian National Health System. Three testing strategies: the sequencing of all MMR genes without prior tumor analysis (Strategy 1), a sequential IHC and MS-MLPA analysis (Strategy 2), and an age-targeted strategy with a revised Bethesda criteria assessment before IHC and methylation-specific MLPA for patients ≥ than 70 years old (Strategy 3) were analyzed and compared to the "no testing" strategy. Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) in relatives after colonoscopy, aspirin prophylaxis and an intensive gynecological surveillance were estimated through a Markov model. Assuming a CRC incidence rate of 0.09% and a share of patients affected by LS equal to 2.81%, the number of detected pathogenic variants among CRC cases ranges, in a given year, between 910 and 1167 depending on the testing strategy employed. The testing strategies investigated, provided one-time to the entire eligible population (CRC patients), were associated with an overall cost ranging between €1,753,059.93-€10,388,000.00. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of the Markov model ranged from €941.24 /QALY to €1,681.93 /QALY, thus supporting that "universal testing" versus "no testing" is cost-effective, but not necessarily in comparison with age-targeted strategies. This is the first economic evaluation on different testing strategies for LS in Italy. The results might support the introduction of cost-effective recommendations for LS screening in Italy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Testes Genéticos/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/economia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Análise Custo-Benefício , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Linhagem , Probabilidade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and physical inactivity among children and young people are public health concerns. While numerous interventions to promote physical activity are available, little is known about the most effective ones. This study aimed to summarize the existing evidence on interventions that aim to increase physical activity. METHODS: A systematic review of reviews was conducted. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses published from January 2010 until November 2017 were identified through PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed titles and abstracts, performed data extraction and quality assessment. Outcomes as level of physical activity and body mass index were collected in order to assess the efficacy of interventions. RESULTS: A total 30 studies examining physical activity interventions met the inclusion criteria, 15 systematic reviews and 15 meta-analyses. Most studies (N = 20) were implemented in the school setting, three were developed in preschool and childcare settings, two in the family context, five in the community setting and one miscellaneous context. Results showed that eight meta-analyses obtained a small increase in physical activity level, out of which five were conducted in the school, two in the family and one in the community setting. Most promising programs had the following characteristics: included physical activity in the school curriculum, were long-term interventions, involved teachers and had the support of families. CONCLUSION: The majority of interventions to promote physical activity in children and young people were implemented in the school setting and were multicomponent. Further research is needed to investigate nonschool programs.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Obesidade Pediátrica , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
6.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 157, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801589

RESUMO

Dental trauma is a frequent occurrence in children and adolescent and a correct diagnosis and treatment are essential for a favourable long-term prognosis. The present Guidelines aim to formulate evidence-based recommendations to assist dentists, paediatricians, surgeons, teachers, school and sport staff, parents in the prevention and first aid of dental trauma in children and to provide a careful assessment of the medico-legal implications, reviewing the first draft of the guidelines published in 2012. A multidisciplinary panel on the behalf of the Italian Ministry of Health and in collaboration with the WHO Collaborating Centre for Epidemiology and Community Dentistry of Milan, developed this document. The following four queries were postulated: 1) Which kind of precautions the health personnel, parents, sports and educational personnel must activate in order to prevent the dental trauma damage? 2) How an orofacial trauma in paediatric patients should be managed either in the Emergency Care Unit and/or in private dental office? 3) What criteria should be adopted by a dentist private practitioner to fill in a certificate in cases of dental and/or tempomandibular joint trauma occurring in children and adolescents? 4) What are the elements that should lead clinicians to suspect a non-accidental dental trauma? A systematic review and analysis of the scientific literature published in English, Italian and French from 2007 to 2017 regarding dental trauma in children and adolescents aged 0-18 years was performed, and about 100 papers were analysed and included. The following four domains were analysed and discussed: Dental Trauma Prevention Strategies and Health Education, First aid in orofacial and dental trauma, Certificate of the dental trauma, Oral and dental signs of child abuse and neglect. Twenty-eight recommendations were draw up and codified by the panel according to the Methodological handbook, produced by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, in order to guide physicians in the prevention and first aid of dental trauma in children and adolescents. In addition, a careful assessment of the medico-legal implications is reported in this document.


Assuntos
Odontologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Traumatismos Dentários/prevenção & controle , Traumatismos Dentários/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Itália , Masculino , Pediatria/normas , Prevenção Primária/normas , Prevenção Secundária/normas , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(5-6): 354-363, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: the Italian National Prevention Plan (PNP) posed the standard to be achieved by Italian Regions for the implementation of cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening: to invite all of the target populations and to increase the screening uptake up to 50%, 60%, and 50%, respectively, the standard defined by the Essential Levels of Care (LEA). Moreover, for cervical cancer screening, it requires the implementation of HPV-DNA test and, for breast cancer screening, the PNP demands for the definition of diagnostic and follow up pathways for high familial risk women. The PNP also set up a monitoring system to assess the impact of implemented policies. A conceptual model has been defined to facilitate interpretation of variation in outcome indicators. DESIGN: after a systematic review, the DPSEEA (Driving forces, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Actions) was identified as the more appropriate framework to assess the results of preventive policies. Factors for each component of the model were identified and indicators that allow measuring the changing of each of these factors were defined. RESULTS: among the "driving forces", the trust in the health care system and the social capital were included. The presence of opportunistic screening, the competing private clinical activity, the commitment of General Practitioners and "medical" leaders, the attitude to cooperation and to patients' involvement, and the level of agreement between the positions of scientific societies and the recommendations implemented in organized screening programmes were included in the "pressures". In "state", the availability of technological and human resources, the level of management skills and of accessibility were identified. The "exposure" was defined as the coverage of active invitation of the target population and the uptake of screening tests. The "exposure" factors influence the "effect", described as the impact on anticipation of cancer diagnosis, on disease incidence (for cervical and colorectal cancer) and prognosis. The changing in screening programs performance modifies the impact of invitation coverage and test uptake ("exposure"). CONCLUSIONS: through the DPSEEA framework, we set up a logical conceptual model, which includes implementable actions and the mechanisms through which these actions should impact on the "exposure" (invitation coverage and screening uptake) and on the screening performance (quality).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Itália
8.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219755, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existing frameworks for the evaluation of genetic and genomic applications clearly address the technical and clinical value of a test, but are less concerned with the way genetic services are delivered and organized. We therefore aimed to develop a comprehensive new framework that includes an assessment of service delivery. METHODS: A new framework was built on the evaluation dimensions identified through a systematic review of the existing frameworks and a Delphi survey of Italian experts in public health genomics. RESULTS: Our framework has four sections. The first two sections, respectively, guide the evidence collection process for the genetic test (analytic validity; clinical validity; clinical utility; personal utility) and its delivery models (organizational aspects; economic evaluation; ethical, legal and social implications; patient perspective). The third section guides the formulation of the research priorities to be addressed in future research. Finally, the fourth section suggests three criteria to summarize the collected evidence (net benefit, cost-effectiveness, feasibility). CONCLUSION: We have successfully developed an evaluation framework for the evaluation of genetic tests that includes an assessment of service delivery. It also introduces some neglected evaluation dimensions such as personal utility and patient perspective.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção à Saúde , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 75(2): 105-124, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, a strategy to manage the current "omic revolution" is needed in Italy. Actions aimed to improve genetic/omics "literacy" among health professionals and citizens are necessary, based on recommendations outlined in the Italian 2013 Guidelines on genomics in public health, and the 2018 National Plan for the innovation of the health system based on the omic sciences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the context of a project funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, a distance-learning course entitled "Genetic and Genomic practices" was developed, targeted at medical professionals (mainly general practitioners). The main objective of the course was to train physicians in the responsible use of omic technologies. The course was structured according to the main models of adult learning theory (Problem-based-learning and case studies) and delivered on the institutional platform of the Italian National Institute of Health for one year, from February 2017 to February 2018, with the endorsement of the Italian Society of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine and the Italian Society of Human Genetics. RESULTS: In one year, 3,054 participants registered for the course and 53% completed it. About 21% of participants were primary care physicians, 12% were public health physicians and 11% were hospital paediatricians. The most represented age group of participants was 51-65 years and their geographical distribution was 38.5% southern Italy/islands, 36.3% northern Italy and 25.2% central Italy. Pre-test data showed that training needs of primary care physicians was very high. CONCLUSIONS: In the current context, characterized by the "omic revolution", physicians must be able to understand its potential implications for the diagnosis, control and treatment of diseases. It is therefore necessary to work on capacity building of all health professionals involved in various ways in the use of the "omic sciences". Distance-learning training in genetic/genomic practices represents a low-cost, satisfactory and clinically applicable method to improve physicians' knowledge.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Educação à Distância , Idoso , Educação Médica , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos
11.
Health Policy ; 123(5): 480-491, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of health policy and health promotion strategies to reduce the tobacco demand in adolescents, youth and young adults. METHODS: Reviewers independently performed an electronic database search, reviewed titles and abstracts, assessed articles' eligibility for inclusion and quality, and extracted relevant data. Only systematic reviews and meta-analyses reporting data on tobacco policies and interventions focusing on individuals aged <25 years were included. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control was used to guide data synthesis. RESULTS: 13 articles were included. Studies were of mixed quality with five studies ranked as critically low and seven as high quality. Overall, mixed results were found on the effectiveness for tobacco policies and interventions. Strategies such as increasing taxes on tobacco products were most promising. CONCLUSION: Though data on a variety of measures to reduce smoking is available, conclusions concerning the effectiveness are inconclusive. Tobacco policies and interventions have the potential to reduce smoking, but conclusions are hampered due to both lack of high-quality trials and numerous biases in primary studies. Further high-quality research is required to examine the effectiveness of interventions and policies to reduce the tobacco demand in adolescents, youth and young adults.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Criança , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Política Antifumo , Fumar/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 19, 2019 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in genetics and genomics require that healthcare professionals manage and incorporate new technologies into the appropriate clinical practice. The aim of this study was to identify core competencies in genetics for non-geneticists, both physicians and non-physicians. METHODS: We performed a literature review by searching MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science databases to identify studies reporting competencies in genetics in terms of knowledge, attitudes and abilities for non-genetic healthcare professionals. Furthermore, we conducted a survey according to a modified Delphi method, involving genetics experts to evaluate the competencies to be included as items of the curricula. RESULTS: Three eligible documents were identified and 3 Delphi rounds were carried out to reach a consensus on the competencies to be incorporated in the curricula. With reference to the curriculum for physicians, 19 items were included in the knowledge domain, 3 in the attitudes and 10 in the abilities domain. We developed two different curricula for non-physicians: one specific for those working in genetic services (20 items in the knowledge domain, 3 in the attitudes and 12 in the abilities) and one for those not working in genetic services (10 items in the knowledge domain, 3 in the attitudes and 2 in the abilities). CONCLUSIONS: We developed 3 curricula in genetics addressed to non-genetic healthcare professionals. They differ in the "knowledge" and "abilities", while the "attitudes" are the same for all the healthcare professionals. Although some concerns about the generalizability of the findings could arise due to the Italian perspective, we envisage the curricula can be used for genetics educational programs in several contexts.


Assuntos
Técnica Delfos , Genética Médica/educação , Pessoal de Saúde , Competência Profissional/normas , Currículo , Genética Médica/normas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
13.
Eur J Public Health ; 28(6): 987-992, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538676

RESUMO

Background: The current economic context calls for rationalizing health resources that can be pursued through disinvestment from low value health technologies to invest in the best performing ones, ensuring high healthcare quality. Oncology is a field where, because of high costs of health technologies and rapid innovation, disinvestment is crucial. Methods: On this basis, the research team investigated through a survey, based on a questionnaire, opinions and views of representatives of European countries about disinvestment, in terms of fields of application, potential advocates and barriers, specifically focusing on cancer care. Results: A total of 17 questionnaires were filled in (response rate: 32.1%). The survey showed disinvestment is applied in several countries as a tool for containing health care expenditures and identifying obsolete technologies/ineffective interventions. Clinicians' resistance to change and industries' opposition are recognized as the most important barriers to the implementation of disinvestment policies. Potential targets of disinvestment in cancer are seen in diagnostic and therapeutic areas. Conclusion: Despite the agreement on fields of waste and of disinvestment policies, operational methods to put disinvestment in place are lacking. Since they should rely on an inclusive assessment of the technology, Health Technology Assessment may represent a good approach.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde/economia , Investimentos em Saúde/economia , Neoplasias/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(5): 605-615, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422659

RESUMO

Given the rapid development of genetic tests, an assessment of their benefits, risks, and limitations is crucial for public health practice. We performed a systematic review aimed at identifying and comparing the existing evaluation frameworks for genetic tests. We searched PUBMED, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge, Google Scholar, Google, and gray literature sources for any documents describing such frameworks. We identified 29 evaluation frameworks published between 2000 and 2017, mostly based on the ACCE Framework (n = 13 models), or on the HTA process (n = 6), or both (n = 2). Others refer to the Wilson and Jungner screening criteria (n = 3) or to a mixture of different criteria (n = 5). Due to the widespread use of the ACCE Framework, the most frequently used evaluation criteria are analytic and clinical validity, clinical utility and ethical, legal and social implications. Less attention is given to the context of implementation. An economic dimension is always considered, but not in great detail. Consideration of delivery models, organizational aspects, and consumer viewpoint is often lacking. A deeper analysis of such context-related evaluation dimensions may strengthen a comprehensive evaluation of genetic tests and support the decision-making process.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos/tendências , Genética Médica/tendências , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , PubMed
15.
J Med Screen ; 25(1): 17-23, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28614991

RESUMO

Objectives In Italy, regional governments organize cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening programmes, but there are difficulties in regularly inviting all the target populations and participation remains low. We analysed the determinants associated with invitation coverage of and participation in these programmes. Methods We used data on screening programmes from annual Ministry of Health surveys, 1999-2012 for cervical, 1999-2011 for breast and 2005-2011 for colorectal cancer. For recent years, we linked these data to the results of the national routine survey on preventive behaviours to evaluate the effect of spontaneous screening at Province level. Invitation and participation relative risk were calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Results There is a strong decreasing trend in invitation coverage and participation in screening programmes from North to South Italy. In metropolitan areas, both invitation coverage (rate ratio 0.35-0.96) and participation (rate ratio 0.63-0.88) are lower. An inverse association exists between spontaneous screening and both screening invitation coverage (1-3% decrease in invitation coverage per 1% spontaneous coverage increase) and participation (2% decrease in participation per 1% spontaneous coverage increase) for the three programmes. High recall rate has a negative effect on invitation coverage in the next round for breast cancer (1% decrease in invitation per 1% recall increase). Conclusions Organizational and cultural changes are needed to better implement cancer screening in southern Italy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Ig Sanita Pubbl ; 73(4): 303-309, 2017.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29099822

RESUMO

Increased participation in cancer screening programs is undoubtedly a primary objective in Public Health. The Green and Kreuter model, structured in an Access program, was presented to the Regional Coordinators for cancer screening during specific training events. This survey was carried out to verify their appreciation of the model and whether those who participated in the project intended to use the program.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Humanos , Itália , Software
17.
Clin Physiol Funct Imaging ; 37(2): 162-167, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26211739

RESUMO

Heart rate variability (HRV) is altered in obese subjects, but whether this is true also in underweight (UW) subjects is still under debate. We investigated the HRV profile in a sample of healthy adult women and its association with adiposity. Five-minute resting state electrocardiographic activity was recorded in 69 subjects grouped according to their body mass index, [23 normal weight (NW), 23 overweight/obese (OW) and 23 UW). Body fat mass (FM) was measured by bio-impedance. Frequency- and time-domain analyses were performed. Compared to NW, UW and OW subjects showed a significant decrease in HRV indices, as revealed by spectral analysis. No differences were observed between UW and OW subjects. A second-order polynomial regression unveiled an inverted U-shaped relationship between FM extent and HRV indices. A decrease of HRV indices was associated with changes in FM extent, proving that in UW and OW subjects, the adaptive flexibility of autonomic cardiac function was reduced. These findings provide important clues to guide future studies addressed to determine how changes in adiposity and autonomic cardiac function may contribute to health risk.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Coração/inervação , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Impedância Elétrica , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Sobrepeso/diagnóstico , Magreza/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Prev Med ; 98: 21-30, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894910

RESUMO

In Italy, the cohorts of women who were offered Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in 2007/08 will reach the age (25years) for cervical cancer (CC) screening from 2017. The simultaneous shift from cytology-based screening to HPV test-based screening gives the opportunity for unprecedented reorganisation of CC prevention. The ONS (National Screening Monitoring Centre) Directive and the GISCi (Italian Group for Cervical Screening) identified the consensus conference as the most suitable method for addressing this topic. A summary of consensus recommendations is reported here. The main objective was to define the best screening methods in girls vaccinated against HPV and the knowledge required for defining evidence-based screening strategies. A Jury made recommendations about questions and proposals formulated by a panel of experts representative of Italian scientific societies involved in CC prevention and based on systematic reviews of literature and evidence. The Jury considered changing the screening protocols for girls vaccinated in their twelfth year as appropriate. Tailored screening protocols based on vaccination status could be replaced by "one size fits all" protocols only when a herd immunity effect has been reached. Vaccinated women should start screening at age 30, instead of 25, with HPV test. Furthermore, there is a strong rationale for applying longer intervals for re-screening HPV negative women than the currently recommended 5years, but research is needed to determine the optimal screening time points. For non-vaccinated women and for women vaccinated in their fifteenth year or later, the current protocol should be kept.


Assuntos
Consenso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Vacinação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Prevenção Primária , Prevenção Secundária , Serviços de Saúde da Mulher
19.
Epidemiol Prev ; 39(3 Suppl 1): 5-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26405771

RESUMO

In this report, we present the results of cancer screening programmes in Italy for the years 2011-2012. This report is produced by the National centre for screening monitoring (ONS), together with the Italian professional multidisciplinary screening groups: GISMa (Italian group for mammographic screening), GISCor (Italian group for colorectal screening), and GISCi (Italian group for cervical screening). Since 2004, ONS has been monitoring and supporting Italian screening programmes, in accordance with a decree issued by the Ministry of Health. Multidisciplinary groups work with ONS and provide the know-how required to promote the quality of public health programmes. The following is a brief outline of the Italian screening programme setting: screening programmes (cervical, mammographic, colorectal) have been a Basic Healthcare Parameter (livello essenziale di assistenza, LEA) since 2001; guidelines are provided by the Ministry of Health's Department of Prevention in agreement with regional governments; regional governments are responsible for the organization, management, and quality assurance of screening programmes; since 2004, ONS has been responsible for monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide; the results of the screening programmes of each region are evaluated annually by the Ministry of Health in terms of coverage and impact.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Mamografia , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Feminino , Órgãos Governamentais/organização & administração , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Mamografia/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Health Policy ; 119(6): 760-9, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25887486

RESUMO

Health policies on disease prevention differ widely between countries. Studies suggest that different countries have much to learn from each other and that significant health gains could be achieved if all countries followed best practice. This paper describes the policy development and planning process relating to prevention activities in Italy, through a critical appraisal of Regional Prevention Plans (RPPs) drafted for the period 2010-2012. The analysis was performed using a specific evaluation tool developed by a Scientific Committee appointed by the Italian Ministry of Health. We appraised nineteen RPPs, comprising a total of 702 projects, most of them in the areas of universal prevention (62.9%) and prevention in high risk groups (27.0%). Italian Regions established prevention activities using an innovative combination of population and high-risk individuals approaches. However, some issues, such as the need to reduce health inequalities, were poorly addressed. The technical drafting of RPPs required some improvement; e.g. the evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the health interventions proposed was seldom reported. There were significant geographical differences across the Regions in the appraisal of RPPs. Our research suggests that continuous assessment of the planning process of prevention may become a very useful tool for monitoring, and ultimately strengthening, public health capacity in the field of prevention. Further research is needed to analyze determinants of regional variation.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde , Regionalização da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Itália , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Vigilância da População , Saúde Pública
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