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1.
Prenat Diagn ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In our previous work, we performed the first genome-wide association study to find genetic risk factors for maternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21. The objective of the current work was to perform stratified analyses of the same dataset to further elucidate potential mechanisms of genetic risk factors. METHODS: We focused on loci that were statistically significantly associated with maternal nondisjunction based on this same dataset in our previous study and performed stratified association analyses in seven subgroups defined by age and meiotic recombination profile. In each analysis, we contrasted a different subgroup of mothers with the same set of fathers, the mothers serving as cases (phenotype: meiotic nondisjunction of chromosome 21) and the fathers as controls. RESULTS: Our stratified analyses identified several genes whose patterns of association are consistent with generalized effects across groups, as well as other genes that are consistent with specific effects in certain groups. CONCLUSIONS: While our results are epidemiological in nature and cannot conclusively prove mechanisms, we identified a number of patterns that are consistent with specific mechanisms. In many cases those mechanisms are strongly supported by available literature on the associated genes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 748, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436952

RESUMO

The contribution of low-frequency variants to the genetic architecture of normal-range facial traits is unknown. We studied the influence of low-frequency coding variants (MAF < 1%) in 8091 genes on multi-dimensional facial shape phenotypes in a European cohort of 2329 healthy individuals. Using three-dimensional images, we partitioned the full face into 31 hierarchically arranged segments to model facial morphology at multiple levels, and generated multi-dimensional phenotypes representing the shape variation within each segment. We used MultiSKAT, a multivariate kernel regression approach to scan the exome for face-associated low-frequency variants in a gene-based manner. After accounting for multiple tests, seven genes (AR, CARS2, FTSJ1, HFE, LTB4R, TELO2, NECTIN1) were significantly associated with shape variation of the cheek, chin, nose and mouth areas. These genes displayed a wide range of phenotypic effects, with some impacting the full face and others affecting localized regions. The missense variant rs142863092 in NECTIN1 had a significant effect on chin morphology and was predicted bioinformatically to have a deleterious effect on protein function. Notably, NECTIN1 is an established craniofacial gene that underlies a human syndrome that includes a mandibular phenotype. We further showed that nectin1a mutations can affect zebrafish craniofacial development, with the size and shape of the mandibular cartilage altered in mutant animals. Findings from this study expanded our understanding of the genetic basis of normal-range facial shape by highlighting the role of low-frequency coding variants in several novel genes.

3.
Nat Genet ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288918

RESUMO

The human face is complex and multipartite, and characterization of its genetic architecture remains challenging. Using a multivariate genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 8,246 European individuals, we identified 203 genome-wide-significant signals (120 also study-wide significant) associated with normal-range facial variation. Follow-up analyses indicate that the regions surrounding these signals are enriched for enhancer activity in cranial neural crest cells and craniofacial tissues, several regions harbor multiple signals with associations to different facial phenotypes, and there is evidence for potential coordinated actions of variants. In summary, our analyses provide insights into the understanding of how complex morphological traits are shaped by both individual and coordinated genetic actions.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study assessed differences in oral health and related behaviours and risk indicators by rurality in a north-central Appalachian population using the Andersen behavioural model as a conceptual framework. METHODS: Participants were residents aged 18-59 years (n = 1311) from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia, selected according to a household-based sampling strategy. Rural-Urban Continuum codes (RUC) corresponding to the participants' residences were used to classify participants as rural or urban. Mixed models were used to test rural-urban differences in measures of oral health, related behaviours, and need, enabling, and predisposing risk indicators. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables: age, sex, race, income, perceived socioeconomic status, educational attainment and dental insurance. RESULTS: Rural residents had poorer oral health overall, with fewer sound teeth (ß = -1.79), more dental caries (ß = 0.27) and higher rates of edentulism (5.2% vs 2.8%). Differences also were observed for dental care utilization and perceived barriers to care. Rural residents were less likely to attend dental visits as often as needed (26.9% vs 42.8%) and were more prone to seek care only after experiencing a dental problem (64.3% vs 43.9%). Rural residents also were more likely to report high costs (89% vs 62.6%) as a major reason for not having dental visits. Rural-urban differences for some oral health characteristics and behaviours could be explained by sociodemographic characteristics, whereas others could not. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed rural-urban differences in risk indicators and oral health outcomes in north-central Appalachia. Many of these differences were explained, completely or partly, by sociodemographic factors.

5.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 7189626, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101545

RESUMO

Objective: Copy number variation (CNV) is a structural variation in the human genome that has been associated with multiple clinical phenotypes. B cells are important components of rheumatoid arthritis- (RA-) mediated immune response; hence, CNV in the regulators of B cells (such as VPREB1) can influence RA susceptibility. In this study, we aimed to explore the association of CNV in the VPREB1 gene with RA susceptibility in the Pakistani population. Methods: A total of 1,106 subjects (616 RA cases, 490 healthy controls) were selected from three rheumatology centers in Pakistan. VPREB1 CNV was determined using the TaqMan® CN assay (Hs02879734_cn, Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA), and CNV was estimated by using CopyCaller® (version 2.1; Applied Biosystems, USA) software. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated by logistic regression with sex and age as covariates in R. Results: A significant association between >2 VPREB1 CNV and RA risk was observed with an OR of 3.92 (95% CI: 1.27 - 12.12; p = 0.01746) in the total sample. Whereas <2 CNV showed a significantly protective effect against RA risk in women with an OR of 0.48 (95% CI: 0.29-0.79; p = 0.00381). Conclusion: CNV > 2 of VPREB1 is a risk factor for RA in the total Pakistani population, while CNV < 2 is protective in women.

6.
Development ; 147(18)2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958507

RESUMO

The FaceBase Consortium was established by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research in 2009 as a 'big data' resource for the craniofacial research community. Over the past decade, researchers have deposited hundreds of annotated and curated datasets on both normal and disordered craniofacial development in FaceBase, all freely available to the research community on the FaceBase Hub website. The Hub has developed numerous visualization and analysis tools designed to promote integration of multidisciplinary data while remaining dedicated to the FAIR principles of data management (findability, accessibility, interoperability and reusability) and providing a faceted search infrastructure for locating desired data efficiently. Summaries of the datasets generated by the FaceBase projects from 2014 to 2019 are provided here. FaceBase 3 now welcomes contributions of data on craniofacial and dental development in humans, model organisms and cell lines. Collectively, the FaceBase Consortium, along with other NIH-supported data resources, provide a continuously growing, dynamic and current resource for the scientific community while improving data reproducibility and fulfilling data sharing requirements.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239426, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946523

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease. The interaction of genetic and environmental factors is likely necessary for RA. Among potential genetic factors, many major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC variants may be involved in RA susceptibility. CTLA4 is involved in the regulation of T-cell response during an immune reaction, and multiple CTLA4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with numerous autoimmune diseases, including RA. To our knowledge, the genetic association of CTLA4 with RA risk has not been examined previously in the Pakistani population. In this study, we sequenced the entire CTLA4 gene and flanking regions in 95 Pakistani RA cases followed the screening of identified variants in Study 1 sample consisting of 350 RA cases and controls. Four common significant variants identified in Study 1 sample were further examined in a larger Study 2 replication sample comprising 1,678 independent RA cases and controls. We report significant associations of three variants from the combined analysis: rs3087243 (OR = 1.26, p = 4.47E-03), rs5742909 (OR = 1.78, p = 4.60E-03), and rs11571319 (OR = 1.48, p = 6.64E-03); the latter is a novel association in the Pakistani sample.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Análise de Sequência , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 1910215, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831971

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex and multifactorial autoimmune disorder with the involvement of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 50 RA genetic loci in European populations. Given the anticipated overlap of RA-relevant genes and pathways across different ethnic groups, we sought to replicate 58 GWAS-implicated SNPs reported in Europeans in Pakistani subjects. 1,959 unrelated subjects comprising 1,222 RA cases and 737 controls were collected from three rheumatology facilities in Pakistan. Genotyping was performed using iPLEX or TaqMan® methods. A total of 50 SNPs were included in the final association analysis after excluding those that failed assay design/run or postrun QC analysis. Fourteen SNPs (LINC00824/rs1516971, PADI4/rs2240336, CEP57/rs4409785, CTLA4/rs3087243, STAT4/rs13426947, HLA-B/MICA/rs2596565, C5orf30/rs26232, CCL21/rs951005, GATA3/rs2275806, VPS37C/rs595158, HLA-DRB1/rs660895, EOMES/rs3806624, SPRED2/rs934734, and RUNX1/rs9979383) were replicated in our Pakistani sample at false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.20 with nominal p values ranging from 4.73E-06 to 3.48E-02. Our results indicate that several RA susceptibility loci are shared between Pakistani and European populations, supporting the role of common genes/pathways.

9.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 76(4): 1553-1565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651314

RESUMO

The genetics of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is complex due to the heterogeneous nature of the disorder. APOE*4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for AD. Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 30 additional loci, each having relatively small effect size. Known AD loci explain only about 30% of the genetic variance, and thus much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. To identify some of the missing heritability of AD, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing (WES) data focusing on non-APOE*4 carriers from two WES datasets: 720 cases and controls from the University of Pittsburgh and 7,252 cases and controls from the Alzheimer's Disease Sequencing Project. Following separate WES analyses in each dataset, we performed meta-analysis for overlapping markers present in both datasets. Among the four variants reaching the exome-wide significance threshold, three were from known AD loci: APOE/rs7412 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40; p = 5.46E-24), TOMM40/rs157581 (OR = 1.49; p = 4.04E-07), and TREM2/rs75932628 (OR = 4.00; p = 1.15E-07). The fourth significant variant, rs199533, was from a novel locus on chromosome 17 in the NSF gene (OR = 0.78; p = 2.88E-07). NSF was also significant in the gene-based analysis (p = 1.20E-05). In the GTEx data, NSF/rs199533 is a cis-eQTL for multiple genes in the brain and blood, including NSF that is highly expressed across all brain tissues, including regions that typically show amyloid-ß accumulation. Further characterization of genes that are affected by NSF/rs199533 may help to shed light on the roles of these genes in AD etiology.

10.
Dis Markers ; 2020: 9738567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685059

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of coronary artery disease (CAD) have revealed multiple genetic risk loci. We assessed the association of 47 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 43 CAD loci with coronary stenosis in a Pakistani sample comprising 663 clinically ascertained and angiographically confirmed cases. Genotypes were determined using the iPLEX Gold technology. All statistical analyses were performed using R software. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) between significant SNPs was determined using SNAP web portal, and functional annotation of SNPs was performed using the RegulomeDB and Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) databases. Genotyping comparison was made between cases with severe stenosis (≥70%) and mild/minimal stenosis (<30%). Five SNPs demonstrated significant associations: three with additive genetic models PLG/rs4252120 (p = 0.0078), KIAA1462/rs2505083 (p = 0.005), and SLC22A3/rs2048327 (p = 0.045) and two with recessive models SORT1/rs602633 (p = 0.005) and UBE2Z/rs46522 (p = 0.03). PLG/rs4252120 was in LD with two functional PLG variants (rs4252126 and rs4252135), each with a RegulomeDB score of 1f. Likewise, KIAA1462/rs2505083 was in LD with a functional SNP, KIAA1462/rs3739998, having a RegulomeDB score of 2b. In the GTEx database, KIAA1462/rs2505083, SLC22A3/rs2048327, SORT1/rs602633, and UBE2Z/rs46522 SNPs were found to be expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in CAD-associated tissues. In conclusion, five genome-wide significant SNPs previously reported in European GWAS were replicated in the Pakistani sample. Further association studies on larger non-European populations are needed to understand the worldwide genetic architecture of CAD.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(1): 124-136, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574564

RESUMO

Although de novo mutations (DNMs) are known to increase an individual's risk of congenital defects, DNMs have not been fully explored regarding orofacial clefts (OFCs), one of the most common human birth defects. Therefore, whole-genome sequencing of 756 child-parent trios of European, Colombian, and Taiwanese ancestry was performed to determine the contributions of coding DNMs to an individual's OFC risk. Overall, we identified a significant excess of loss-of-function DNMs in genes highly expressed in craniofacial tissues, as well as genes associated with known autosomal dominant OFC syndromes. This analysis also revealed roles for zinc-finger homeobox domain and SOX2-interacting genes in OFC etiology.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
12.
Acta Diabetol ; 57(3): 271-278, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529337

RESUMO

AIM: The haptoglobin (Hp) 2-2 genotype has been shown to increase the risk of coronary artery disease, kidney dysfunction and mortality from cardiovascular and renal causes in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Similar associations, however, have not been observed in those without diabetes. As cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a cardiovascular disease risk factor, we assessed the presence of an association between the Hp 2-2 genotype and CAN. METHODS: The study included 216 individuals with childhood-onset T1D and 200 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) of similar age and gender distribution to their counterparts with T1D. CAN was assessed using an electrocardiogram as an abnormal, age-specific, heart rate response to deep breathing. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the association between the Hp 2-2 genotype and CAN. RESULTS: Compared with NGT, participants with T1D had a similar proportion of Hp 2-2 carriers (41.5% vs. 32.0%, p = 0.05) but a greater CAN prevalence (28.2% vs. 5.0%, p < 0.0001). In multivariable logistic regression models, those carrying the Hp 2-2 genotype had significantly higher odds of CAN compared with Hp 1-1 or Hp 2-1 carriers (OR = 2.27, p = 0.01). The presence of T1D (OR = 4.20, p = 0.0003), hypertension (OR = 2.08, p = 0.03), eGFR (OR = 0.98, p = 0.01) and WBC count (OR = 1.21, p = 0.02) were also associated with CAN. There was no T1D by Hp interaction (p = 0.92), although in stratified analyses, the Hp-CAN association was significant only in T1D. CONCLUSIONS: The Hp 2-2 genotype was independently associated with greater odds of CAN in T1D though no definitive conclusions could be made in NGT.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Haptoglobinas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Hum Genet ; 139(2): 215-226, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848685

RESUMO

Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are among the most prevalent craniofacial birth defects worldwide and create a significant public health burden. The majority of OFCs are non-syndromic, and the genetic etiology of non-syndromic OFCs is only partially determined. Here, we analyze whole genome sequence (WGS) data for association with risk of OFCs in European and Colombian families selected from a multicenter family-based OFC study. This is the first large-scale WGS study of OFC in parent-offspring trios, and a part of the Gabriella Miller Kids First Pediatric Research Program created for the study of childhood cancers and structural birth defects. WGS provides deeper and more specific genetic data than using imputation on present-day single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) marker panels. Genotypes of case-parent trios at single nucleotide variants (SNV) and short insertions and deletions (indels) spanning the entire genome were called from their sequences using human GRCh38 genome assembly, and analyzed for association using the transmission disequilibrium test. Among genome-wide significant associations, we identified a new locus on chromosome 21 in Colombian families, not previously observed in other larger OFC samples of Latin American ancestry. This locus is situated within a region known to be expressed during craniofacial development. Based on deeper investigation of this locus, we concluded that it contributed risk for OFCs exclusively in the Colombians. This study reinforces the ancestry differences seen in the genetic etiology of OFCs, and underscores the need for larger samples when studying for OFCs and other birth defects in populations with diverse ancestry.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 21/genética , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Criança , Colômbia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino
14.
PLoS Genet ; 15(12): e1008414, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830031

RESUMO

Human nondisjunction errors in oocytes are the leading cause of pregnancy loss, and for pregnancies that continue to term, the leading cause of intellectual disabilities and birth defects. For the first time, we have conducted a candidate gene and genome-wide association study to identify genes associated with maternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21 as a first step to understand predisposing factors. A total of 2,186 study participants were genotyped on the HumanOmniExpressExome-8v1-2 array. These participants included 749 live birth offspring with standard trisomy 21 and 1,437 parents. Genotypes from the parents and child were then used to identify mothers with nondisjunction errors derived in the oocyte and to establish the type of error (meiosis I or meiosis II). We performed a unique set of subgroup comparisons designed to leverage our previous work suggesting that the etiologies of meiosis I and meiosis II nondisjunction differ for trisomy 21. For the candidate gene analysis, we selected genes associated with chromosome dynamics early in meiosis and genes associated with human global recombination counts. Several candidate genes showed strong associations with maternal nondisjunction of chromosome 21, demonstrating that genetic variants associated with normal variation in meiotic processes can be risk factors for nondisjunction. The genome-wide analysis also suggested several new potentially associated loci, although follow-up studies using independent samples are required.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Não Disjunção Genética/genética , Aurora Quinase C/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Criança , Síndrome de Down/etnologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Meiose , Mães , Oócitos , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
15.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 544, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are autoimmune diseases. It is known that certain genetic loci and factors that increase the overall autoimmunity risk can be shared among different autoimmune diseases. We sought to replicate seven T1D-related SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) that have been previously reported to be associated with RA susceptibility in a small set of mixed family-based and case-control Pakistani sample in a relatively large and independent RA case-control sample from the same population. Seven T1D-associated SNPs (GLIS3/rs7020673, BACH2/rs11755527, SKAP2/rs7804356, GDSMB/rs2290400, C6orf173/rs9388489, LOC399716/rs947474 and DLK1-MEG2/rs941576) were genotyped in a large Pakistani RA case-control sample (n = 1959) using TaqMan® SNP genotyping assays. RESULTS: None of the tested SNPs showed statistically significant association with RA susceptibility; however, one SNP (GLIS3/rs7020673) showed a trend for association (OR = 0.88, p = 7.99E-02). Our study has failed to replicate the previously reported association of seven T1D-associated SNPs with RA risk in a large sample from the same population. Thus, our results do not support a major role of these T1D SNPs in affecting RA susceptibility in the Pakistani population.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão
17.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466225

RESUMO

Associations between whole blood transcriptome and clinical phenotypes in vitamin D-deficient overweight and obese children can provide insight into the biological effects of vitamin D and obesity. We determined differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in relation to body mass index (BMI) in vitamin D-deficient black children with a BMI ≥ 85th percentile and ascertained the cardiometabolic phenotypes associated with the DEGs. We examined whole-blood transcriptome gene expression by RNA sequencing and cardiometabolic profiling in 41, 10- to 18-year-old children. We found 296 DEGs in association with BMI after adjusting for age, race, sex, and pubertal status. Cardiometabolic phenotypes associated with the BMI-related DEGs, after adjusting for age, sex, pubertal status, and %total body fat, were (i) flow-mediated dilation (marker of endothelial function), (ii) c-reactive protein (marker of inflammation), and (iii) leptin (adipocytokine). Canonical pathways of relevance for childhood obesity and its phenotypes that were significantly associated with the BMI-related DEGs affected immune cell function/inflammation, vascular health, metabolic function, and cell survival/death; several immune and inflammatory pathways overlapped across the three phenotypes. We have identified transcriptome-based biomarkers associated with BMI in vitamin D-deficient, overweight and obese black children. Modulating effects of vitamin D supplementation on these biomarkers and their related phenotypes need further exploration.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Transcriptoma , Deficiência de Vitamina D/genética , Adiposidade/genética , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/sangue , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia
18.
Blood ; 134(15): 1227-1237, 2019 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350265

RESUMO

Children with Down syndrome (DS) have a 20-fold increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and distinct somatic features, including CRLF2 rearrangement in ∼50% of cases; however, the role of inherited genetic variation in DS-ALL susceptibility is unknown. We report the first genome-wide association study of DS-ALL, comprising a meta-analysis of 4 independent studies, with 542 DS-ALL cases and 1192 DS controls. We identified 4 susceptibility loci at genome-wide significance: rs58923657 near IKZF1 (odds ratio [OR], 2.02; Pmeta = 5.32 × 10-15), rs3731249 in CDKN2A (OR, 3.63; Pmeta = 3.91 × 10-10), rs7090445 in ARID5B (OR, 1.60; Pmeta = 8.44 × 10-9), and rs3781093 in GATA3 (OR, 1.73; Pmeta = 2.89 × 10-8). We performed DS-ALL vs non-DS ALL case-case analyses, comparing risk allele frequencies at these and other established susceptibility loci (BMI1, PIP4K2A, and CEBPE) and found significant association with DS status for CDKN2A (OR, 1.58; Pmeta = 4.1 × 10-4). This association was maintained in separate regression models, both adjusting for and stratifying on CRLF2 overexpression and other molecular subgroups, indicating an increased penetrance of CDKN2A risk alleles in children with DS. Finally, we investigated functional significance of the IKZF1 risk locus, and demonstrated mapping to a B-cell super-enhancer, and risk allele association with decreased enhancer activity and differential protein binding. IKZF1 knockdown resulted in significantly higher proliferation in DS than non-DS lymphoblastoid cell lines. Our findings demonstrate a higher penetrance of the CDKN2A risk locus in DS and serve as a basis for further biological insights into DS-ALL etiology.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Criança , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndrome de Down/complicações , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/complicações , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
19.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(6): 704-716, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172578

RESUMO

Phenotypic heterogeneity is a hallmark of complex traits, and genetic studies of such traits may focus on them as a single diagnostic entity or by analyzing specific components. For example, in orofacial clefting (OFC), three subtypes-cleft lip (CL), cleft lip and palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP) have been studied separately and in combination. To further dissect the genetic architecture of OFCs and how a given associated locus may be contributing to distinct subtypes of a trait we developed a framework for quantifying and interpreting evidence of subtype-specific or shared genetic effects in complex traits. We applied this technique to create a "cleft map" of the association of 30 genetic loci with three OFC subtypes. In addition to new associations, we found loci with subtype-specific effects (e.g., GRHL3 [CP], WNT5A [CLP]), as well as loci associated with two or all three subtypes. We cross-referenced these results with mouse craniofacial gene expression datasets, which identified additional promising candidate genes. However, we found no strong correlation between OFC subtypes and expression patterns. In aggregate, the cleft map revealed that neither subtype-specific nor shared genetic effects operate in isolation in OFC architecture. Our approach can be easily applied to any complex trait with distinct phenotypic subgroups.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Fenda Labial/classificação , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/classificação , Fissura Palatina/genética , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Fenótipo , Encéfalo/patologia , Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Humanos , Transcriptoma
20.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 47(4): 283-290, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Dental utilization is an important determinant of oral health and well-being. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential associations between a variety of biopsychosocial factors and dental utilization in north-central Appalachia, USA, a region where oral health disparities are profound. METHODS: This study used household-based data from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA1) study in north-central Appalachia, including 449 families with 868 adults. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used to determine the best-fitting predictor model for dental utilization among adult family members. RESULTS: On average across West Virginia and Pennsylvania, having dental insurance was associated with greater dental utilization over a 3-year time period (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.14). When stratified by state, the association held for only West Virginia (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.79) and was nonsignificant for Pennsylvania residents (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.80, 2.79). Individuals from Pennsylvania were more likely to utilize dental care and participants from West Virginia less so (2.31, 95% CI = 1.57, 3.40). Females from Pennsylvania were more likely than males to regularly seek dental care (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.00, 2.05), and a higher income was associated with greater frequency of regular dental visits (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.34) in West Virginia. Individuals from Pennsylvania who scored higher on the Physiological Arousal subscale of the Dental Fear Survey were more likely to attend routine care visits (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.35). Across both states, more fatalistic beliefs related to oral health care also predicted less routine care (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.81, 0.94), and more investment in or more positive attitudes towards one's oral health also was associated with higher utilization (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.23). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings of this study suggest state residency, sex, insurance, income, fatalistic beliefs, health values, and aspects of dental care-related anxiety and fear predicted dental care utilization in north-central Appalachia. These findings reinforce the need to address insurance and other economic factors affecting utilization and to consider how individual-level fatalistic beliefs and oral health values may affect utilization of routine oral health care.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Odontológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Região dos Apalaches , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pennsylvania , West Virginia
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