Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 126
Filtrar
1.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitotane is the only approved treatment for patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). A better explanation for the variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of mitotane, and the optimization and individualization of mitotane treatment, is desirable for patients. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to develop a population PK (PopPK) model to characterize and predict the PK profiles of mitotane in patients with ACC, as well as to explore the effect of genetic variation on mitotane clearance. Ultimately, we aimed to facilitate mitotane dose optimization and individualization for patients with ACC. METHODS: Mitotane concentration and dosing data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of patients with ACC taking mitotane orally and participating in the Dutch Adrenal Network. PopPK modelling analysis was performed using NONMEM (version 7.4.1). Genotypes of drug enzymes and transporters, patient demographic information, and clinical characteristics were investigated as covariates. Subsequently, simulations were performed for optimizing treatment regimens. RESULTS: A two-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best described the PK data of mitotane collected from 48 patients. Lean body weight (LBW) and genotypes of CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285), SLCO1B3 699A>G (rs7311358) and SLCO1B1 571T>C (rs4149057) were found to significantly affect mitotane clearance (CL/F), which decreased the coefficient of variation (CV%) of the random inter-individual variability of CL/F from 67.0 to 43.0%. Fat amount (i.e. body weight - LBW) was found to significantly affect the central distribution volume. Simulation results indicated that determining the starting dose using the developed model is beneficial in terms of shortening the period to reach the therapeutic target and limit the risk of toxicity. A regimen that can effectively maintain mitotane concentration within 14-20 mg/L was established. CONCLUSIONS: A two-compartment PopPK model well-characterized mitotane PK profiles in patients with ACC. The CYP2C19 enzyme and SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 transporters may play roles in mitotane disposition. The developed model is beneficial in terms of optimizing mitotane treatment schedules and individualizing the initial dose for patients with ACC. Further validation of these findings is still required.

2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(9): 773-781, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging regularly results in incidental discovery of adrenal tumours, requiring exclusion of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). However, differentiation is hampered by poor specificity of imaging characteristics. We aimed to validate a urine steroid metabolomics approach, using steroid profiling as the diagnostic basis for ACC. METHODS: We did a prospective multicentre study in adult participants (age ≥18 years) with newly diagnosed adrenal masses. We assessed the accuracy of diagnostic imaging strategies based on maximum tumour diameter (≥4 cm vs <4 cm), imaging characteristics (positive vs negative), and urine steroid metabolomics (low, medium, or high risk of ACC), separately and in combination, using a reference standard of histopathology and follow-up investigations. With respect to imaging characteristics, we also assessed the diagnostic utility of increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold from the recommended 10 Hounsfield units (HU) to 20 HU. FINDINGS: Of 2169 participants recruited between Jan 17, 2011, and July 15, 2016, we included 2017 from 14 specialist centres in 11 countries in the final analysis. 98 (4·9%) had histopathologically or clinically and biochemically confirmed ACC. Tumours with diameters of 4 cm or larger were identified in 488 participants (24·2%), including 96 of the 98 with ACC (positive predictive value [PPV] 19·7%, 95% CI 16·2-23·5). For imaging characteristics, increasing the unenhanced CT tumour attenuation threshold to 20 HU from the recommended 10 HU increased specificity for ACC (80·0% [95% CI 77·9-82·0] vs 64·0% [61·4-66.4]) while maintaining sensitivity (99·0% [94·4-100·0] vs 100·0% [96·3-100·0]; PPV 19·7%, 16·3-23·5). A urine steroid metabolomics result indicating high risk of ACC had a PPV of 34·6% (95% CI 28·6-41·0). When the three tests were combined, in the order of tumour diameter, positive imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics, 106 (5·3%) participants had the result maximum tumour diameter of 4 cm or larger, positive imaging characteristics (with the 20 HU cutoff), and urine steroid metabolomics indicating high risk of ACC, for which the PPV was 76·4% (95% CI 67·2-84·1). 70 (3·5%) were classified as being at moderate risk of ACC and 1841 (91·3%) at low risk (negative predictive value 99·7%, 99·4-100·0). INTERPRETATION: An unenhanced CT tumour attenuation cutoff of 20 HU should replace that of 10 HU for exclusion of ACC. A triple test strategy of tumour diameter, imaging characteristics, and urine steroid metabolomics improves detection of ACC, which could shorten time to surgery for patients with ACC and help to avoid unnecessary surgery in patients with benign tumours. FUNDING: European Commission, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research, US National Institutes of Health, the Claire Khan Trust Fund at University Hospitals Birmingham Charities, and the Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/urina , Metabolômica/métodos , Esteroides/urina , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186828

RESUMO

Small bowel neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are relatively rare malignancies. Due to the lack of specificity, the symptoms are usually initially attributed to irritable bowel syndrome. Frequently there is a delay of years after the onset of symptoms, before the diagnosis is made. We describe two patient cases with a small bowel NET that illustrate the typical course of the symptoms, as well as the complications of carcinoid syndrome, carcinoid heart disease, mesenteric venous congestion and arterial ischemia. On coloscopy the primary tumour can often not be reached. CT scan is the best diagnostic modality and should be considered in a patient with abdominal pain, diarrhoea, weight loss and a negative coloscopy, especially in the presence of flushing. In a non-curative situation, first-line treatment consists of a somatostatin analogue, in order to prolong progression-free survival and reduce hormonal hypersecretion. Palliative surgery can also play an important role in the management of small bowel NET.

4.
J Endocrinol ; 245(1): 101-113, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027601

RESUMO

Pituitary-directed medical treatment for Cushing's disease (CD) is currently represented by membrane receptor targeting drugs (somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists). Somatostatin and dopamine receptors are regulated by ß-arrestins, which have been shown to be differentially regulated by glucocorticoids in non-neuroendocrine cells. In this study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on ß-arrestin expression in corticotroph tumor cells. First, AtT20 cells, a mouse model of CD, were exposed to dexamethasone (Dex) at different time points and ß-arrestin expression was evaluated at mRNA and protein levels. Futhermore, ß-arrestin mRNA expression was evaluated in 17 human corticotroph adenoma samples and correlated to patients' pre-operative cortisol levels. We observed that Dex treatment induced a time-dependent increase in ß-arrestin 1 mRNA expression and a decrease in ß-arrestin 2. The same modulation pattern was observed at protein level. Dex-mediated modulation of ß-arrestins was abolished by co-treatment with mifepristone, and Dex withdrawal restored ß-arrestin expression to basal levels after 72 h. The evaluation of ß-arrestin mRNA in corticotroph adenomas from CD patients with variable disease activity showed a significant positive correlation between ß-arrestin 1 mRNA and urinary cortisol levels. The effect of glucocorticoids on ß-arrestin levels was confirmed by the analysis of two samples from a single patient, which underwent adenomectomy twice, with different pre-operative cortisol levels. In conclusion, glucocorticoids induce an inverse modulation of the two ß-arrestin isofoms in corticotroph tumor cells. Since ß-arrestins regulate membrane receptor functions, this finding may help to better understand the variable response to pituitary-targeting drugs in patients with Cushing's disease.

5.
Neuroendocrinology ; 110(5): 351-363, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319410

RESUMO

Serotonin, a biologically active amine, is related to carcinoid syndrome in functioning neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Telotristat ethyl is a novel inhibitor of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), a key enzyme in the production of serotonin. While its use in patients with carcinoid syndrome and uncontrolled diarrhea under somatostatin analogs (SSAs) has been recently approved, in vitro data evaluating its effectiveness are lacking. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate the effect of telotristat as monotherapy, and in combination with SSAs, on proliferation and secretion in a NET cell line model. The human pancreatic NET cell lines BON-1/QGP-1 were used as 2D and 3D cultured models; somatostatin receptor and TPH mRNA expression, as well as the potential autocrine effect of serotonin on tumor cell proliferation using a 3D culture system were evaluated. Telotristat decreased serotonin production in a dose-dependent manner at a clinically feasible concentration, without affecting cell proliferation. Its combination with pasireotide, but not with octreotide, had an additive inhibitory effect on serotonin secretion. The effect of telotristat was slightly less potent, when BON-1 cells were co-treated with octreotide. Octreotide and pasireotide had no effect on the expression of TPH. Telotristat did not have an effect on mRNA expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes. Finally, we showed that serotonin did not have an autocrine effect on NET cell proliferation on the 3D cell model. These results suggest that telotristat is an effective drug for serotonin inhibition, but the effectiveness of its combination with SST2 (somatostatin receptor subtype 2)-preferring SSA should be evaluated in more detail.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(2)2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586196

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) often fail mitotane treatment and deal with severe toxicity, marking the relevance of predictive parameters for treatment outcome. OBJECTIVE: Determine the effects of mitotane in primary ACC cultures, and correlate sensitivity with patient and tumor characteristics. METHODS: In 32 primary ACC cultures, the effects of mitotane on cell growth and cortisol production were determined. RRM1, SOAT1, and CYP2W1 expression were assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The median percentage cell amount inhibition in primary ACC cultures at 50 µM mitotane was 57%. Seven patients were classified as nonresponders, 14 as partial responders, and 11 as responders. The mean median effective concentration (EC50) value of mitotane for inhibition of cell amount in responders was 14.2 µM (95% CI, 11.3-17.9), in partial responders 41.6 µM (95% CI, 33.5-51.8), and could not be calculated in nonresponders. The percentage cortisol-producing ACC was 14%, 43%, and 73% for nonresponders, partial responders, and responders (P = 0.068). Mitotane inhibited cortisol production with a mean EC50 of 1.4 µM (95% CI, 0.9-2.1), which was considerably lower than the EC50 on cell growth. RRM1, SOAT1, and CYP2W1 expression levels were not predictive for mitotane sensitivity in vitro. CONCLUSION: Direct antitumor effects of mitotane on human primary ACC cultures are highly variable between patients, reflecting heterogeneous responses in patients. Cortisol was inhibited at lower concentrations, compared with its effect on cell amount. Cortisol secretion by ACC might be associated with enhanced mitotane sensitivity due to increased direct antitumor effects of mitotane.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714582

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pretreatment with α-adrenergic receptor blockers is recommended to prevent hemodynamic instability during resection of a pheochromocytoma or sympathetic paraganglioma (PPGL). OBJECTIVE: To determine which type of α-adrenergic receptor blocker provides the best efficacy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled open-label trial (PRESCRIPT; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01379898). SETTING: Multicenter study including 9 centers in The Netherlands. PATIENTS: 134 patients with non-metastatic PPGL. INTERVENTION: phenoxybenzamine or doxazosin starting 2-3 weeks before surgery using a blood pressure targeted titration schedule. Intraoperative hemodynamic management was standardized. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary efficacy endpoint was the cumulative intraoperative time outside the blood pressure target range (i.e., SBP >160 mmHg or MAP <60 mmHg) expressed as a percentage of total surgical procedure time. Secondary efficacy endpoint was the value on a hemodynamic instability score. RESULTS: Median cumulative time outside blood pressure targets was 11.1% [IQR: 4.3-20.6] in the phenoxybenzamine group compared to 12.2% [5.3-20.2] in the doxazosin group (P=0.75, r=0.03). The hemodynamic instability score was 38.0 [28.8-58.0] and 50.0 [35.3-63.8] in the phenoxybenzamine and doxazosin group, respectively (P=0.02, r=0.20). The 30-day cardiovascular complication rate was 8.8% and 6.9% in the phenoxybenzamine and doxazosin group, respectively (P=0.68). There was no mortality after 30 days. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of blood pressure outside the target range during resection of a PPGL was not different after preoperative treatment with either phenoxybenzamine or doxazosin. Phenoxybenzamine was more effective in preventing intraoperative hemodynamic instability, but it could not be established whether this was associated with a better clinical outcome.

8.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(5): 461-472, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480014

RESUMO

Objective: Patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes and time of death in a large cohort of patients with CS and to establish factors associated with increased mortality. Methods: In this cohort study, we analyzed 1564 patients included in the European Registry on CS (ERCUSYN); 1045 (67%) had pituitary-dependent CS, 385 (25%) adrenal-dependent CS, 89 (5%) had an ectopic source and 45 (3%) other causes. The median (IQR) overall follow-up time in ERCUSYN was 2.7 (1.2-5.5) years. Results: Forty-nine patients had died at the time of the analysis; 23 (47%) with pituitary-dependent CS, 6 (12%) with adrenal-dependent CS, 18 (37%) with ectopic CS and two (4%) with CS due to other causes. Of 42 patients whose cause of death was known, 15 (36%) died due to progression of the underlying disease, 13 (31%) due to infections, 7 (17%) due to cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease and 2 due to pulmonary embolism. The commonest cause of death in patients with pituitary-dependent CS and adrenal-dependent CS were infectious diseases (n = 8) and progression of the underlying tumor (n = 10) in patients with ectopic CS. Patients who had died were older and more often males, and had more frequently muscle weakness, diabetes mellitus and ectopic CS, compared to survivors. Of 49 deceased patients, 22 (45%) died within 90 days from start of treatment and 5 (10%) before any treatment was given. The commonest cause of deaths in these 27 patients were infections (n = 10; 37%). In a regression analysis, age, ectopic CS and active disease were independently associated with overall death before and within 90 days from the start of treatment. Conclusion: Mortality rate was highest in patients with ectopic CS. Infectious diseases were the commonest cause of death soon after diagnosis, emphasizing the need for careful clinical vigilance at that time, especially in patients presenting with concomitant diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/mortalidade , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/etiologia , Doenças das Glândulas Suprarrenais/mortalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Síndrome de Cushing/complicações , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças da Hipófise/etiologia , Doenças da Hipófise/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(11): 855-865, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Levoketoconazole is a ketoconazole stereoisomer in development for treatment of Cushing's syndrome and has not been assessed previously in a clinical trial in patients with Cushing's syndrome. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of levoketoconazole in patients with endogenous Cushing's syndrome. METHODS: SONICS is a phase 3, multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, single-arm study in which we recruited adults (≥18 years) with confirmed Cushing's syndrome and a mean 24-h urinary free cortisol (mUFC) of at least 1·5 times the upper limit of normal from 60 hospital and community sites in 19 countries (15 countries in Europe, and Canada, Israel, Turkey, and the USA). Patients were treated with oral levoketoconazole in a 2-21 week incremental dose-titration phase starting at 150 mg twice daily (150 mg increments until mUFC normalisation, maximum 600 mg twice daily) and a 6-month maintenance phase. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with mUFC normalisation at end of maintenance, without dose increase during the maintenance phase (in the intention-to-treat population). Prespecified adverse events of special interest were potential liver toxicity, corrected QT prolongation, and adrenal insufficiency. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01838551. FINDINGS: Between July 30, 2014, and June 30, 2017, 201 individuals were screened and 94 patients were enrolled and received at least one dose of study medication. Of the 94 patients, 80 (85%) had pituitary Cushing's syndrome. Mean mUFC at baseline was 671·4 nmol/24 h (243·3 µg/24 h), which is 4·9 times the upper limit of normal. Of the 77 patients who advanced to the maintenance phase, 62 (81%) had mUFC normalisation by end-of-dose titration. At the end of the 6-month maintenance phase, 29 (31%) of 94 patients were responders; the least-squares mean estimate of the proportion of responders was 0·30 (95% CI 0·21-0·40; p=0·0154 vs null hypothesis of ≤0·20). The most common adverse events in the 94 patients were nausea (30 [32%]) and headache (26 [28%]). Adverse events led to study discontinuation in 12 (13%) of 94 patients. Two patients had a QT interval (Fridericia corrected) of more than 500 ms, and three patients had suspected adrenal insufficiency. Alanine aminotransferase reversibly increased to more than three times the upper limit of normal in ten (11%) patients. Four patients had serious adverse events that were considered probably or definitely related to the study drug: abnormal liver function test results (n=1), prolonged QT interval (n=2), and adrenal insufficiency (n=1). One person died from colon carcinoma unrelated to study medication. INTERPRETATION: Twice-daily oral levoketoconazole treatment led to sustained improvements in urinary free cortisol, with an acceptable safety and tolerability profile. Levoketoconazole might represent a useful therapeutic option for the medical treatment of Cushing's syndrome. FUNDING: Strongbridge Biopharma.

10.
Endocr Connect ; 8(9): R144-R156, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398711

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinomas (ACCs) are rare tumors with scant treatment options for which new treatments are required. The mTOR pathway mediates the intracellular signals of several growth factors, including the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), and therefore represents a potential attractive pathway for the treatment of several malignancies including ACCs. Several mTOR inhibitors, including sirolimus, temsirolimus and everolimus, have been clinically developed. This review summarizes the results of the studies evaluating the expression of the mTOR pathway components in ACCs, the effects of the mTOR inhibitors alone or in combination with other drugs in preclinical models of ACCs and the early experience with the use of these compounds in the clinical setting. The mTOR pathway seems a potential target for treatment of patients with ACC, but further investigation is still required to define the potential role of mTOR inhibitors alone or in combination with other drugs in the treatment of ACC patients.

11.
J Surg Res ; 244: 444-455, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current perioperative patient care aims to maintain homeostasis by attenuation of the stress response to surgery, as a more vigorous stress response can have detrimental effects on postoperative recovery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the effect of perioperative music on the physiological stress response to surgery. METHODS: The Embase, Medline Ovid, Cochrane Central, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception date until February 5, 2019, using a systematic literature search following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines for randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of music before, during, and/or after surgery in adult surgical patients on the stress response to surgery. Meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model and pooled standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. This study was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018097060). RESULTS: The literature search identified 1076 articles. Eighteen studies (1301 patients) were included in the systematic review, of which eight were included in the meta-analysis. Perioperative music attenuated the neuroendocrine cortisol stress response to surgery (pooled standardized mean difference -0.30, [95% confidence interval -0.53 to -0.07], P = 0.01, I2 = 0). CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative music can attenuate the neuroendocrine stress response to surgery.


Assuntos
Música , Assistência Perioperatória , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/psicologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Viés , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 181(1): 45-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067510

RESUMO

Objectives: Inoperable or metastatic paragangliomas (PGLs) and malignant pheochromocytomas (PCCs) are rare tumours with limited options for systemic treatment. Aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue (177LutetiumDOTA0-Tyr3)octreotate (177Lu-DOTATATE) for the treatment of PGLs and PCCs. Methods: Patients with histologically proven inoperable or malignant PGLs and PCCs treated with 177Lu-DOTATATE at our centre were retrospectively analysed. Patients were treated with up to four cycles of 177Lu-DOTATATE with an intended dose of 7.4 Gb per cycle. Response was assessed with use of RECIST 1.1. Results: Thirty patients were included: 17 with parasympathetic, 10 with sympathetic PGLs and 3 with PCCs. Grade 3/4 subacute haematotoxicity occurred in 6 (20%) of patients. A reversible subacute adverse event due to cardiac failure following possible catecholamine release occurred in two patients. Best tumour response was partial response in 7 (23%) and stable disease in 20 (67%), whereas 3 (10%) patients had progressive disease. In 20 patients with baseline disease progression, tumour control was observed in 17 (85%); the median progression-free survival was 91 months in patients with parasympathetic PGLs, 13 months in patients with sympathetic PGLs and 10 months in patients with metastatic PCCs. Conclusion: This study suggests that PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE is a safe and effective treatment option for patients with inoperable or malignant PGL and PCC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/radioterapia , Octreotida/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Paraganglioma/radioterapia , Feocromocitoma/radioterapia , Radioisótopos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Octreotida/uso terapêutico , Doses de Radiação , Receptores de Peptídeos/efeitos da radiação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3437-3449, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127821

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Metyrapone and ketoconazole, frequently used steroidogenesis inhibitors for treatment of Cushing syndrome, can be associated with side effects and limited efficacy. Osilodrostat is a CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 inhibitor, with unknown effects on other steroidogenic enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of osilodrostat, metyrapone, and ketoconazole on adrenal steroidogenesis, and pituitary adenoma cells in vitro. METHODS: HAC15 cells, 17 primary human adrenocortical cell cultures, and pituitary adenoma cells were incubated with osilodrostat, metyrapone, or ketoconazole (0.01 to 10 µM). Cortisol and ACTH were measured using chemiluminescence immunoassays, and steroid profiles by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: In HAC15 cells, osilodrostat inhibited cortisol production more potently (IC50: 0.035 µM) than metyrapone (0.068 µM; P < 0.0001), and ketoconazole (0.621 µM; P < 0.0001). IC50 values of osilodrostat and metyrapone for basal cortisol production varied with a 25- and 18-fold difference, respectively, with comparable potency. Aldosterone production was inhibited more potently by osilodrostat vs metyrapone and ketoconazole. Osilodrostat and metyrapone treatment resulted in strong inhibition of corticosterone and cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol accumulation, and modest effects on adrenal androgens. No pituitary-directed effects of osilodrostat were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under our study conditions, osilodrostat is a potent cortisol production inhibitor in human adrenocortical cells, comparable with metyrapone. All steroidogenesis inhibitors showed large variability in sensitivity between primary adrenocortical cultures. Osilodrostat might inhibit CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, in some conditions to a lesser extent CYP17A1 activity, and a proximal step in the steroidogenesis. Osilodrostat is a promising treatment option for Cushing syndrome, and in vivo differences with metyrapone are potentially driven by pharmacokinetic differences.

14.
Horm Cancer ; 10(2-3): 107-119, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102172

RESUMO

Prolonged remission of hypercortisolism with steroidogenesis inhibitors has been described in patients with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect of ketoconazole in human cancer cells was previously suggested. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of ketoconazole on ACTH-producing and non-ACTH-producing neuroendocrine tumor (NET) cell lines. The effects of ketoconazole alone, and in combination with somatostatin analogs, were evaluated in two human cell lines: DMS-79 (ectopic ACTH-producing small cell lung carcinoma) and BON-1 (human pancreatic NET). Total DNA measurement, apoptosis, cell cycle, chromogranin A (CgA)/proopiomelanocortin (POMC) expression by qRT-PCR, serotonin, CgA, and ACTH secretion assays were performed. In both cell lines, ketoconazole significantly suppressed cell growth and colony formation in a dose and time-dependent manner. The effect in DMS-79 was primarily cytotoxic, while it was more apoptotic in BON-1 cells. Ketoconazole also induced increase in G0/G1 phase in both cell lines and arrest in phase G2/M of BON-1 cells. Ketoconazole did not affect the secretion of serotonin, CgA, ACTH, or the mRNA expression of CgA and POMC. Decreased serotonin secretion was observed after the combination treatment with pasireotide. These results suggest a direct effect of ketoconazole on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle in both ACTH- and non-ACTH-producing NET cells.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de 14-alfa Desmetilase/farmacologia , Apoptose , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Cromogranina A/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Pró-Opiomelanocortina/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/metabolismo , Somatostatina/análogos & derivados
15.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(5): 311-320, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970324

RESUMO

Introduction Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare cancer that commonly spreads to the liver, lungs and lymph nodes. Bone metastases are infrequent. Objective The aim of this report was to describe the clinical characteristics, survival perspective, prognostic factors and frequency of adverse skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with ACC who developed bone metastasis. Methods This is a retrospective, observational, multicenter, multinational study of patients diagnosed with bone metastases from ACC who were treated and followed up in three European countries (France, Italy and The Netherlands) and one center in the United States. Results Data of 156 patients were captured. The median overall survival was 11 months. SREs occurred in 47% of patients: 17% bone fractures, 17% spinal cord compression, 1% hypercalcemia, 12% developed more than one SRE. In multivariate analysis, cortisol hypersecretion was the only prognostic factor significantly associated with a higher mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-4.23, P = 0.013) and with the development of a SREs (of border line significance). The administration of antiresorptive therapies (bisphosphonates and denosumab) was associated with a lower risk of death, even if not significant, and their survival benefit appeared confined in patients attaining serum mitotane levels within the therapeutic range. Conclusion Bone metastases in ACC patients are associated with poor prognosis and high risk of SREs. Cortisol hypersecretion was the only prognostic factor suggesting a potential benefit from antisecretory medications. The therapeutic role of bisphosphonates and denosumab to improve patient outcome deserves to be tested in a prospective clinical trial.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ósseas/mortalidade , Internacionalidade , Adolescente , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/sangue , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/sangue , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Ósseas/sangue , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 26(6): 585-599, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939452

RESUMO

Control of symptoms related to hormonal hypersecretion by functioning neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) is challenging. New therapeutic options are required. Since novel in vitro tumor models seem to better mimic the tumor in vivo conditions, we aimed to study the effect of somatostatin and dopamine receptor agonists (octreotide and cabergoline, respectively) and novel somatostatin-dopamine chimeric multi-receptor drugs (BIM-065, BIM-23A760) using 2D (monolayer) and 3D (spheroids) cultures. Dose-response studies in 2D and 3D human pancreatic NET cell cultures (BON-1 and QGP-1) were performed under serum-containing and serum-deprived conditions. Cell proliferation, somatostatin and dopamine receptor expression (SSTs and D2R), apoptosis, lactate dehydrogenase, as well as serotonin and chromogranin A (CgA) release were assessed. The following results were obtained. 3D cultures of BON-1/QGP-1 allowed better cell survival than 2D cultures in serum-deprived conditions. SSTs and D2R mRNA levels were higher in the 3D model vs 2D model. Octreotide/cabergoline/BIM-065/BIM-23A760 treatment did not affect cell growth or spheroid size. In BON-1 2D-cultures, only BIM-23A760 significantly inhibited CgA release -this effect being more pronounced in 3D cultures. In BON-1 2D cultures, cabergoline/BIM-065/BIM-23A760 treatment decreased serotonin release (maximal effect up to 40%), being this effect again more potent in 3D cultures (up to 67% inhibition; with BIM-23A760 having the most potent effects). In QGP-1, cabergoline/BIM-065 treatment decreased serotonin release only in the 3D model. In conclusion, cultures of NET 3D spheroids represent a promising method for evaluating cell proliferation and secretion in NET cell-line models. Compared to 2D models, 3D models grow relatively serum independent. In 3D model, SST-D2R multi-receptor targeting drugs inhibit CgA and serotonin secretion, but not NET cell growth.

17.
Endocrine ; 64(3): 673-684, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838516

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The IGF and mTOR-pathways are considered as potential targets for therapy in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC). This study aims to describe the IGF pathway in ACC and to explore the response to the combined treatment with the IGF1R/IR inhibitor linsitinib, and mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) in in vitro models of ACC. METHODS: The protein expression level of IGF2, IGF1R and IGF2R was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 17 human ACCs and the mRNA expression level of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IR isoforms A and B, IGF2R, IGF-Binding-Proteins[IGFBP]-1, 2, 3 and 6 was evaluated by RT-qPCR in 12 samples. In H295R and HAC15 ACC cell lines the combined effects of linsitinib and sirolimus or everolimus on cell survival were evaluated. RESULTS: A high protein expression of IGF2, IGF1R and IGF2R was observed in 82, 65 and 100% of samples, respectively. A high relative expression of IGF2 mRNA was found in the majority of samples. The mRNA levels of the IRA were higher than that of IRB and IGF1R in the majority of samples (75%). Linsitinib inhibits cell growth in the H295R and HAC15 cell lines and, combined with sirolimus or everolimus, linsitinib showed a significant additive effect. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to IGF2 and IGF1R, ACC express IGF2R, IRA and several IGFBPs, suggesting that the interplay between the different components of the IGF pathway in ACC could be more complex than previously considered. The addition of mTOR inhibitors to linsitinib may have stronger antiproliferative effects than linsitinib alone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/tratamento farmacológico , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Receptor IGF Tipo 1/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Córtex Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/patologia , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/metabolismo , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/patologia , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(3)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850564

RESUMO

Hyponatraemia is a common electrolyte disturbance with multiple causes. We present a case of a 49-year-old Caucasian female with cholangiocarcinoma, who had a hyponatraemia which was initially assumed to be based on a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as paraneoplastic phenomenon. At physical examination, hyperpigmentation was seen and multiple episodes with syncope were reported. Subsequent endocrine assessment with a synthetic adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulation test and measurement of ACTH levels revealed primary adrenal insufficiency also known as Morbus Addison. We started hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone replacement therapy, resulting in resolving of symptoms, hyponatraemia and hyperpigmentation.


Assuntos
Doença de Addison/diagnóstico , Hiperpigmentação/diagnóstico , Hiponatremia/diagnóstico , Doença de Addison/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Addison/etiologia , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Colangiocarcinoma/complicações , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Fludrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Fludrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/administração & dosagem , Hidrocortisona/uso terapêutico , Hiperpigmentação/etiologia , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Síndrome de Secreção Inadequada de HAD/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Paraneoplásicas/complicações
19.
Neuroendocrinology ; 109(2): 171-178, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30759443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The current diagnostic workup of Cushing's syndrome (CS) requires various tests which only capture short-term cortisol exposure, whereas patients with endogenous CS generally have elevated cortisol levels over longer periods of time. Scalp hair assessment has emerged as a convenient test in capturing glucocorticoid concentrations over long periods of time. The aim of this multicenter, multinational, prospective, case-control study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of scalp hair glucocorticoids in screening of endogenous CS. METHODS: We assessed the diagnostic performances of hair cortisol (HairF), hair cortisone (HairE), and the sum of both (sumHairF+E), as measured by a state-of-the-art LC-MS/MS technique, in untreated patients with confirmed endogenous CS (n = 89) as well as in community controls (n = 295) from the population-based Lifelines cohort study. RESULTS: Both glucocorticoids were significantly elevated in CS patients when compared to controls. A high diagnostic efficacy was found for HairF (area under the curve 0.87 [95% CI: 0.83-0.92]), HairE (0.93 [0.89-0.96]), and sumHairF+E (0.92 [0.88-0.96]) (all p < 0.001). The participants were accurately classified at the optimal cutoff threshold in 86% of the cases (81% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 94% negative predictive value [NPV]) by HairF, in 90% of the cases (87% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 96% NPV) by HairE, and in 87% of the cases (86% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 95% NPV) by the sumHairF+E. HairE was shown to be the most accurate in differentiating CS patients from controls. CONCLUSION: Scalp hair glucocorticoids, especially hair cortisone, can be seen as a promising biomarker in screening for CS. Its convenience in collection and workup additionally makes it feasible for first-line screening.

20.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 26(3): R157-R179, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615596

RESUMO

Some biomarkers for functioning and non-functioning neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are currently available. Despite their application in clinical practice, results should be interpreted cautiously. Considering the variable sensitivity and specificity of these parameters, there is an unmet need for novel biomarkers to improve diagnosis and predict patient outcome. Nowadays, several new biomarkers are being evaluated and may become future tools for the management of NENs. These biomarkers include (1) peptides and growth factors; (2) DNA and RNA markers based on genomics analysis, for example, the so-called NET test, which has been developed for analyzing gene transcripts in circulating blood; (3) circulating tumor/endothelial/progenitor cells or cell-free tumor DNA, which represent minimally invasive methods that would provide additional information for monitoring treatment response and (4) improved imaging techniques with novel radiolabeled somatostatin analogs or peptides. Below we summarize some future directions in the development of novel diagnostic and predictive/prognostic biomarkers in NENs. This review is focused on circulating and selected tissue markers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/normas , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Prognóstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA