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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33159444

RESUMO

Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is a promising biomarker for ovarian reserve. In this study, we assessed AMH before and one year after initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy on NSABP/NRG Oncology B-47 in female participants aged 42 years and younger (with median age 39 years). At baseline, median AMH was 1.2 ng/mL; 13 (4.7%) values were <0.1ng/mL (the threshold for detectable levels, in the perimenopause/menopause range), and 57 values (20.6%) were less than 0.5 ng/mL. At 1 year, 215 (77.6%) were less than 0.1ng/mL, and 264 (95.3%) were less than 0.5 ng/mL. Post-chemotherapy menses were reported by 46.2% of participants. Multivariable logistic regression found that the odds of having post-chemotherapy menses increased with younger age, higher BMI, and higher pre-chemotherapy AMH, but not by trastuzumab administration or by the choice of chemotherapy (doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel vs. docetaxel-cyclophosphamide). We conclude that higher pre-chemotherapy AMH predicts a lower risk of chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea, and that AMH one year after chemotherapy initiation is not informative in this setting because it is likely to be very low.

2.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(1): pkz085, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337496

RESUMO

Background: Talazoparib is a poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that causes death in cells with breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 or 2 (BRCA1/2) mutations. Methods: EMBRACA (NCT01945775) was a randomized phase III study comparing efficacy, safety, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) of talazoparib (1 mg) with physician's choice of chemotherapy (PCT: capecitabine, eribulin, gemcitabine, vinorelbine) in locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer with a germline BRCA1/2 (gBRCA1/2) mutation. Prespecified patient subgroups were analyzed for progression-free survival, objective response, clinical benefit, duration of response, and safety. PROs were evaluated in hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) or triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subgroups. Results: Of 431 patients, 287 were randomly assigned to talazoparib and 144 to PCT. Prespecified subgroup analyses showed prolonged progression-free survival with talazoparib (HR+/HER2-: hazard ratio = 0.47, 95% confidence interval = 0.32 to 0.71; TNBC: hazard ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval = 0.41 to 0.87) and greater objective response rate (odds ratio = 1.97 to 11.89), clinical benefit rate (odds ratio = 2.05 to 7.77), and duration of response with talazoparib in all subgroups. PROs in HR+/HER2- and TNBC subgroups showed consistent overall improvement and delay in time to definitive clinically meaningful deterioration with talazoparib vs PCT. Across subgroups, common adverse events included anemia, fatigue, and nausea with talazoparib and neutropenia, fatigue, and nausea with PCT. Seven patients (2.4%) receiving talazoparib had grade II alopecia and 22.7% had grade I alopecia. Conclusions: Across all patient subgroups with gBRCA-mutated advanced breast cancer, talazoparib demonstrated clinically significant superiority in outcomes compared with PCT.

3.
Oncologist ; 25(3): e439-e450, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the EMBRACA phase III study (NCT01945775), talazoparib was associated with a significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) compared with physician's choice of chemotherapy (PCT) in germline BRCA1/2-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). Herein, the safety profile of talazoparib is explored in detail. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 412 patients received ≥1 dose of talazoparib (n = 286) or PCT (n = 126). Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated, including timing, duration, and potential overlap of selected AEs. The relationship between talazoparib plasma exposure and grade ≥3 anemia was analyzed. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard models assessed the impact of dose reductions on PFS. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with common AEs and health resource utilization (HRU) were assessed in both treatment arms. RESULTS: The most common AEs with talazoparib were hematologic (195 [68.2%] patients) and typically occurred within the first 3-4 months of receiving talazoparib. Grade 3-4 anemia lasted approximately 7 days for both arms. Overlapping grade 3-4 hematologic AEs were infrequent with talazoparib. Higher talazoparib exposure was associated with grade ≥3 anemia. Permanent discontinuation of talazoparib due to hematologic AEs was low (<2%). A total of 150 (52.4%) patients receiving talazoparib had AEs associated with dose reduction. Hematologic toxicities were managed by supportive care medication (including transfusion) and dose modifications. Among patients with anemia or nausea and/or vomiting AEs, PROs favored talazoparib. After accounting for the treatment-emergent period, talazoparib was generally associated with a lower rate of hospitalization and supportive care medication use compared with chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Talazoparib was associated with superior efficacy, favorable PROs, and lower HRU rate versus chemotherapy in gBRCA-mutated ABC. Toxicities were manageable with talazoparib dose modification and supportive care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Talazoparib was generally well tolerated in patients with germline BRCA-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in the EMBRACA trial. Common toxicities with talazoparib were primarily hematologic and infrequently resulted in permanent drug discontinuation (<2% of patients discontinued talazoparib due to hematologic toxicity). Hematologic toxicities typically occurred during the first 3-4 months of treatment and were managed by dose modifications and supportive care measures. A significant efficacy benefit, improved patient-reported outcomes, lower rate of health resource utilization and a tolerable safety profile support incorporating talazoparib into routine management of germline BRCA-mutated locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

4.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 180(1): 219-226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975315

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Reports suggest that up to 50% of women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) do not complete the recommended 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). We examined the impact of an outreach program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) on adherence and discontinuation of AET among patients who initiated AET. METHODS: We assembled a retrospective cohort of all KPNC patients diagnosed with HR+, stage I-III BC initiating AET before (n = 4287) and after (n = 3580) implementation of the outreach program. We compared adherence proportions and discontinuation rates before and after program implementation, both crude and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, and stage. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from six Cancer Research Network (CRN) sites that had not implemented programs for improving AET adherence, using identical methods and time periods, to assess possible secular trends. RESULTS: In the pre-outreach period, estimated adherence in years 1, 2, and 3 following AET initiation was 75.2%, 71.0%, and 67.3%; following the outreach program, the estimates were 79.4%, 75.6%, and 72.2% (p-values < .0001 for pairwise comparisons). Results were comparable after adjusting for clinical and demographic factors. The estimated cumulative incidence of discontinuation was 0.22 (0.21-0.24) and 0.18 (0.17-0.19) at 3 years for pre- and post-outreach groups (p-value < .0001). We found no evidence of an increase in adherence between the study periods at the CRN sites with no AET adherence program. CONCLUSION: Adherence and discontinuation after AET initiation improved modestly following implementation of the outreach program.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , California/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Melhoria de Qualidade , Programas Médicos Regionais , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(5): 444-453, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821109

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adjuvant trastuzumab reduces invasive breast cancer (IBC) recurrence and risk for death in patients with HER2-amplified or overexpressing IBC. A subset of patients in the landmark trastuzumab adjuvant trials who originally tested HER2-positive but were HER2-negative by central HER2 testing appeared to possibly benefit from trastuzumab. The objective for the NSABP B-47 trial was to determine whether the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy (CRx) would improve invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) in patients with HER2-negative breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 3,270 women with high-risk primary IBC were randomly assigned to CRx with or without 1 year of trastuzumab. Eligibility criteria included immunohistochemistry (IHC) score 1+ or 2+ with fluorescence in situ hybridization ratio (FISH) < 2.0 or, if ratio was not performed, HER2 gene copy number < 4.0. CRx was either docetaxel plus cyclophosphamide or doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel for 12 weeks. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 46 months, the addition of trastuzumab to CRx did not improve IDFS (5-year IDFS: 89.8% with CRx plus trastuzumab [CRxT] v 89.2% with CRx alone; hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.25; P = .85). These findings did not differ by level of HER2 IHC expression, lymph node involvement, or hormone-receptor status. For distant recurrence-free interval, 5-year estimates were 92.7% with CRxT compared with 93.6% for CRx alone (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.50; P = .55) and for overall survival (OS) were 94.8% with CRxT and 96.3% in CRx alone (HR, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.95; P = .15). There were no unexpected toxicities from the addition of trastuzumab to CRx. CONCLUSION: The addition of trastuzumab to CRx did not improve IDFS, distant recurrence-free interval, or OS in women with non-HER2-overexpressing IBC. Trastuzumab does not benefit women without IHC 3+ or FISH ratio-amplified breast cancer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor ErbB-2/biossíntese , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Fatores de Risco , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem
6.
Oncologist ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the EMBRACA phase III study (NCT01945775), talazoparib was associated with a significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) compared with physician's choice of chemotherapy (PCT) in germline BRCA1/2-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer (ABC). Herein, the safety profile of talazoparib is explored in detail. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Overall, 412 patients received ≥1 dose of talazoparib (n = 286) or PCT (n = 126). Adverse events (AEs) were evaluated, including timing, duration, and potential overlap of selected AEs. The relationship between talazoparib plasma exposure and grade ≥3 anemia was analyzed. Time-varying Cox proportional hazard models assessed the impact of dose reductions on PFS. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with common AEs and health resource utilization (HRU) were assessed in both treatment arms. RESULTS: The most common AEs with talazoparib were hematologic (195 [68.2%] patients) and typically occurred within the first 3-4 months of receiving talazoparib. Grade 3-4 anemia lasted approximately 7 days for both arms. Overlapping grade 3-4 hematologic AEs were infrequent with talazoparib. Higher talazoparib exposure was associated with grade ≥3 anemia. Permanent discontinuation of talazoparib due to hematologic AEs was low (<2%). A total of 150 (52.4%) patients receiving talazoparib had AEs associated with dose reduction. Hematologic toxicities were managed by supportive care medication (including transfusion) and dose modifications. Among patients with anemia or nausea and/or vomiting AEs, PROs favored talazoparib. After accounting for the treatment-emergent period, talazoparib was generally associated with a lower rate of hospitalization and supportive care medication use compared with chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Talazoparib was associated with superior efficacy, favorable PROs, and lower HRU rate versus chemotherapy in gBRCA-mutated ABC. Toxicities were manageable with talazoparib dose modification and supportive care. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Talazoparib was generally well tolerated in patients with germline BRCA-mutated HER2-negative advanced breast cancer in the EMBRACA trial. Common toxicities with talazoparib were primarily hematologic and infrequently resulted in permanent drug discontinuation (<2% of patients discontinued talazoparib due to hematologic toxicity). Hematologic toxicities typically occurred during the first 3-4 months of treatment and were managed by dose modifications and supportive care measures. A significant efficacy benefit, improved patient-reported outcomes, lower rate of health resource utilization and a tolerable safety profile support incorporating talazoparib into routine management of germline BRCA-mutated locally advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

7.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(8): 867-871, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888406

RESUMO

We retrospectively assessed association of stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) with clinical outcomes and molecular variables reportedly predictive of trastuzumab-benefit in National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-31 (N = 2130). sTILs were assessed in 1581 eligible B-31 cases utilizing all available hematoxylin and eosin slides. Mean concordance between main reviewer and six other pathologists was 90.8% in 100 cases. Cox regressions were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). In chemotherapy and trastuzumab added to chemotherapy arms, increases in sTILs, as a semicontinuous variable (combined arms HR = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.27 to 0.64, two-sided P < .001) or as lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer with more than 50% sTILs (combined arms HR = 0.65, 95% confidence interval = 0.49 to 0.86, two-sided P = .003) were statistically significantly associated with improved disease-free survival. There was no association of sTILs with trastuzumab benefit. However, higher sTILs were statistically significantly associated with higher trastuzumab benefit groups by 8-gene prediction model (two-sided P < .001). Neither PIK3CA mutations nor Fc-gamma-receptor polymorphisms were associated with sTILs. sTILs may have utility as a prognostic biomarker identifying HER2-positive early breast cancer at low recurrence risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de IgG/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/patologia , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico
8.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(1): 88-99, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30509771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of extended therapy with aromatase inhibitors in patients with postmenopausal breast cancer is unknown. In the NSABP B-42 study, we aimed to determine whether extended letrozole treatment improves disease-free survival after 5 years of aromatase inhibitor-based therapy in women with postmenopausal breast cancer. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was done in 158 centres in the USA, Canada, and Ireland. Postmenopausal women with stage I-IIIA hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, who were disease-free after about 5 years of treatment with an aromatase inhibitor or tamoxifen followed by an aromatase inhibitor, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 5 years of letrozole (2·5 mg orally per day) or placebo. Randomisation was stratified by pathological node status, previous tamoxifen use, and lowest bone mineral density T score in the lumbosacral spine, total hip, or femoral neck. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival, defined as time from randomisation to breast cancer recurrence, second primary malignancy, or death, and was analysed by intention to treat. To adjust for previous interim analyses, the two-sided statistical significance level for disease-free survival was set at 0·0418. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00382070, is active, and is no longer enrolling patients. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2006, and Jan 6, 2010, 3966 patients were randomly assigned to receive letrozole (n=1983) or placebo (n=1983). Follow-up information was available for 3903 patients for the analyses of disease-free survival. Median follow-up was 6·9 years (IQR 6·1-7·5). Letrozole treatment did not significantly improve disease-free survival (339 disease-free survival events were reported in the placebo group and 292 disease-free survival events were reported in the letrozole group; hazard ratio 0·85, 95% CI 0·73-0·999; p=0·048). 7-year disease-free survival estimate was 81·3% (95% CI 79·3-83·1) in the placebo group and 84·7% (82·9-86·4) in the letrozole group. The most common grade 3 adverse events were arthralgia (47 [2%] of 1933 patients in the placebo group vs 50 [3%] of 1941 patients in the letrozole group) and back pain (44 [2%] vs 38 [2%]). The most common grade 4 adverse event in the placebo group was thromboembolic event (eight [<1%]) and the most common grade 4 adverse events in the letrozole group were urinary tract infection, hypokalaemia, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (four [<1%] each). INTERPRETATION: After 5 years of aromatase inhibitor-based therapy, 5 years of letrozole therapy did not significantly prolong disease-free survival compared with placebo. Careful assessment of potential risks and benefits is required before recommending extended letrozole therapy to patients with early-stage breast cancer. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute, Korea Health Technology R&D Project, Novartis.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Letrozol/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pós-Menopausa , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico
9.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(32): 3259-3268, 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212295

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide evidence-based consensus recommendations on choice of end points for clinical trials in metastatic breast cancer, with a focus on biologic subtype and line of therapy. METHODS: The National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Steering Committee convened a working group of breast medical oncologists, patient advocates, biostatisticians, and liaisons from the Food and Drug Administration to conduct a detailed curated systematic review of the literature, including original reports, reviews, and meta-analyses, to determine the current landscape of therapeutic options, recent clinical trial data, and natural history of four biologic subtypes of breast cancer. Ongoing clinical trials for metastatic breast cancer in each subtype also were reviewed from ClinicalTrials.gov for planned primary end points. External input was obtained from the pharmaceutic/biotechnology industry, real-world clinical data specialists, experts in quality of life and patient-reported outcomes, and combined metrics for assessing magnitude of clinical benefit. RESULTS: The literature search yielded 146 publications to inform the recommendations from the working group. CONCLUSION: Recommendations for appropriate end points for metastatic breast cancer clinical trials focus on biologic subtype and line of therapy and the magnitude of absolute and relative gains that would represent meaningful clinical benefit.

10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(12): 1906-1918, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217492

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cancer immunotherapy may alter tumor biology such that treatment effects can extend beyond radiographic progression. In the randomized, phase III OAK study of atezolizumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1) versus docetaxel in advanced NSCLC, overall survival (OS) benefit with atezolizumab was observed in the overall patient population, without improvement in objective response rate (ORR) or progression-free survival (PFS). We examine the benefit-risk of atezolizumab treatment beyond progression (TBP). METHODS: Eight hundred fifty patients included in the OAK primary efficacy analysis were evaluated. Atezolizumab was continued until loss of clinical benefit. Docetaxel was administered until Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1) disease progression (PD)/unacceptable toxicity; no crossover to atezolizumab was allowed. ORR, PFS, post-PD OS, target lesion change, and safety were evaluated. RESULTS: In atezolizumab-arm patients, ORR was 16% versus 14% and median PFS was 4.2 versus 2.8 months per immune-modified RECIST versus RECIST v1.1. The median post-PD OS was 12.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.3-14.9) in 168 atezolizumab-arm patients continuing TBP, 8.8 months (95% CI: 6.0-12.1) in 94 patients switching to nonprotocol therapy, and 2.2 months (95% CI: 1.9-3.4) in 70 patients receiving no further therapy. Of the atezolizumab TBP patients, 7% achieved a post-progression response in target lesions and 49% had stable target lesions. Atezolizumab TBP was not associated with increased safety risks. CONCLUSIONS: Within the limitations of this retrospective analysis, the post-PD efficacy and safety data from OAK are consistent with a positive benefit-risk profile of atezolizumab TBP in patients performing well clinically at the time of PD.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
11.
N Engl J Med ; 379(8): 753-763, 2018 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) inhibitor talazoparib has shown antitumor activity in patients with advanced breast cancer and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ( BRCA1/2). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial in which patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation were assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive talazoparib (1 mg once daily) or standard single-agent therapy of the physician's choice (capecitabine, eribulin, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine in continuous 21-day cycles). The primary end point was progression-free survival, which was assessed by blinded independent central review. RESULTS: Of the 431 patients who underwent randomization, 287 were assigned to receive talazoparib and 144 were assigned to receive standard therapy. Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the talazoparib group than in the standard-therapy group (8.6 months vs. 5.6 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.71; P<0.001). The interim median hazard ratio for death was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.55 to 1.06; P=0.11 [57% of projected events]). The objective response rate was higher in the talazoparib group than in the standard-therapy group (62.6% vs. 27.2%; odds ratio, 5.0; 95% CI, 2.9 to 8.8; P<0.001). Hematologic grade 3-4 adverse events (primarily anemia) occurred in 55% of the patients who received talazoparib and in 38% of the patients who received standard therapy; nonhematologic grade 3 adverse events occurred in 32% and 38% of the patients, respectively. Patient-reported outcomes favored talazoparib; significant overall improvements and significant delays in the time to clinically meaningful deterioration according to both the global health status-quality-of-life and breast symptoms scales were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation, single-agent talazoparib provided a significant benefit over standard chemotherapy with respect to progression-free survival. Patient-reported outcomes were superior with talazoparib. (Funded by Medivation [Pfizer]; EMBRACA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01945775 .).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Ftalazinas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
Nat Med ; 24(9): 1441-1448, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082870

RESUMO

Although programmed death-ligand 1-programmed death 1 (PD-L1-PD-1) inhibitors are broadly efficacious, improved outcomes have been observed in patients with high PD-L1 expression or high tumor mutational burden (TMB). PD-L1 testing is required for checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy in front-line non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, obtaining adequate tumor tissue for molecular testing in patients with advanced disease can be challenging. Thus, an unmet medical need exists for diagnostic approaches that do not require tissue to identify patients who may benefit from immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel, technically robust, blood-based assay to measure TMB in plasma (bTMB) that is distinct from tissue-based approaches. Using a retrospective analysis of two large randomized trials as test and validation studies, we show that bTMB reproducibly identifies patients who derive clinically significant improvements in progression-free survival from atezolizumab (an anti-PD-L1) in second-line and higher NSCLC. Collectively, our data show that high bTMB is a clinically actionable biomarker for atezolizumab in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mutação/genética , Carga Tumoral/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Thorac Oncol ; 13(8): 1156-1170, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777823

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy and safety of atezolizumab versus the efficacy and safety of docetaxel as second- or third-line treatment in patients with advanced NSCLC in the primary (n = 850) and secondary (n = 1225) efficacy populations of the randomized phase III OAK study (respectively referred to as the intention-to-treat [ITT] 850 [ITT850] and ITT1225) at an updated data cutoff were assessed. METHODS: Patients received atezolizumab, 1200 mg, or docetaxel, 75 mg/m2, intravenously every 3 weeks until loss of clinical benefit or disease progression, respectively. The primary end point was overall survival (OS) in the ITT population and programmed death-ligand 1-expressing subgroup. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of subsequent immunotherapy use in the docetaxel arm on the observed survival benefit with atezolizumab. RESULTS: Atezolizumab demonstrated an OS benefit versus docetaxel in the updated ITT850 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.89, p = 0.0006) and the ITT1225 (HR = 0.80, 95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.92, p = 0.0012) after minimum follow-up times of 26 and 21 months, respectively. Improved survival with atezolizumab was observed across programmed death-ligand 1 and histological subgroups. In the immunotherapy sensitivity analysis, the relative OS benefit with atezolizumab was slightly greater in the ITT850 (HR = 0.69) and ITT1225 (HR = 0.74) than the conventional OS estimate. Fewer patients receiving atezolizumab experienced grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events (14.9%) than did patients receiving docetaxel (42.4%); no grade 5 adverse events related to atezolizumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the updated ITT850 and initial ITT1225 analyses were consistent with those of the primary efficacy analysis demonstrating survival benefit with atezolizumab versus with docetaxel. Atezolizumab continued to demonstrate a favorable safety profile after longer treatment exposure and follow-up.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(6): 669-676, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29361042

RESUMO

Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and disabling side effect of taxanes. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) was unexpectedly found to increase CIPN in a randomized trial. We investigated the long-term patterns of CIPN among patients in this trial. Methods: S0715 was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing ALC (1000 mg three times a day) with placebo for 24 weeks in women undergoing adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer. CIPN was measured by the 11-item neurotoxicity (NTX) component of the FACT-Taxane scale at weeks 12, 24, 36, 52, and 104. We examined NTX scores over two years using linear mixed models for longitudinal data. Individual time points were examined using linear regression. Regression analyses included stratification factors and the baseline score as covariates. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Four-hundred nine subjects were eligible for evaluation. Patients receiving ALC had a statistically significantly (P = .01) greater reduction in NTX scores (worse CIPN) of -1.39 points (95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.48 to -0.30) than the placebo group. These differences were particularly evident at weeks 24 (-1.68, 95% CI = -3.02 to -0.33), 36 (-1.37, 95% CI = -2.69 to -0.04), and 52 (-1.83, 95% CI = -3.35 to -0.32). At 104 weeks, 39.5% on the ALC arm and 34.4% on the placebo arm reported a five-point (10%) decrease from baseline. For both treatment groups, 104-week NTX scores were statistically significantly different compared with baseline (P < .001). Conclusions: For both groups, NTX scores were reduced from baseline and remained persistently low. Twenty-four weeks of ALC therapy resulted in statistically significantly worse CIPN over two years. Understanding the mechanism of this persistent effect may inform prevention and treatment strategies. Until then, the potential efficacy and harms of commonly used supplements should be rigorously studied.


Assuntos
Acetilcarnitina/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/prevenção & controle , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Suplementos Nutricionais , Docetaxel/administração & dosagem , Docetaxel/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/epidemiologia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Placebos , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(2)2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954297

RESUMO

Background: The long-term effects of chemotherapy are sparsely reported. Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is one of the most frequent toxicities associated with taxane use for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. We investigated the impact of the three different docetaxel-based regimens and patient characteristics on long-term, patient-reported outcomes of PN and the impact of PN on long-term quality of life (QOL). Methods: The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-30 was a randomized trial comparing sequential doxorubicin (A) and cyclophosphamide (C) followed by docetaxel (T) (AC→T), concurrent ACT, or AT in women with node-positive, early-stage breast cancer. The AC→T group had a higher cumulative dose of T. PN was one of the symptoms assessed in a QOL substudy. Statistical methods included simple and mixed ordinal logistic regression and general linear models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Of 1512 patients, 41.9% reported PN two years after treatment initiation. Treatment with AT and ACT was associated with less severe long-term PN compared with AC→T (odds ratio [OR] = 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.58; OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.46 to 0.75). Preexisting PN, older age, obesity, mastectomy, and greater number of positive nodes were also associated with higher risk of long-term PN. Patients who reported worse PN symptoms at 24 months had statistically significantly worse QOL (Ptrend < .001). Conclusions: The administration of docetaxel is associated with long-term PN. The lower rate of long-term PN in AT and ACT patients might be an important consideration in supporting choosing these therapies for individuals with preexisting neuropathic symptoms or other risk factors for neuropathy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Periférico/induzido quimicamente , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Docetaxel , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/efeitos adversos
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(4): 326-332, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136387

RESUMO

Purpose Adherence to aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy for early-stage breast cancer is limited by AI-associated musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS). Duloxetine is US Food and Drug Administration approved for treatment of multiple chronic pain disorders. We hypothesized that treatment of AIMSS with duloxetine would improve average joint pain compared with placebo. Methods This randomized, double-blind, phase III trial included AI-treated postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer and who had average joint pain score of ≥ 4 out of 10 that developed or worsened since AI therapy initiation. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to duloxetine or placebo for 13 weeks. The primary end point was average joint pain through 12 weeks, examined using multivariable linear mixed models, adjusted for stratification factors (baseline pain score of 4 to 6 v 7 to 10 and prior taxane use). Clinically significant change in average pain was defined as a ≥ 2-point decrease from baseline. Results Of 299 enrolled patients, 127 patients treated with duloxetine and 128 who received placebo were evaluable for the primary analysis. By 12 weeks, the average joint pain score was 0.82 points lower for patients who received duloxetine compared with those who received placebo (95% CI, -1.24 to -0.40; P = .0002). Similar patterns were observed for worst joint pain, joint stiffness, pain interference, and functioning. Rates of adverse events of any grade were higher in the duloxetine-treated group (78% v 50%); rates of grade 3 adverse events were similar. Conclusion Results of treatment with duloxetine for AIMSS were superior to those of placebo among women with early-stage breast cancer, although it resulted in more frequent low-grade toxicities.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Artralgia/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Artralgia/induzido quimicamente , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Medição da Dor , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
17.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(35): 3942-3948, 2017 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29072977

RESUMO

Purpose Early cardiac toxicity is a risk associated with adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. However, objective measures of cardiac function and health-related quality of life are lacking in long-term follow-up of patients who remain cancer free after completion of adjuvant treatment. Patients and Methods Patients in NSABP Protocol B-31 received anthracycline and taxane chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab for adjuvant treatment of node-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive early-stage breast cancer. A long-term follow-up assessment was undertaken for patients who were alive and disease free, which included measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction by multigated acquisition scan along with patient-reported outcomes using the Duke Activity Status Index (DASI), the Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire, and a review of current medications and comorbid conditions. Results At a median follow-up of 8.8 years among eligible participants, five (4.5%) of 110 in the control group and 10 (3.4%) of 297 in the trastuzumab group had a > 10% decline in left ventricular ejection fraction from baseline to a value < 50%. Lower DASI scores correlated with age and use of medications for hypertension, cardiac conditions, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, but not with whether patients had received trastuzumab. Conclusion In patients without underlying cardiac disease at baseline, the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy does not result in long-term worsening of cardiac function, cardiac symptoms, or health-related quality of life. The DASI questionnaire may provide a simple and useful tool for monitoring patient-reported changes that reflect cardiac function.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Receptor ErbB-2/biossíntese , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Trastuzumab/administração & dosagem , Trastuzumab/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(33): 3753-3759, 2017 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968172

RESUMO

Purpose Patients with organ dysfunction, prior or concurrent malignancies, and comorbidities are often excluded from clinical trials. Excluding patients on the basis of these factors results in clinical trial participants who are healthier and younger than the overall population of patients with cancer. Methods ASCO and Friends of Cancer Research established a multidisciplinary working group that included experts in trial design and conduct to examine how eligibility criteria could be more inclusive. The group analyzed current eligibility criteria; conducted original data analysis; considered safety concerns, potential benefits, research, and potential hurdles of this approach through discussion; and reached consensus on recommendations regarding updated eligibility criteria that prioritize inclusiveness without compromising patient safety. Results If renal toxicity and clearance are not of direct treatment-related concern, then patients with lower creatinine clearance values of > 30 mL/min should be included in trials. Inclusion of patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction may be possible when the totality of the available nonclinical and clinical data indicates that inclusion is safe. Ejection fraction values should be used with investigator assessment of a patient's risk for heart failure to determine eligibility. Patients with laboratory parameters out of normal range as a result of hematologic disease should be included in trials. Measures of patient functional status should be included in trials to better assess fit versus frail patients. Conclusion Expanding inclusion of these patients will increase the number and diversity of patients in clinical trials and result in a more appropriate population of patients.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Definição da Elegibilidade/métodos , Oncologia/métodos , Comorbidade , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(23): 2647-2655, 2017 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398846

RESUMO

Purpose Docetaxel and cyclophosphamide (TC) was superior to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) in a trial in early breast cancer. However, activity of TC relative to AC regimens with a taxane (TaxAC) is unknown. Methods In a series of three adjuvant trials, women were randomly assigned to TC for six cycles (TC6) or to a standard TaxAC regimen. US Oncology Research (USOR) 06-090 compared TC6 with docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (TAC6). National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-46-I/USOR 07132 compared TC6, TAC6, or TC6 plus bevacizumab. NSABP B-49 compared TC6 with several standard AC and taxane combination regimens. Before any analysis of individual trials, a joint efficacy analysis of TC versus the TaxAC regimens was planned, with invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) as the primary end point. Patients who received TC6 plus bevacizumab on NSABP B-46-I/USOR 07132 were not included. A hazard ratio (HR) from a stratified Cox model that exceeded 1.18 for TC6 versus TaxAC was predefined as inferiority for TC6. The prespecified interim monitoring plan was to report for futility if the HR was > 1.18 when 334 IDFS events were observed (50% of 668 events required for definitive analysis). Results A total of 2,125 patients were randomly assigned to receive TC6 regimens and 2,117 patients were randomly assigned to receive TaxAC regimens. The median follow-up time was 3.3 years. There were 334 IDFS events, and the HR for TC6 versus TaxAC was 1.202 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.49), which triggered early reporting for futility. The 4-year IDFS was 88.2% for TC6 and was 90.7% for TaxAC ( P = .04). Tests for treatment interaction by protocol, hormone receptor status, and nodal status were negative. Conclusion The TaxAC regimens improved IDFS in patients with high-risk human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer compared with the TC6 regimen.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/terapia , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/terapia , Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/química , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/secundário , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/química , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/análise , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Receptores de Progesterona/análise , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
20.
J Cancer Surviv ; 11(1): 111-118, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27562475

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQL) in long-term survivors (LTS) of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Long-term CRC survivors (≥5 years) treated in previous National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trials were recruited from 60 sites. After obtaining consent, a telephone survey was administered, which included HRQL instruments to measure physical health (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living [IADL], SF-12 Physical Component Scale [PCS], SF-36 Vitality Scale), mental health (SF-12 Mental Component Scale [MCS], Life Orientation Test, and Impact of Cancer), and clinical symptoms (Fatigue Symptom Inventory [FSI], European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Colorectal Module [EORTC-CR38], and Brief Pain Inventory). A multivariable model identified predictors of overall quality of life (global health rating). RESULTS: Participants (N = 708) had significantly higher HRQL compared with age group-matched non-cancer controls with higher mean scores on SF-12 PCS (49.5 vs. 43.7, p = <0.05), MCS (55.6 vs. 52.1, p = <0.05), and SF-36 Vitality Scale (67.1 vs. 59.9, p = <0.05). Multivariable modeling has demonstrated that better overall physical and mental health (PCS and MCS), positive body image (EORTC-CR38 scale), and less fatigue (FSI), were strongly associated with overall quality of life as measured by the global health rating. Interestingly, ability to perform IADLs, experience of cancer, gastrointestinal complaints, and pain, were not important predictors. CONCLUSIONS: In long-term CRC survivors, overall physical and mental health was excellent compared with general population. Other disease-related symptoms did not detract from good overall health. IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: LTS of CRC within the setting of a clinical trial have higher HRQL than the general population, and treatment regimens do not appear to be associated with any significant late effects on quality of life. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NSABP LTS-01: NCT00410579.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Humanos , Masculino
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