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1.
Phys Rev E ; 106(2-1): 024105, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109948

RESUMO

The Curzon-Ahlborn (CA) efficiency, as the efficiency at the maximum power (EMP) of the endoreversible Carnot engine, has significant impact on finite-time thermodynamics. However, the CA engine is based on many assumptions. In the past few decades, although a lot of efforts have been made, a microscopic theory of the CA engine is still lacking. By adopting the method of the stochastic differential equation of energy, we formulate a microscopic theory of the CA engine realized with a highly underdamped Brownian particle in a class of nonharmonic potentials. This theory gives microscopic interpretation of all assumptions made by Curzon and Ahlborn. In other words, we find a microscopic counterpart of the CA engine in stochastic thermodynamics. Also, based on this theory, we derive the explicit expression of the protocol associated with the maximum power for any given efficiency, and we obtain analytical results of the power and the efficiency statistics for the Brownian CA engine. Our research brings new perspectives to experimental studies of finite-time microscopic heat engines featured with fluctuations.

2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(24): 240603, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639826

RESUMO

The calculation of work distributions in a quantum many-body system is of significant importance and also of formidable difficulty in the field of nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. To solve this problem, inspired by the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism, we propose the contour-integral formulation for work statistics. Based on this contour integral, we show how to do the perturbation expansion of the characteristic function of work (CFW) and obtain the approximate expression of the CFW to the second order of the work parameter for an arbitrary system under a perturbative protocol. We also demonstrate the validity of fluctuation theorems by utilizing the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger condition. Finally, we use noninteracting identical particles in a forced harmonic potential as an example to demonstrate the powerfulness of our approach.

3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(17): 170603, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412269

RESUMO

We investigate the statistics of the work performed during a quench across a quantum phase transition using the adiabatic perturbation theory when the system is characterized by independent quasiparticles and the "single-excitation" approximation is assumed. It is shown that all the cumulants of work exhibit universal scaling behavior analogous to the Kibble-Zurek scaling for the average density of defects. Two kinds of transformations are considered: quenches between two gapped phases in which a critical point is traversed, and quenches that end near the critical point. In contrast to the scaling behavior of the density of defects, the scaling behavior of the cumulants of work are shown to be qualitatively different for these two kinds of quenches. However, in both cases the corresponding exponents are fully determined by the dimension of the system and the critical exponents of the transition, as in the traditional Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM). Thus, our study deepens our understanding about the nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum phase transition by revealing the imprint of the KZM on the work statistics.

4.
Phys Rev E ; 101(3-1): 032113, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289969

RESUMO

Entropy is one of the most basic concepts in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The most widely used definition of statistical mechanical entropy for a quantum system is introduced by von Neumann. While in classical systems, the statistical mechanical entropy is defined by Gibbs. The relation between these two definitions of entropy is still not fully explored. In this work, we study this problem by employing the phase-space formulation of quantum mechanics. For those quantum states having well-defined classical counterparts, we study the quantum-classical correspondence and quantum corrections of the entropy. We expand the von Neumann entropy in powers of ℏ by using the phase-space formulation, and the zeroth-order term reproduces the Gibbs entropy. We also obtain the explicit expression of the quantum corrections of the entropy. Moreover, we find that for the thermodynamic equilibrium state, all terms odd in ℏ are exactly zero. As an application, we derive quantum corrections for the net work extraction during a quantum Carnot cycle. Our results bring important insights into the understanding of quantum entropy and may have potential applications in the study of quantum heat engines.

5.
Phys Rev E ; 101(3-1): 032111, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290008

RESUMO

Work statistics characterizes important features of a nonequilibrium thermodynamic process, but the calculation of the work statistics in an arbitrary nonequilibrium process is usually a cumbersome task. In this work, we study the work statistics in quantum systems by employing Feynman's path-integral approach. We derive the analytical work distributions of two prototype quantum systems. The results are proved to be equivalent to the results obtained based on Schrödinger's formalism. We also calculate the work distributions in their classical counterparts by employing the path-integral approach. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of the path-integral approach for the calculation of work statistics in both quantum and classical thermodynamics, and brings important insights to the understanding of the trajectory work in quantum systems.

6.
Phys Rev E ; 98(1-1): 012132, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30110842

RESUMO

We investigate quantum corrections to the classical work characteristic function (CF) as a semiclassical approximation to the full quantum work CF. In addition to explicitly establishing the quantum-classical correspondence of the Feynman-Kac formula, we find that these quantum corrections must be in even powers of ℏ. Exact formulas of the lowest corrections (ℏ^{2}) are proposed, and their physical origins are clarified. We calculate the work CFs for a forced harmonic oscillator and a forced quartic oscillator respectively to illustrate our results.

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