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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 544, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are autoimmune diseases. It is known that certain genetic loci and factors that increase the overall autoimmunity risk can be shared among different autoimmune diseases. We sought to replicate seven T1D-related SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) that have been previously reported to be associated with RA susceptibility in a small set of mixed family-based and case-control Pakistani sample in a relatively large and independent RA case-control sample from the same population. Seven T1D-associated SNPs (GLIS3/rs7020673, BACH2/rs11755527, SKAP2/rs7804356, GDSMB/rs2290400, C6orf173/rs9388489, LOC399716/rs947474 and DLK1-MEG2/rs941576) were genotyped in a large Pakistani RA case-control sample (n = 1959) using TaqMan® SNP genotyping assays. RESULTS: None of the tested SNPs showed statistically significant association with RA susceptibility; however, one SNP (GLIS3/rs7020673) showed a trend for association (OR = 0.88, p = 7.99E-02). Our study has failed to replicate the previously reported association of seven T1D-associated SNPs with RA risk in a large sample from the same population. Thus, our results do not support a major role of these T1D SNPs in affecting RA susceptibility in the Pakistani population.

2.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466225

RESUMO

Associations between whole blood transcriptome and clinical phenotypes in vitamin D-deficient overweight and obese children can provide insight into the biological effects of vitamin D and obesity. We determined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in relation to body mass index (BMI) in vitamin D-deficient black children with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and ascertained the cardiometabolic phenotypes associated with the DEGs. We examined whole-blood transcriptome gene expression by RNA sequencing and cardiometabolic profiling in 41, 10- to 18-year-old children. We found 296 DEGs in association with BMI after adjusting for age, race, sex, and pubertal status. Cardiometabolic phenotypes associated with the BMI-related DEGs, after adjusting for age, sex, pubertal status, and %total body fat, were (i) flow-mediated dilation (marker of endothelial function), (ii) c-reactive protein (marker of inflammation), and (iii) leptin (adipocytokine). Canonical pathways of relevance for childhood obesity and its phenotypes that were significantly associated with the BMI-related DEGs affected immune cell function/inflammation, vascular health, metabolic function, and cell survival/death; several immune and inflammatory pathways overlapped across the three phenotypes. We have identified transcriptome-based biomarkers associated with BMI in vitamin D-deficient, overweight and obese black children. Modulating effects of vitamin D supplementation on these biomarkers and their related phenotypes need further exploration.

3.
Blood ; 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350265

RESUMO

Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and demonstrate distinct somatic features, including CRLF2 rearrangement in approximately 50% of cases; however, the role of inherited genetic variation in ALL susceptibility among children with DS is unknown. Here, we report the first genome-wide association study of DS-ALL, comprising a meta-analysis of four independent studies, with 542 DS-ALL cases and 1,192 DS controls. We identified four susceptibility loci at genome-wide statistical significance: single nucleotide polymorphisms rs58923657 near IKZF1 (odds ratio [OR]=2.02, Pmeta =5.32x10-15), rs3731249 in CDKN2A (OR=3.63, Pmeta =3.91x10-10), rs7090445 in ARID5B (OR=1.60, Pmeta =8.44x10-9), and rs3781093 in GATA3 (OR=1.73, Pmeta =2.89x10-8). We performed DS-ALL versus non-DS ALL case-case analyses, comparing possible associations at these and three other established ALL susceptibility loci (BMI1, PIP4K2A, CEBPE) and found significant association with DS status for CDKN2A (OR=1.58, Pmeta =4.1x10-4). This association was maintained in separate regression models, both adjusting for and stratifying on CRLF2 overexpression, high hyperdiploidy, ETV6-RUNX1, and B-other subgroups, indicating an increased penetrance of CDKN2A risk alleles in children with DS. Finally, we investigated functional significance of the IKZF1 susceptibility locus. It maps to a B-cell super-enhancer, and the risk allele is associated with decreased enhancer activity and differential protein binding. IKZF1 knockdown resulted in significantly higher proliferation rates in Down syndrome- than non-Down syndrome lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our findings demonstrate a higher penetrance of a known ALL risk locus in children with DS and serve as a basis for further biological insights into the etiology of this disease.

4.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 704-716, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172578

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a hallmark of complex traits, and genetic studies of such traits may focus on them as a single diagnostic entity or by analyzing specific components. For example, in orofacial clefting (OFC), three subtypes-cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) have been studied separately and in combination. To further dissect the genetic architecture of OFCs and how a given associated locus may be contributing to distinct subtypes of a trait we developed a framework for quantifying and interpreting evidence of subtype-specific or shared genetic effects in complex traits. We applied this technique to create a "cleft map" of the association of 30 genetic loci with three OFC subtypes. In addition to new associations, we found loci with subtype-specific effects (e.g., GRHL3 [CP], WNT5A [CLP]), as well as loci associated with two or all three subtypes. We cross-referenced these results with mouse craniofacial gene expression datasets, which identified additional promising candidate genes. However, we found no strong correlation between OFC subtypes and expression patterns. In aggregate, the cleft map revealed that neither subtype-specific nor shared genetic effects operate in isolation in OFC architecture. Our approach can be easily applied to any complex trait with distinct phenotypic subgroups.

5.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954325

RESUMO

To identify novel loci that affect cognitive decline in older adults free of dementia, we conducted genome-wide and gene-based meta-analyses on longitudinal slopes of 5 cognitive domains (memory, executive function, language, attention/processing speed, and visuospatial ability) derived from 2 population-based cohorts. For decline over time in each cognitive domain, we normalized intraindividual slopes within each cohort, accounting for baseline age, sex, and years of education. Normalized slope for each domain was used in cohort-specific genome-wide analyses after including top principal components as covariates followed by genome-wide and gene-based meta-analyses. Both analyses revealed a novel WDFY2 locus at genome-wide (p = 3.37E-08) and gene-wide (p = 7.10E-07) significance levels for the attention/processing speed domain. In the GTEx eQTL analysis, genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism was associated with RNA expression levels of WDFY2 in several brain regions: cerebellar hemisphere (p = 1.07E-04), cerebellum (p = 6.92E-04), hippocampus (p = 2.18E-03) and cortex (p = 2.29E-02), and in whole blood (p = 4.41E-05). Our results suggest that WDFY2 genetic variation may affect individual differences in decline over time on tests of attention/processing speed.

6.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 47(4): 283-290, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dental utilization is an important determinant of oral health and well-being. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential associations between a variety of biopsychosocial factors and dental utilization in north-central Appalachia, USA, a region where oral health disparities are profound. METHODS: This study used household-based data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA1) study in north-central Appalachia, including 449 families with 868 adults. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used to determine the best-fitting predictor model for dental utilization among adult family members. RESULTS: On average across West Virginia and Pennsylvania, having dental insurance was associated with greater dental utilization over a 3-year time period (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.14). When stratified by state, the association held for only West Virginia (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.79) and was nonsignificant for Pennsylvania residents (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.80, 2.79). Individuals from Pennsylvania were more likely to utilize dental care and participants from West Virginia less so (2.31, 95% CI = 1.57, 3.40). Females from Pennsylvania were more likely than males to regularly seek dental care (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.05), and a higher income was associated with greater frequency of regular dental visits (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.34) in West Virginia. Individuals from Pennsylvania who scored higher on the Physiological Arousal subscale of the Dental Fear Survey were more likely to attend routine care visits (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.35). Across both states, more fatalistic beliefs related to oral health care also predicted less routine care (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81, 0.94), and more investment in or more positive attitudes towards one's oral health also was associated with higher utilization (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings of this study suggest state residency, sex, insurance, income, fatalistic beliefs, health values, and aspects of dental care-related anxiety and fear predicted dental care utilization in north-central Appalachia. These findings reinforce the need to address insurance and other economic factors affecting utilization and to consider how individual-level fatalistic beliefs and oral health values may affect utilization of routine oral health care.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214060, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913229

RESUMO

The apolipoprotein E-C1-C4-C2 gene cluster at 19q13.32 encodes four amphipathic apolipoproteins. The influence of APOE common polymorphisms on plasma lipid/lipoprotein profile, especially on LDL-related traits, is well recognized; however, little is known about the role of other genes/variants in this gene cluster. In this study, we evaluated the role of common and uncommon/rare genetic variation in this gene region on inter-individual variation in plasma lipoprotein levels in non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) and African blacks (ABs). In the variant discovery step, the APOE, APOC1, APOC4, APOC2 genes were sequenced along with their flanking and hepatic control regions (HCR1 and HCR2) in 190 subjects with extreme HDL-C/TG levels. The next step involved the genotyping of 623 NHWs and 788 ABs for the identified uncommon/rare variants and common tagSNPs along with additional relevant SNPs selected from public resources, followed by association analyses with lipid traits. A total of 230 sequence variants, including 15 indels were identified, of which 65 were novel. A total of 70 QC-passed variants in NHWs and 108 QC-passed variants in ABs were included in the final association analyses. Single-site association analysis of SNPs with MAF>1% revealed 20 variants in NHWs and 24 variants in ABs showing evidence of association with at least one lipid trait, including several variants exhibiting independent associations from the established APOE polymorphism even after multiple-testing correction. Overall, our study has confirmed known associations and also identified novel associations in this genomic region with various lipid traits. Our data also support the contribution of both common and uncommon/rare variation in this gene region in affecting plasma lipid profile in the general population.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(3): 467-474, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582786

RESUMO

Genome-wide scans have shown that common risk alleles for orofacial clefts (OFC) tend to be located in noncoding regulatory elements and cumulatively explain only part of the heritability of OFCs. Low-frequency variants may account for some of the "missing" heritability. Therefore, we scanned low-frequency variants located within putative craniofacial enhancers to identify novel OFC risk variants and implicate new regulatory elements in OFC pathogenesis. Analyses were performed in a multiethnic sample of 1,995 cases of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), 221 cases with cleft palate (CP) only, and 1,576 unaffected controls. One hundred and nineteen putative craniofacial enhancers identified from ChIP-Seq studies in craniofacial tissues or cell lines contained multiple low-frequency (0.01-1%) variants, which we genotyped in participants using a custom Illumina panel. Two complementary statistical approaches, sequence kernel association test and combined multivariate and collapsing, were used to test association of the aggregated low-frequency variants across each enhancer region with CL/P and CP. We discovered a significant association between CP and a branchial arch enhancer near FOXP1 (mm60; p-value = .0002). Additionally, we observed a suggestive association between CL/P and a forebrain enhancer near FOXE1 (hs1717; p-value = .001). These findings suggest that low-frequency variants in craniofacial enhancer regions contribute to the complex etiology of nonsyndromic OFCs.

9.
Am J Intellect Dev Disabil ; 123(6): 514-528, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30421968

RESUMO

The cause of the high degree of variability in cognition and behavior among individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is unknown. We hypothesized that birth defects requiring surgery in the first years of life (congenital heart defects and gastrointestinal defects) might affect an individual's level of function. We used data from the first 234 individuals, age 6-25 years, enrolled in the Down Syndrome Cognition Project (DSCP) to test this hypothesis. Data were drawn from medical records, parent interviews, and a cognitive and behavior assessment battery. Results did not support our hypothesis. That is, we found no evidence that either birth defect was associated with poorer outcomes, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Implications for study design and measurement are discussed.

10.
Front Genet ; 9: 502, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410503

RESUMO

Objectives: Orofacial clefting is one of the most prevalent craniofacial malformations. Previous research has demonstrated that unaffected relatives of patients with non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P) show distinctive facial features, which can be an expression of underlying NSCL/P susceptibility genes. These results support the hypothesis that genes involved in the occurrence of a cleft also play a role in normal craniofacial development. In this study, we investigated the influence of genetic variants associated with NSCL/P on normal-range variation in facial shape. Methods: A literature review of genome wide association studies (GWAS) investigating the genetic etiology of NSCL/P was performed, resulting in a list of 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 38 genetic loci. Genotype data were available for 65 of these selected SNPs in three datasets with a combined sample size of 7,418 participants of European ancestry, whose 3D facial images were also available. The effect of each SNP was tested using a multivariate canonical correlation analysis (CCA) against 63 hierarchically-constructed facial segments in each of the three datasets and meta-analyzed. This allowed for the investigation of associations between SNPs known to be involved in NSCL/P and normal-range facial shape variations in a global-to-local perspective, without preselecting specific facial shape features or characteristics. Results: Six NSCL/P SNPs showed significant associations with variation in normal-range facial morphology. rs6740960 showed significant effects in the chin area (p = 3.71 × 10-28). This SNP lies in a non-coding area. Another SNP, rs227731 near the NOG gene, showed a significant effect in the philtrum area (p = 1.96 × 10-16). Three SNPs showed significant effects on the shape of the nose. rs742071 (p = 8.71 × 10-14), rs34246903 (p = 6.87 × 10-12), and rs10512248 (p = 8.4 × 10-9). Respectively, these SNPs are annotated to PAX7, MSX1, and PTCH1. Finally, rs7590268, an intron variant of THADA, showed an effect in the shape of the supraorbital ridge (p = 3.84 × 10-7). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence NSCL/P-associated genetic variants influence normal-range craniofacial morphology, with significant effects observed for the chin, the nose, the supraorbital ridges and the philtrum area.

11.
Front Genet ; 9: 497, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405702

RESUMO

Many factors influence human facial morphology, including genetics, age, nutrition, biomechanical forces, and endocrine factors. Moreover, facial features clearly differ between males and females, and these differences are driven primarily by the influence of sex hormones during growth and development. Specific genetic variants are known to influence circulating sex hormone levels in humans, which we hypothesize, in turn, affect facial features. In this study, we investigated the effects of testosterone-related genetic variants on facial morphology. We tested 32 genetic variants across 22 candidate genes related to levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in three cohorts of healthy individuals for which 3D facial surface images were available (Pittsburgh 3DFN, Penn State and ALSPAC cohorts; total n = 7418). Facial shape was described using a recently developed extension of the dense-surface correspondence approach, in which the 3D facial surface was partitioned into a set of 63 hierarchically organized modules. Each variant was tested against each of the facial surface modules in a multivariate genetic association-testing framework and meta-analyzed. Additionally, the association between these candidate SNPs and five facial ratios was investigated in the Pittsburgh 3DFN cohort. Two significant associations involving intronic variants of SHBG were found: both rs12150660 (p = 1.07E-07) and rs1799941 (p = 6.15E-06) showed an effect on mandible shape. Rs8023580 (an intronic variant of NR2F2-AS1) showed an association with the total and upper facial width to height ratios (p = 9.61E-04 and p = 7.35E-04, respectively). These results indicate that testosterone-related genetic variants affect normal-range facial morphology, and in particular, facial features known to exhibit strong sexual dimorphism in humans.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361487

RESUMO

Deposition of amyloid plaques in the brain is one of the two main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) is a neuroimaging tool that selectively detects in vivo amyloid deposition in the brain and is a reliable endophenotype for AD that complements cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers with regional information. We measured in vivo amyloid deposition in the brains of ~1000 subjects from three collaborative AD centers and ADNI using 11C-labeled Pittsburgh Compound-B (PiB)-PET imaging followed by meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies, first to our knowledge for PiB-PET, to identify novel genetic loci for this endophenotype. The APOE region showed the most significant association where several SNPs surpassed the genome-wide significant threshold, with APOE*4 being most significant (P-meta = 9.09E-30; ß = 0.18). Interestingly, after conditioning on APOE*4, 14 SNPs remained significant at P < 0.05 in the APOE region that were not in linkage disequilibrium with APOE*4. Outside the APOE region, the meta-analysis revealed 15 non-APOE loci with P < 1E-05 on nine chromosomes, with two most significant SNPs on chromosomes 8 (P-meta = 4.87E-07) and 3 (P-meta = 9.69E-07). Functional analyses of these SNPs indicate their potential relevance with AD pathogenesis. Top 15 non-APOE SNPs along with APOE*4 explained 25-35% of the amyloid variance in different datasets, of which 14-17% was explained by APOE*4 alone. In conclusion, we have identified novel signals in APOE and non-APOE regions that affect amyloid deposition in the brain. Our data also highlights the presence of yet to be discovered variants that may be responsible for the unexplained genetic variance of amyloid deposition.

13.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(7): 664-672, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277614

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is the most common craniofacial birth defect in humans and is notable for its apparent sexual dimorphism where approximately twice as many males are affected as females. The sources of this disparity are largely unknown, but interactions between genetic and sex effects are likely contributors. We examined gene-by-sex (G × S) interactions in a worldwide sample of 2,142 NSCL/P cases and 1,700 controls recruited from 13 countries. First, we performed genome-wide joint tests of the genetic (G) and G × S effects genome-wide using logistic regression assuming an additive genetic model and adjusting for 18 principal components of ancestry. We further interrogated loci with suggestive results from the joint test ( p < 1.00 × 10 -5 ) by examining the G × S effects from the same model. Out of the 133 loci with suggestive results ( p < 1.00 × 10 -5 ) for the joint test, we observed one genome-wide significant G × S effect in the 10q21 locus (rs72804706; p = 6.69 × 10 -9 ; OR = 2.62 CI [1.89, 3.62]) and 16 suggestive G × S effects. At the intergenic 10q21 locus, the risk of NSCL/P is estimated to increase with additional copies of the minor allele for females, but the opposite effect for males. Our observation that the impact of genetic variants on NSCL/P risk differs for males and females may further our understanding of the genetic architecture of NSCL/P and the sex differences underlying clefts and other birth defects.


Assuntos
Alelos , Encéfalo/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Caracteres Sexuais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epistasia Genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS Genet ; 14(8): e1007501, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067744

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that genetic risk variants for non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (nsCL/P) are also associated with normal-range variation in facial morphology. However, previous analyses are mostly limited to candidate SNPs and findings have not been consistently replicated. Here, we used polygenic risk scores (PRS) to test for genetic overlap between nsCL/P and seven biologically relevant facial phenotypes. Where evidence was found of genetic overlap, we used bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) to test the hypothesis that genetic liability to nsCL/P is causally related to implicated facial phenotypes. Across 5,804 individuals of European ancestry from two studies, we found strong evidence, using PRS, of genetic overlap between nsCL/P and philtrum width; a 1 S.D. increase in nsCL/P PRS was associated with a 0.10 mm decrease in philtrum width (95% C.I. 0.054, 0.146; P = 2x10-5). Follow-up MR analyses supported a causal relationship; genetic variants for nsCL/P homogeneously cause decreased philtrum width. In addition to the primary analysis, we also identified two novel risk loci for philtrum width at 5q22.2 and 7p15.2 in our Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) of 6,136 individuals. Our results support a liability threshold model of inheritance for nsCL/P, related to abnormalities in development of the philtrum.

15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8470, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29855589

RESUMO

Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) occurs when the muscular soft palate (velum) and lateral pharyngeal walls are physically unable to separate the oral and nasal cavities during speech production leading to hypernasality and abnormal speech reduction. Because VPD is often associated with overt or submucous cleft palate, it could be present as a subclinical phenotype in families with a history of orofacial clefting. A key assumption to this model is that the overt and subclinical manifestations of the orofacial cleft phenotype exist on a continuum and therefore share common etiological factors. We performed a genome-wide association study in 976 unaffected relatives of isolated CP probands, 54 of whom had VPD. Five loci were significantly (p < 5 × 10-8) associated with VPD: 3q29, 9p21.1, 12q21.31, 16p12.3 and 16p13.3. An additional 15 loci showing suggestive evidence of association with VPD were observed. Several genes known to be involved in orofacial clefting and craniofacial development are located in these regions, such as TFRC, PCYT1A, BNC2 and FREM1. Although further research is necessary, this could be an indication for a potential shared genetic architecture between VPD and cleft palate, and supporting the hypothesis that VPD is a subclinical phenotype of orofacial clefting.

16.
BMC Oral Health ; 18(1): 98, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental caries is a common chronic disease among children and adults alike, posing a substantial health burden. Caries is affected by multiple genetic and environmental factors, and prior studies have found that a substantial proportion of caries susceptibility is genetically inherited. METHODS: To identify such genetic factors, we conducted a genome-wide linkage scan in 464 extended families with 2616 individuals from Iowa, Pennsylvania and West Virginia for three dental caries phenotypes: (1) PRIM: dichotomized as zero versus one or more affected primary teeth, (2) QTOT1: age-adjusted quantitative caries measure for both primary and permanent dentitions including pre-cavitated lesions, and (3) QTOT2: age-adjusted quantitative caries excluding pre-cavitated lesions. Genotyping was conducted for approximately 600,000 SNPs on an Illumina platform, pruned to 127,511 uncorrelated SNPs for the analyses reported here. RESULTS: Multipoint non-parametric linkage analyses generated peak LOD scores exceeding 2.0 for eight genomic regions, but no LOD scores above 3.0 were observed. The maximum LOD score for each of the three traits was 2.90 at 1q25.3 for PRIM, 2.38 at 6q25.3 for QTOT1, and 2.76 at 5q23.3 for QTOT2. Some overlap in linkage regions was observed among the phenotypes. Genes with a potential role in dental caries in the eight chromosomal regions include CACNA1E, LAMC2, ALMS1, STAMBP, GXYLT2, SLC12A2, MEGF10, TMEM181, ARID1B, and, as well as genes in several immune gene families. Our results are also concordant with previous findings from association analyses on chromosomes 11 and 19. CONCLUSIONS: These multipoint linkage results provide evidence in favor of novel chromosomal regions, while also supporting earlier association findings for these data. Understanding the genetic etiology of dental caries will allow designing personalized treatment plans based on an individual's genetic risk of disease.

17.
Genet Epidemiol ; 42(6): 539-550, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29900581

RESUMO

In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), association between genotype and phenotype at autosomal loci is generally tested by regression models. However, X-chromosome data are often excluded from published analyses of autosomes because of the difference between males and females in number of X chromosomes. Failure to analyze X-chromosome data at all is obviously less than ideal, and can lead to missed discoveries. Even when X-chromosome data are included, they are often analyzed with suboptimal statistics. Several mathematically sensible statistics for X-chromosome association have been proposed. The optimality of these statistics, however, is based on very specific simple genetic models. In addition, while previous simulation studies of these statistics have been informative, they have focused on single-marker tests and have not considered the types of error that occur even under the null hypothesis when the entire X chromosome is scanned. In this study, we comprehensively tested several X-chromosome association statistics using simulation studies that include the entire chromosome. We also considered a wide range of trait models for sex differences and phenotypic effects of X inactivation. We found that models that do not incorporate a sex effect can have large type I error in some cases. We also found that many of the best statistics perform well even when there are modest deviations, such as trait variance differences between the sexes or small sex differences in allele frequencies, from assumptions.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Regressão , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética
18.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196148, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29698431

RESUMO

The shape of the cranial vault, a region comprising interlocking flat bones surrounding the cerebral cortex, varies considerably in humans. Strongly influenced by brain size and shape, cranial vault morphology has both clinical and evolutionary relevance. However, little is known about the genetic basis of normal vault shape in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on three vault measures (maximum cranial width [MCW], maximum cranial length [MCL], and cephalic index [CI]) in a sample of 4419 healthy individuals of European ancestry. All measures were adjusted by sex, age, and body size, then tested for association with genetic variants spanning the genome. GWAS results for the two cohorts were combined via meta-analysis. Significant associations were observed at two loci: 15p11.2 (lead SNP rs2924767, p = 2.107 × 10-8) for MCW and 17q11.2 (lead SNP rs72841279, p = 5.29 × 10-9) for MCL. Additionally, 32 suggestive loci (p < 5x10-6) were observed. Several candidate genes were located in these loci, such as NLK, MEF2A, SOX9 and SOX11. Genome-wide linkage analysis of cranial vault shape in mice (N = 433) was performed to follow-up the associated candidate loci identified in the human GWAS. Two loci, 17q11.2 (c11.loc44 in mice) and 17q25.1 (c11.loc74 in mice), associated with cranial vault size in humans, were also linked with cranial vault size in mice (LOD scores: 3.37 and 3.79 respectively). These results provide further insight into genetic pathways and mechanisms underlying normal variation in human craniofacial morphology.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Crânio/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Transcrição SOXC/genética , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Genet ; 50(3): 414-423, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459680

RESUMO

Genome-wide association scans of complex multipartite traits like the human face typically use preselected phenotypic measures. Here we report a data-driven approach to phenotyping facial shape at multiple levels of organization, allowing for an open-ended description of facial variation while preserving statistical power. In a sample of 2,329 persons of European ancestry, we identified 38 loci, 15 of which replicated in an independent European sample (n = 1,719). Four loci were completely new. For the others, additional support (n = 9) or pleiotropic effects (n = 2) were found in the literature, but the results reported here were further refined. All 15 replicated loci highlighted distinctive patterns of global-to-local genetic effects on facial shape and showed enrichment for active chromatin elements in human cranial neural crest cells, suggesting an early developmental origin of the facial variation captured. These results have implications for studies of facial genetics and other complex morphological traits.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 913-924, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198719

RESUMO

The genetic basis of earlobe attachment has been a matter of debate since the early 20th century, such that geneticists argue both for and against polygenic inheritance. Recent genetic studies have identified a few loci associated with the trait, but large-scale analyses are still lacking. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study of lobe attachment in a multiethnic sample of 74,660 individuals from four cohorts (three with the trait scored by an expert rater and one with the trait self-reported). Meta-analysis of the three expert-rater-scored cohorts revealed six associated loci harboring numerous candidate genes, including EDAR, SP5, MRPS22, ADGRG6 (GPR126), KIAA1217, and PAX9. The large self-reported 23andMe cohort recapitulated each of these six loci. Moreover, meta-analysis across all four cohorts revealed a total of 49 significant (p < 5 × 10-8) loci. Annotation and enrichment analyses of these 49 loci showed strong evidence of genes involved in ear development and syndromes with auricular phenotypes. RNA sequencing data from both human fetal ear and mouse second branchial arch tissue confirmed that genes located among associated loci showed evidence of expression. These results provide strong evidence for the polygenic nature of earlobe attachment and offer insights into the biological basis of normal and abnormal ear development.


Assuntos
Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Região Branquial/anatomia & histologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Receptor Edar/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX9/genética , Proteínas/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto Jovem
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