Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 50
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398922

RESUMO

The application of ketogenic diet (KD) (high fat/low carbohydrate/adequate protein) as an auxiliary cancer therapy is a field of growing attention. KD provides sufficient energy supply for healthy cells, while possibly impairing energy production in highly glycolytic tumor cells. Moreover, KD regulates insulin and tumor related growth factors (like insulin growth factor-1, IGF-1). In order to provide molecular evidence for the proposed additional inhibition of tumor growth when combining chemotherapy with KD, we applied untargeted quantitative metabolome analysis on a spontaneous breast cancer xenograft mouse model, using MDA-MB-468 cells. Healthy mice and mice bearing breast cancer xenografts and receiving cyclophosphamide chemotherapy were compared after treatment with control diet and KD. Metabolomic profiling was performed on plasma samples, applying high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis revealed metabolic fingerprints comprising numerous significantly regulated features in the group of mice bearing breast cancer. This fingerprint disappeared after treatment with KD, resulting in recovery to the metabolic status observed in healthy mice receiving control diet. Moreover, amino acid metabolism as well as fatty acid transport were found to be affected by both the tumor and the applied KD. Our results provide clear evidence of a significant molecular effect of adjuvant KD in the context of tumor growth inhibition and suggest additional mechanisms of tumor suppression beyond the proposed constrain in energy supply of tumor cells.

2.
Mol Metab ; 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide, and we still lack complementary approaches to significantly enhance the efficacy of standard anticancer therapies. The ketogenic diet, a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet with adequate amounts of protein, appears to sensitize most cancers to standard treatment by exploiting the reprogramed metabolism of cancer cells, making the diet a promising candidate as an adjuvant cancer therapy. SCOPE OF REVIEW: To critically evaluate available preclinical and clinical evidence regarding the ketogenic diet in the context of cancer therapy. Furthermore, we highlight important mechanisms that could explain the potential antitumor effects of the ketogenic diet. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: The ketogenic diet probably creates an unfavorable metabolic environment for cancer cells and thus can be regarded as a promising adjuvant as a patient-specific multifactorial therapy. The majority of preclinical and several clinical studies argue for the use of the ketogenic diet in combination with standard therapies based on its potential to enhance the antitumor effects of classic chemo- and radiotherapy, its overall good safety and tolerability and increase in quality of life. However, to further elucidate the mechanisms of the ketogenic diet as a therapy and evaluate its application in clinical practice, more molecular studies as well as uniformly controlled clinical trials are needed.

3.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2521-2531, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration rely on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Specific transcription factors, particularly PAX7, are key regulators of the function of these cells. Knockout of this factor in mice leads to poor postnatal survival; however, the consequences of a lack of PAX7 in humans have not been established. METHODS: Here, we study five individuals with myopathy of variable severity from four unrelated consanguineous couples. Exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in the PAX7 gene. Clinical examination, laboratory tests, and muscle biopsies were performed to characterize the disease. RESULTS: The disease was characterized by hypotonia, ptosis, muscular atrophy, scoliosis, and mildly dysmorphic facial features. The disease spectrum ranged from mild to severe and appears to be progressive. Muscle biopsies showed the presence of atrophic fibers and fibroadipose tissue replacement, with the absence of myofiber necrosis. A lack of PAX7 expression was associated with satellite cell pool exhaustion; however, the presence of residual myoblasts together with regenerating myofibers suggest that a population of PAX7-independent myogenic cells partially contributes to muscle regeneration. CONCLUSION: These findings show that biallelic variants in the master transcription factor PAX7 cause a new type of myopathy that specifically affects satellite cell survival.

4.
Semin Cell Dev Biol ; 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145995

RESUMO

Although we have entered the era of personalized medicine and tailored therapies, drugs that target a large variety of cancers regardless of individual patient differences would be a major advance nonetheless. This review article summarizes current concepts and therapeutic opportunities in the area of targeting aerobic mitochondrial energy metabolism in cancer. Old drugs previously used for diseases other than cancer, such as antibiotics and antidiabetics, have the potential to inhibit the growth of various tumor entities. Many drugs are reported to influence mitochondrial metabolism. However, here we consider only those drugs which predominantly inhibit oxidative phosphorylation.

5.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 68(1): e1-e6, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30589726

RESUMO

Mutations in the nuclear gene DGUOK, encoding deoxyguanosine kinase, cause an infantile hepatocerebral type of mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS). We report 6 MDS patients harboring bi-allelic DGUOK mutations, of which 3 are novel, including a large intragenic Austrian founder deletion. One patient was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 6 months, supporting a link between mitochondrial DNA depletion and tumorigenesis; liver transplantation proved beneficial with regard to both tumor treatment and psychomotor development.

6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 1347174, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30538797

RESUMO

Switching of cellular energy production from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to aerobic glycolysis occurs in many types of tumors. However, the significance of energy metabolism for the development of prostate carcinoma is poorly understood. We investigated the expression of OXPHOS complexes in 94 human prostate carcinomas and paired benign tissue using immunohistochemistry. Overall mitochondrial mass was upregulated in carcinomas compared to benign prostate tissue in all Gleason grades. A significant direct correlation between the expression of OXPHOS complexes I, II, and V and the Gleason score was observed. However, 17% of prostate carcinomas and 18% of benign prostate tissues showed isolated or combined deficiency of OXPHOS complexes (one deficiency in 12% of the tumors, combined deficiencies in 5%). Complex I was absent in 9% of the samples, with only parts of the tumor affected. ATP5F1A, a complex V protein, was the most frequently affected subunit, in 10% of tumors and 11% of benign prostate tissues (but not both tissues in any single patient). A possible role of complex V in prostate cancer development is suggested by the significant positive correlation of ATP5F1A levels with earlier-onset prostate cancer (age at diagnosis and at prostatectomy) and free PSA percentage. The relatively high percentage (17%) of prostate carcinomas with regional foci of partial OXPHOS complex deficiencies could have important therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Idade de Início , Humanos , Masculino , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 817-825, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401461

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification used to regulate protein function. ADP-ribosyltransferases transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ to the target protein, and ADP-ribosylhydrolases, such as ADPRHL2, reverse the reaction. We used exome sequencing to identify five different bi-allelic pathogenic ADPRHL2 variants in 12 individuals from 8 families affected by a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting in childhood or adolescence with key clinical features including developmental delay or regression, seizures, ataxia, and axonal (sensori-)motor neuropathy. ADPRHL2 was virtually absent in available affected individuals' fibroblasts, and cell viability was reduced upon hydrogen peroxide exposure, although it was rescued by expression of wild-type ADPRHL2 mRNA as well as treatment with a PARP1 inhibitor. Our findings suggest impaired protein ribosylation as another pathway that, if disturbed, causes neurodegenerative diseases.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30234759

RESUMO

Mutations in the nuclear gene DGUOK, encoding deoxyguanosine kinase, cause an infantile hepatocerebral type of mitochondrial depletion syndrome (MDS). We report 6 MDS patients harboring bi-allelic DGUOK mutations, of which 3 are novel, including a large intragenic Austrian founder deletion. One patient was diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma aged 6mo, supporting a link between mitochondrial DNA depletion and tumorigenesis; liver transplantation proved beneficial with regard to both tumor treatment and psychomotor development.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 592-601, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245030

RESUMO

Isolated complex I deficiency is a common biochemical phenotype observed in pediatric mitochondrial disease and often arises as a consequence of pathogenic variants affecting one of the ∼65 genes encoding the complex I structural subunits or assembly factors. Such genetic heterogeneity means that application of next-generation sequencing technologies to undiagnosed cohorts has been a catalyst for genetic diagnosis and gene-disease associations. We describe the clinical and molecular genetic investigations of four unrelated children who presented with neuroradiological findings and/or elevated lactate levels, highly suggestive of an underlying mitochondrial diagnosis. Next-generation sequencing identified bi-allelic variants in NDUFA6, encoding a 15 kDa LYR-motif-containing complex I subunit that forms part of the Q-module. Functional investigations using subjects' fibroblast cell lines demonstrated complex I assembly defects, which were characterized in detail by mass-spectrometry-based complexome profiling. This confirmed a marked reduction in incorporated NDUFA6 and a concomitant reduction in other Q-module subunits, including NDUFAB1, NDUFA7, and NDUFA12. Lentiviral transduction of subjects' fibroblasts showed normalization of complex I. These data also support supercomplex formation, whereby the ∼830 kDa complex I intermediate (consisting of the P- and Q-modules) is in complex with assembled complex III and IV holoenzymes despite lacking the N-module. Interestingly, RNA-sequencing data provided evidence that the consensus RefSeq accession number does not correspond to the predominant transcript in clinically relevant tissues, prompting revision of the NDUFA6 RefSeq transcript and highlighting not only the importance of thorough variant interpretation but also the assessment of appropriate transcripts for analysis.

10.
Neuropediatrics ; 49(5): 330-338, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay have been considered the core clinical phenotype in patients with bi-allelic PRUNE1 mutations. METHODS: Linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a multiplex family and extraction of further cases from a WES repository containing 571 children with severe developmental disabilities and neurologic symptoms. RESULTS: We identified bi-allelic PRUNE1 mutations in twelve children from six unrelated families. All patients who survived beyond the first 6 months of life had early-onset global developmental delay, bilateral spastic paresis, dysphagia and difficult-to-treat seizures, while congenital or later-evolving microcephaly was not a consistent finding. Brain MRI showed variable anomalies with progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophies and T2-hyperintense brain stem lesions. Peripheral neuropathy was documented in five cases. Disease course was progressive in all patients and eight children died in the first or early second decade of life. In addition to the previously reported missense mutation p.(Asp106Asn), we observed a novel homozygous missense variant p.(Leu172Pro) and a homozygous contiguous gene deletion encompassing most of the PRUNE1 gene and part of the neighboring BNIPL gene. CONCLUSIONS: PRUNE1 deficiency causes severe early-onset disease affecting the central and peripheral nervous systems. Microcephaly is probably not a universal feature.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 494-504, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478781

RESUMO

ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, δ subunit (ATP5F1D; formerly ATP5D) is a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase and plays an important role in coupling proton translocation and ATP production. Here, we describe two individuals, each with homozygous missense variants in ATP5F1D, who presented with episodic lethargy, metabolic acidosis, 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, and hyperammonemia. Subject 1, homozygous for c.245C>T (p.Pro82Leu), presented with recurrent metabolic decompensation starting in the neonatal period, and subject 2, homozygous for c.317T>G (p.Val106Gly), presented with acute encephalopathy in childhood. Cultured skin fibroblasts from these individuals exhibited impaired assembly of F1FO ATP synthase and subsequent reduced complex V activity. Cells from subject 1 also exhibited a significant decrease in mitochondrial cristae. Knockdown of Drosophila ATPsynδ, the ATP5F1D homolog, in developing eyes and brains caused a near complete loss of the fly head, a phenotype that was fully rescued by wild-type human ATP5F1D. In contrast, expression of the ATP5F1D c.245C>T and c.317T>G variants rescued the head-size phenotype but recapitulated the eye and antennae defects seen in other genetic models of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation deficiency. Our data establish c.245C>T (p.Pro82Leu) and c.317T>G (p.Val106Gly) in ATP5F1D as pathogenic variants leading to a Mendelian mitochondrial disease featuring episodic metabolic decompensation.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(3): 460-467, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29429571

RESUMO

Respiratory chain complex I deficiency is the most frequently identified biochemical defect in childhood mitochondrial diseases. Clinical symptoms range from fatal infantile lactic acidosis to Leigh syndrome and other encephalomyopathies or cardiomyopathies. To date, disease-causing variants in genes coding for 27 complex I subunits, including 7 mitochondrial DNA genes, and in 11 genes encoding complex I assembly factors have been reported. Here, we describe rare biallelic variants in NDUFB8 encoding a complex I accessory subunit revealed by whole-exome sequencing in two individuals from two families. Both presented with a progressive course of disease with encephalo(cardio)myopathic features including muscular hypotonia, cardiac hypertrophy, respiratory failure, failure to thrive, and developmental delay. Blood lactate was elevated. Neuroimaging disclosed progressive changes in the basal ganglia and either brain stem or internal capsule. Biochemical analyses showed an isolated decrease in complex I enzymatic activity in muscle and fibroblasts. Complementation studies by expression of wild-type NDUFB8 in cells from affected individuals restored mitochondrial function, confirming NDUFB8 variants as the cause of complex I deficiency. Hereby we establish NDUFB8 as a relevant gene in childhood-onset mitochondrial disease.

13.
Exp Dermatol ; 27(2): 204-207, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131438

RESUMO

The Warburg theory of cancer postulates that an important driver of tumorigenesis is insufficient respiration due to mitochondrial defects, and concomitant enhancement of lactate production due to increased aerobic glycolysis. We analysed 48 melanoma samples by immunohistochemistry and found that 38% of melanomas are characterized by areas of isolated or combined deficiencies of complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system, whereby the incidence of OXPHOS-deficient areas is associated with an increased Breslow index; 62% of melanomas showed high expression of all OXPHOS complexes. Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX was low, indicating that melanomas generally are well-oxygenated. Expression of HIF-1α and MCT4 was high, which might be a consequence of increased lactate dehydrogenase A levels in melanomas. Our data indicate that there are two types of melanomas: one that features a classic Warburg effect, whereas the other one, despite being glycolytic, maintains a high level of OXPHOS complexes.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 525-538, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942965

RESUMO

Complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein (C1QBP; also known as p32) is a multi-compartmental protein whose precise function remains unknown. It is an evolutionary conserved multifunctional protein localized primarily in the mitochondrial matrix and has roles in inflammation and infection processes, mitochondrial ribosome biogenesis, and regulation of apoptosis and nuclear transcription. It has an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide that is proteolytically processed after import into the mitochondrial matrix, where it forms a homotrimeric complex organized in a doughnut-shaped structure. Although C1QBP has been reported to exert pleiotropic effects on many cellular processes, we report here four individuals from unrelated families where biallelic mutations in C1QBP cause a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. Infants presented with cardiomyopathy accompanied by multisystemic involvement (liver, kidney, and brain), and children and adults presented with myopathy and progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Multiple mitochondrial respiratory-chain defects, associated with the accumulation of multiple deletions of mitochondrial DNA in the later-onset myopathic cases, were identified in all affected individuals. Steady-state C1QBP levels were decreased in all individuals' samples, leading to combined respiratory-chain enzyme deficiency of complexes I, III, and IV. C1qbp-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resembled the human disease phenotype by showing multiple defects in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Complementation with wild-type, but not mutagenized, C1qbp restored OXPHOS protein levels and mitochondrial enzyme activities in C1qbp-/- MEFs. C1QBP deficiency represents an important mitochondrial disorder associated with a clinical spectrum ranging from infantile lactic acidosis to childhood (cardio)myopathy and late-onset progressive external ophthalmoplegia.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Transporte de Elétrons/fisiologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , DNA Mitocondrial , Embrião de Mamíferos/metabolismo , Embrião de Mamíferos/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Mitocondriais/complicações , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Linhagem , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
15.
Hum Mutat ; 38(12): 1786-1795, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905505

RESUMO

Mitochondrial protein synthesis involves an intricate interplay between mitochondrial DNA encoded RNAs and nuclear DNA encoded proteins, such as ribosomal proteins and aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. Eukaryotic cells contain 17 mitochondria-specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthases. WARS2 encodes mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthase (mtTrpRS), a homodimeric class Ic enzyme (mitochondrial tryptophan-tRNA ligase; EC 6.1.1.2). Here, we report six individuals from five families presenting with either severe neonatal onset lactic acidosis, encephalomyopathy and early death or a later onset, more attenuated course of disease with predominating intellectual disability. Respiratory chain enzymes were usually normal in muscle and fibroblasts, while a severe combined respiratory chain deficiency was found in the liver of a severely affected individual. Exome sequencing revealed rare biallelic variants in WARS2 in all affected individuals. An increase of uncharged mitochondrial tRNATrp and a decrease of mtTrpRS protein content were found in fibroblasts of affected individuals. We hereby define the clinical, neuroradiological, and metabolic phenotype of WARS2 defects. This confidently implicates that mutations in WARS2 cause mitochondrial disease with a broad spectrum of clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/genética , Variação Genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoacil-tRNA Sintetases/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Deficiência Intelectual/enzimologia , Masculino , Doenças Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/enzimologia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/patologia , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(2): 283-290, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757203

RESUMO

Lipoate serves as a cofactor for the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases functioning in energy metabolism (α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase [α-KGDHc] and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDHc]), or amino acid metabolism (branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase). Mitochondrial lipoate synthesis involves three enzymatic steps catalyzed sequentially by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (LIPT2), lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1). Mutations in LIAS have been associated with nonketotic hyperglycinemia-like early-onset convulsions and encephalopathy combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. LIPT1 deficiency spares GCS deficiency and has been associated with a biochemical signature of combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency leading to early death or Leigh-like encephalopathy. We report on the identification of biallelic LIPT2 mutations in three affected individuals from two families with severe neonatal encephalopathy. Brain MRI showed major cortical atrophy with white matter abnormalities and cysts. Plasma glycine was mildly increased. Affected individuals' fibroblasts showed reduced oxygen consumption rates, PDHc, α-KGDHc activities, leucine catabolic flux, and decreased protein lipoylation. A normalization of lipoylation was observed after expression of wild-type LIPT2, arguing for LIPT2 requirement in intramitochondrial lipoate synthesis. Lipoic acid supplementation did not improve clinical condition nor activities of PDHc, α-KGDHc, or leucine metabolism in fibroblasts and was ineffective in yeast deleted for the orthologous LIP2.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Atrofia/patologia , Encefalopatias/genética , Encéfalo/patologia , Lipoilação/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/patologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Células Cultivadas , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Glicina/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Consumo de Oxigênio/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Ácido Tióctico/metabolismo
17.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2017: 7202589, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28804536

RESUMO

Vertebrate respiratory chain complex III consists of eleven subunits. Mutations in five subunits either mitochondrial (MT-CYB) or nuclear (CYC1, UQCRC2, UQCRB, and UQCRQ) encoded have been reported. Defects in five further factors for assembly (TTC19, UQCC2, and UQCC3) or iron-sulphur cluster loading (BCS1L and LYRM7) cause complex III deficiency. Here, we report a second patient with UQCC2 deficiency. This girl was born prematurely; pregnancy was complicated by intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios. She presented with respiratory distress syndrome, developed epileptic seizures progressing to status epilepticus, and died at day 33. She had profound lactic acidosis and elevated urinary pyruvate. Exome sequencing revealed two homozygous missense variants in UQCC2, leading to a severe reduction of UQCC2 protein. Deficiency of complexes I and III was found enzymatically and on the protein level. A review of the literature on genetically distinct complex III defects revealed that, except TTC19 deficiency, the biochemical pattern was very often a combined respiratory chain deficiency. Besides complex III, typically, complex I was decreased, in some cases complex IV. In accordance with previous observations, the presence of assembled complex III is required for the stability or assembly of complexes I and IV, which might be related to respirasome/supercomplex formation.


Assuntos
Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/metabolismo , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo
18.
Mitochondrion ; 37: 55-61, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694194

RESUMO

LYRM7 is involved in the last steps of mitochondrial complex III assembly where it acts as a chaperone for the Rieske iron­sulfur (Fe-S) protein in the mitochondrial matrix. Using exome sequencing, we identified homozygosity for a splice site destroying 4 base pair deletion in LYRM7 in a child with recurrent lactic acidotic crises and distinct early-onset leukencephalopathy. Sanger sequencing showed variant segregation in similarly affected family members. Functional analyses revealed a reduced amount of the Rieske Fe-S protein, which was restored after re-expression of LYRM7. Our data provide further evidence for the importance of LYRM7 for mitochondrial function and emphasize the importance of whole exome sequencing in the diagnosis of rare mitochondrial diseases.


Assuntos
Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/deficiência , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/genética , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Acidose Láctica/complicações , Acidose Láctica/genética , Acidose Láctica/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucoencefalopatias/complicações , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Deleção de Sequência
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2017: 1320241, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28744336

RESUMO

Switching of cellular energy production from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by mitochondria to aerobic glycolysis occurs in many types of tumors. However, the significance of this switching for the development of gastric carcinoma and what connection it may have to Helicobacter pylori infection of the gut, a primary cause of gastric cancer, are poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the expression of OXPHOS complexes in two types of human gastric carcinomas ("intestinal" and "diffuse"), bacterial gastritis with and without metaplasia, and chemically induced gastritis by using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of HP infection on several key mitochondrial proteins. Complex I expression was significantly reduced in intestinal type (but not diffuse) gastric carcinomas compared to adjacent control tissue, and the reduction was independent of HP infection. Significantly, higher complex I and complex II expression was present in large tumors. Furthermore, higher complex II and complex III protein levels were also obvious in grade 3 versus grade 2. No differences of OXPHOS complexes and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were found between bacterially caused and chemically induced gastritis. Thus, intestinal gastric carcinomas, but not precancerous stages, are frequently characterized by loss of complex I, and this pathophysiology occurs independently of HP infection.


Assuntos
Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/biossíntese , Gastrite/enzimologia , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por Helicobacter/enzimologia , Helicobacter pylori , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Neoplasias Gástricas/enzimologia , Feminino , Gastrite/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
20.
Neuropeptides ; 64: 123-130, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27614713

RESUMO

Hypothalamic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a key catabolic mediator of energy homeostasis. Its anorexigenic and hypermetabolic effects show characteristic age-related alterations that may be part of the mechanism of middle-aged obesity and geriatric anorexia/cachexia seen in humans and other mammals. We aimed to investigate the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism during the course of aging in a rodent model. To determine the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism in muscle, we administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of α-MSH for 7-days to different age-groups of male Wistar rats. The activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I to V and citrate synthase were determined and compared to those of age-matched controls. We also quantified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and measured the expression of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The peptide reduced weight gain in juvenile rats to one fifth of that of controls and increased the weight loss in older animals by about five fold. Mitochondrial DNA copy number inversely correlated with changes in body weight in controls, but not in α-MSH-treated animals. The strong increase in body weight in young rats was associated with a low mtDNA copy number and high PPARγ mRNA levels in controls. Expression of PGC-1α and PPARγ declined with age, whereas OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities were unchanged. In contrast, α-MSH treatment suppressed OXPHOS enzyme and citrate synthase activity. In conclusion, our results showed age-related differences in the metabolic effects of α-MSH. In addition, administration of α-MSH suppressed citrate synthase and OXPHOS activities independent of age. These findings suggest that α-MSH exposure may inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , alfa-MSH/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Animais , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Masculino , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Receptores do Hormônio Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores do Hormônio Hipofisário/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA