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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258003, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618832

RESUMO

Serrasalmidae has high morphological and chromosomal diversity. Based on molecular hypotheses, the family is currently divided into two subfamilies, Colossomatinae and Serrasalminae, with Serrasalminae composed of two tribes: Myleini (comprising most of pacus species) and Serrasalmini (represented by Metynnis, Catoprion, and remaining piranha's genera). This study aimed to analyze species of the tribes Myleini (Myloplus asterias, M. lobatus, M. rubripinnis, M. schomburgki, and Tometes camunani) and Serrasalmini (Metynnis cuiaba, M. hypsauchen, and M. longipinnis) using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques in order to understand the chromosomal evolution of the family. The four species of the genus Myloplus and T. camunani presented 2n = 58 chromosomes, while the species of Metynnis presented 2n = 62 chromosomes. The distribution of heterochromatin occurred predominantly in pericentromeric regions in all species. Tometes camunani and Myloplus spp. presented only one site with 5S rDNA. Multiple markers of 18S rDNA were observed in T. camunani, M. asterias, M. lobatus, M. rubripinnis, and M. schomburgkii. For Metynnis, however, synteny of the 18S and 5S rDNA was observed in the three species, in addition to an additional 5S marker in M. longipinnis. These data, when superimposed on the phylogeny of the family, suggest a tendency to increase the diploid chromosome number from 54 to 62 chromosomes, which occurred in a nonlinear manner and is the result of several chromosomal rearrangements. In addition, the different karyotype formulas and locations of ribosomal sequences can be used as cytotaxonomic markers and assist in the identification of species.

2.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198806

RESUMO

Although crocodilians have attracted enormous attention in other research fields, from the cytogenetic point of view, this group remains understudied. Here, we analyzed the karyotypes of eight species formally described from the Alligatoridae family using differential staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization with rDNA and repetitive motifs as a probe, whole chromosome painting (WCP), and comparative genome hybridization. All Caimaninae species have a diploid chromosome number (2n) 42 and karyotypes dominated by acrocentric chromosomes, in contrast to both species of Alligatorinae, which have 2n = 32 and karyotypes that are predominantly metacentric, suggesting fusion/fission rearrangements. Our WCP results supported this scenario by revealing the homeology of the largest metacentric pair present in both Alligator spp. with two smaller pairs of acrocentrics in Caimaninae species. The clusters of 18S rDNA were found on one chromosome pair in all species, except for Paleosuchus spp., which possessed three chromosome pairs bearing these sites. Similarly, comparative genomic hybridization demonstrated an advanced stage of sequence divergence among the caiman genomes, with Paleosuchus standing out as the most divergent. Thus, although Alligatoridae exhibited rather low species diversity and some level of karyotype stasis, their genomic content indicates that they are not as conserved as previously thought. These new data deepen the discussion of cytotaxonomy in this family.

3.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 161(3-4): 195-202, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126615

RESUMO

Ctenoluciidae (Characiformes), a family of freshwater fishes, comprises 2 genera, Ctenolucius and Boulengerella, with 7 recognized species. Up to now, only species of the genus Boulengerella have been subjected to cytogenetic studies. Here, we investigated the karyotype and other cytogenetic features of pike characin, Ctenolucius hujeta, using conventional (Giemsa staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR staining) and molecular (rDNA, telomeric sequences, and fiber-FISH mapping) procedures. This species has a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 36, and a karyotype composed of 12m + 20sm + 4a and FN = 68, similar to that found in Boulengerella species. However, differences regarding the number and distribution of several chromosomal markers support a distinct generic status. Colocalization of the 18S and 5S rDNA genes is an exclusive characteristic of the C. hujeta genome, with an interspersed distribution in the chromosomal fiber, an unusual phenomenon among eukaryotes. Additionally, our results support the view that Ctenoluciidae and Lebiasinidae families are closely related.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Cariotipagem/métodos , Animais , Caraciformes/classificação , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Diploide , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Cariótipo , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Telômero/genética
4.
Zebrafish ; 18(3): 221-230, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847525

RESUMO

The chromosomes of the dogtooth characins, fish species of the family Cynodontidae, have only a relatively small amount of heterochromatin, including the terminal portion. Curiously, in the cynodontid Cynodon gibbus, the terminal portion is rich in repetitive DNAs, including transposable retroelements and microsatellite sequences. Given this, this study investigated the composition of the terminal portion of the chromosomes of two cynodontid species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus and Hydrolycus armatus), to compile a database for the evaluation of all three cynodontid genera, and in particular, verify the possible tendency for the accumulation of repetitive DNAs in the terminal portion of the chromosomes of C. gibbus, H. armatus, and R. vulpinus. The Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 transposable retroelements and the (CA)15, (GA)15, (GATA)8, (GACA)8, (CAT)10, and (CAC)10 microsatellite motifs are found primarily in the terminal portion of the chromosomes of the species analyzed in this study, except R. vulpinus, which has no evidence of the presence of Rex1 or Rex3 through the fluorescent in situ hybridization technique. The mapping of the repetitive sequences, principally the microsatellite motifs, indicates a marked tendency for the accumulation of these sequences in the terminal portions of the chromosomes, which may have played a fundamental role in the differentiation of the three species.

5.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 161(3-4): 187-194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744896

RESUMO

Despite conservation of the diploid number, a huge diversity in karyotype formulae is found in the Ancistrini tribe (Loricariidae, Hypostominae). However, the lack of cytogenetic data for many groups impairs a comprehensive understanding of the chromosomal relationships and the impact of chromosomal changes on their evolutionary history. Here, we present for the first time the karyotype of Panaqolus tankei Cramer & Sousa, 2016. We focused on the chromosomal characterization, using conventional and molecular cytogenetic techniques to unravel the evolutionary trends of this tribe. P. tankei, as most species of its sister group Pterygoplichthini, also possessess a conserved diploid number of 52 chromosomes. We observed heterochromatin regions in the centromeres of many chromosomes; pairs 5 and 6 presented interstitial heterochromatin regions, whereas pairs 23 and 24 showed extensive heterochromatin regions in their q arms. In situ localization of 18S rDNA showed hybridization signals correlating with the nucleolus organizer regions, which are located in the q arms of pair 5. However, the 5S rDNA was detected in the centromeric and terminal regions of the q arms of pair 8. (TTAGGG)n hybridized only in the terminal regions of all chromosomes. Microsatellite in situ localization showed divergent patterns, (GA)15 repeated sequences were restricted to the terminal regions of some chromosomes, whereas (AC)15 and (GT)15 showed a scattered hybridization pattern throughout the genome. Intraspecific comparative genomic hybridization was performed on the chromosomes of P. tankei to verify the existence of sex-specific regions. The results revealed only a limited number of overlapping hybridization signals, coinciding with the heterochromatin in centromeric regions without any sex-specific signals in both males and females. Our study provides a karyotype description of P. tankei, highlighting extensive differences in the karyotype formula, the heterochromatin regions, and sites of 5S and 18S rDNA, as compared with data available for the genus.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Cariotipagem/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Centrômero/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , Diploide , Feminino , Heterocromatina , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Cariótipo , Masculino , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Rios
6.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 161(1-2): 70-81, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601372

RESUMO

Basic and molecular cytogenetic techniques were carried out in 3 Neotropical region populations of catfishes, two of Trachelyopterus galeatus (one from the marshlands of Paraguay River basin and another from Lago Catalão, Amazon River basin) and one of Trachelyopterus porosus, a sympatric population to T. galeatus from the Amazon River basin. This study aimed to describe and understand the structure and evolution of Trachelyopterus B chromosomes, mainly through physical mapping of repetitive elements. A diploid number of 58 chromosomes was found for all individuals, as well as the presence of B chromosomes. For T. porosus this is the first report of a supernumerary. The sympatric species of T. galeatus and T. porosus from Amazon River had 1-3 B chromosomes and T. galeatus from Paraguay River had 1-2 B chromosomes, all of them showed intra- and interindividual numerical variation. Two females of T. porosus exhibited a new variant B chromosome (B2), previously not seen in Auchenipteridae, which might have originated from B1 chromosomes. All B chromosomes were entirely heterochromatic. In contrast to all complement A and B2 chromosomes, in which the telomeric sequences were found in the telomeric regions, B1 chromosomes of all populations were totally marked by (TTAGGG)n probes. (GATA)n sequence sites were found through all complement A chromosomes, but B1 and B2 chromosomes exhibited only a clustered block in one of the chromosome arms. The most frequent B chromosomes (B1) in all populations/species, including those previously studied in Auchenipteridae catfishes, share the following characteristics: totally heterochromatic, small, metacentric, with accumulation of repetitive (TTAGGG)n sequences, and a low number of (GATA)n copies, which might suggest a common ancient origin in Trachelyopterus species/populations.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Animais , Brasil , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Análise Citogenética , Citogenética , Diploide , Feminino , Cariótipo , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Paraguai , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Telômero/ultraestrutura
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111835, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383344

RESUMO

The Amazon aquatic ecosystems have been modified by the human population growth, going through changes in their water bodies and aquatic biota. The spectacled alligator (Caiman crocodilus crocodilus) has a wide distribution and adaptability to several environments, even those polluted ones. This study aimed to investigate if a Caiman species living in urban streams of Manaus city (Amazonas State, Brazil) is affected by environmental pollution. For that, it was used classical and molecular cytogenetic procedures, in addition to micronucleus and comet assays. Although the karyotype macrostructure remains unaltered (2 n = 42 chromosomes; 24 t + 18 m/sm; NF = 60), the genotoxic analysis and the cytogenetic mapping of repetitive DNA sequences demonstrated that polluted environments alter the genome of the specimens, affecting both the chromosomal organization and the genetic material.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/fisiologia , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Brasil , Dano ao DNA , Ecossistema , Humanos
8.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(9): 539-553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227787

RESUMO

The family Aspredinidae comprises a clade of complex systematic relationships, both from molecular and morphological approaches. In this study, conventional and molecular cytogenetic studies coupled with nucleotide sequencing were performed in 6 Aspredininae species (Amaralia hypsiura, Bunocephalus cf. aloikae, Bunocephalus amaurus, Bunocephalus aff. coracoideus, Bunocephalus verrucosus, and Platystacus cotylephorus) from different locations of the Amazon hydrographic basin. Our results showed highly divergent diploid numbers (2n) among the species, ranging from 49 to 74, including the occurrence of an XX/X0 sex chromosome system. A neighbor-joining phylogram based on the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) showed that Bunocephalus coracoideus is not a monophyletic clade, but closely related to B. verrucosus. The karyotypic data associated with COI suggest an ancestral karyotype for Aspredinidae with a reduced 2n, composed of bi-armed chromosomes and a trend toward chromosomal fissions resulting in higher diploid number karyotypes, mainly composed of acrocentric chromosomes. Evolutionary relationships were discussed under a phylogenetic context with related species from different Siluriformes families. The karyotype features and chromosomal diversity of Aspredinidae show an amazing differentiation, making this family a remarkable model for investigating the evolutionary dynamics in siluriforms as well as in fish as a whole.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Brasil , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diploide , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie
9.
Comp Cytogenet ; 14(3): 437-451, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33014295

RESUMO

Cytogenetic data for the genus Cichla Bloch et Schneider, 1801 are still very limited, with only four karyotype descriptions to date. The sum of the available cytogenetic information for Cichla species, points to a maintenance of the diploid number of 48 acrocentric chromosomes, considered a typical ancestral feature in cichlids. In the current study, we performed molecular and classical cytogenetic analyses of the karyotype organization of six species of Cichla, the earliest-diverging genus of Neotropical cichlids. We cytogenetically analysed Cichla kelberi Kullander et Ferreira, 2006, Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Cichla piquiti Kullander et Ferreira, 2006, Cichla temensis Humboldt, 1821, Cichla vazzoleri Kullander et Ferreira, 2006 and Cichla pinima Kullander et Ferreira, 2006, including three individuals that showed mixed morphological characteristics, likely from different species, suggesting they were hybrid individuals. All individuals analysed showed 2n = 48 acrocentric chromosomes, with centromeric heterochromatic blocks on all chromosomes and a terminal heterochromatic region on the q arm of the 2nd pair. Mapping 18S rDNA gave hybridization signals, correlated with the nucleolus organizer regions, on the 2nd pair for all analyzed individuals. However, we found distinct patterns for 5S rDNA: interstitially at the proximal position on 6th pair of four species (C. kelberi, C. pinima, C. piquiti and C. vazzoleri), and on the distal of the 4th pair in two (C. monoculus and C. temensis). Accordingly, we present here new data for the genus and discuss the evolutionary trends in the karyotype of this group of fish. In addition, we provide data that supports the occurrence of hybrid individuals in the Uatumã River region, mainly based on 5S rDNA mapping.

10.
Cells ; 9(10)2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050432

RESUMO

The Boidae family is an ancient group of snakes widely distributed across the Neotropical region, where several biogeographic events contributed towards shaping their evolution and diversification. Most species of this family have a diploid number composed of 2n = 36; however, among Booidea families, the Boidae stands out by presenting the greatest chromosomal diversity, with 2n ranging between 36 and 44 chromosomes and an undifferentiated XY sex chromosome system. Here, we applied a comparative chromosome analysis using cross-species chromosome paintings in five species representing four Boidae genera, to decipher the evolutionary dynamics of some chromosomes in these Neotropical snakes. Our study included all diploid numbers (2n = 36, 40, and 44) known for this family and our comparative chromosomal mappings point to a strong evolutionary relationship among the genera Boa, Corallus, Eunectes, and Epicrates. The results also allowed us to propose the cytogenomic diversification that had occurred in this family: a process mediated by centric fissions, including fission events of the putative and undifferentiated XY sex chromosome system in the 2n = 44 karyotype, which is critical in solving the puzzle of the karyotype evolution of boid snakes.

11.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932633

RESUMO

The Amazonian red side-necked turtle Rhynemis rufipes is an endemic Amazonian Chelidae species that occurs in small streams throughout Colombia and Brazil river basins. Little is known about various biological aspects of this species, including its sex determination strategies. Among chelids, the greatest karyotype diversity is found in the Neotropical species, with several 2n configurations, including cases of triploidy. Here, we investigate the karyotype of Rhinemys rufipes by applying combined conventional and molecular cytogenetic procedures. This allowed us to discover a genetic sex-determining mechanism that shares an ancestral micro XY sex chromosome system. This ancient micro XY system recruited distinct repeat motifs before it diverged from several South America and Australasian species. We propose that such a system dates back to the earliest lineages of the chelid species before the split of South America and Australasian lineages.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Tartarugas/genética , Cromossomo X/genética , Cromossomo Y/genética , Animais , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa/métodos , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Cariótipo , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Telômero/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12499, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719365

RESUMO

Most of snakes exhibit a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system, with different stages of degeneration. However, undifferentiated sex chromosomes and unique Y sex-linked markers, suggest that an XY system has also evolved in ancestral lineages. Comparative cytogenetic mappings revealed that several genes share ancestry among X, Y and Z chromosomes, implying that XY and ZW may have undergone transitions during serpent's evolution. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis to identify homologies of sex chromosomes across ancestral (Henophidia) and more recent (Caenophidia) snakes. Our analysis suggests that, despite ~ 85 myr of independent evolution, henophidians and caenophidians retained conserved synteny over much of their genomes. However, our findings allowed us to discover that ancestral and recent lineages of snakes do not share the same sex chromosome and followed distinct pathways for sex chromosomes evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Serpentes/genética , Animais , Coloração Cromossômica , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , DNA/genética , Feminino , Genoma , Heterocromatina/genética , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(3): e20190093, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484848

RESUMO

We present new karyotype records for six Proechimys species from the Brazilian Amazon. P. echinothrix from the region of Purus River had 2n = 32 chromosomes and a FN = 58, while P. cuvieri from the region of the Japurá River presented 2n = 28 and FN = 46. All individuals presented hybridization with an 18S rDNA probe in a single chromosome pair, with the exception of P. cuvieri from the Japurá region, which presented a third signal in one of the homologs of pair 1. No ITS were found in any of the individuals. Our data supports the hypothesis that the P. cuvieri population from the Japurá Basin and P. echinothrix from the lower Purus are new taxonomic entities. Our data expand the geographic distribution of the cytotype (2n = 40, FN = 54) described for P. gardneri from the Madeira River, and the cytotype (2n = 46, FN = 50), described for P. guyannensis, as well as the recently-described cytotype of P. goeldii (2n = 16, FN = 14). No clear pattern of chromosomal evolution has yet been defined in Proechimys, despite the considerable karyotypic diversity of the genus.

14.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(2): e20190357, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396598

RESUMO

In recent decades the diploid numbers recorded in the New World marsupials have been widely discussed in the context of the processes of karyotype evolution in these mammals. While Interstitial Telomeric Sequences (ITS) have long been interpreted as remnants of chromosomal fusion, the biological role of these features, together with their intraspecific variation, has raised a number of questions. In the present study, we analyzed the karyotype of 11 species of Amazonian didelphids, comparing the distribution of the heterochromatin with that of the telomeric signals, and found that, in six species, the ITS coincided with the blocks of heterochromatin. While ITS were found in the X chromosomes of all Marmosa murina individuals, they were variable in all the other species, representing a specific character of each lineage. Our results support the conclusion that ITS may not always be a consequence of chromosomal rearrangements, and that the mechanisms that produce them are still unclear.

15.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(4)2020 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231057

RESUMO

Lebiasinidae fishes have been historically neglected by cytogenetical studies. Here we present a genomic comparison in eleven Lebiasinidae species, in addition to a review of the ribosomal DNA sequences distribution in this family. With that, we develop ten sets of experiments in order to hybridize the genomic DNA of representative species from the genus Copeina, Copella, Nannostomus, and Pyrrhulina in metaphase plates of Lebiasina melanoguttata. Two major pathways on the chromosomal evolution of these species can be recognized: (i) conservation of 2n = 36 bi-armed chromosomes in Lebiasininae, as a basal condition, and (ii) high numeric and structural chromosomal rearrangements in Pyrrhulininae, with a notable tendency towards acrocentrization. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) distribution also revealed a marked differentiation during the chromosomal evolution of Lebiasinidae, since both single and multiple sites, in addition to a wide range of chromosomal locations can be found. With some few exceptions, the terminal position of 18S rDNA appears as a common feature in Lebiasinidae-analyzed species. Altogether with Ctenoluciidae, this pattern can be considered a symplesiomorphism for both families. In addition to the specific repetitive DNA content that characterizes the genome of each particular species, Lebiasina also keeps inter-specific repetitive sequences, thus reinforcing its proposed basal condition in Lebiasinidae.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Cromossomos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Animais , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
16.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(3): 148-155, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272470

RESUMO

Transposable elements have driven genome evolution and plasticity in many ways across a range of organisms. Different types of biotic and abiotic stresses can stimulate the expression or transposition of these mobile elements. Here, we cytogenetically analyzed natural fish populations of the same species living under different environmental conditions to test the influence and organization of transposable elements in their genome. Differential behavior was observed for the markers Rex 1, Rex 3, and Rex 6 in the chromosomes of individuals of the same species but coming from different environments (polluted and unpolluted). An increase in the number of Rex transposable elements in the chromosomes and their influence on the genome of populations living in a polluted environment indicates that they must be under constant adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis/genética , Evolução Molecular , Peixes/genética , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Genoma/genética , Rios , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
17.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(1): 29-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092757

RESUMO

The fish family Cynodontidae belongs to the superfamily Curimatoidea, together with the Hemiodontidae, Serrasalmidae, Parodontidae, Prochilodontidae, Chilodontidae, Curimatidae, and Anostomidae. The majority of the species of this superfamily that have been analyzed to date have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 54. Differentiated sex chromosomes (with female heterogamety) have been observed only in the Prochilodontidae, Parodontidae, and Anostomidae. The present study provides the first description of differentiated sex chromosomes in the cynodontid species Cynodon gibbus, which has a ZZ/ZW system, and shows that repetitive DNA has played a fundamental role in the differentiation of these sex chromosomes.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , DNA , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Heterocromatina/química , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941136

RESUMO

Lebiasinidae is a Neotropical freshwater family widely distributed throughout South and Central America. Due to their often very small body size, Lebiasinidae species are cytogenetically challenging and hence largely underexplored. However, the available but limited karyotype data already suggested a high interspecific variability in the diploid chromosome number (2n), which is pronounced in the speciose genus Nannostomus, a popular taxon in ornamental fish trade due to its remarkable body coloration. Aiming to more deeply examine the karyotype diversification in Nannostomus, we combined conventional cytogenetics (Giemsa-staining and C-banding) with the chromosomal mapping of tandemly repeated 5S and 18S rDNA clusters and with interspecific comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to investigate genomes of four representative Nannostomus species: N. beckfordi, N. eques, N. marginatus, and N. unifasciatus. Our data showed a remarkable variability in 2n, ranging from 2n = 22 in N. unifasciatus (karyotype composed exclusively of metacentrics/submetacentrics) to 2n = 44 in N. beckfordi (karyotype composed entirely of acrocentrics). On the other hand, patterns of 18S and 5S rDNA distribution in the analyzed karyotypes remained rather conservative, with only two 18S and two to four 5S rDNA sites. In view of the mostly unchanged number of chromosome arms (FN = 44) in all but one species (N. eques; FN = 36), and with respect to the current phylogenetic hypothesis, we propose Robertsonian translocations to be a significant contributor to the karyotype differentiation in (at least herein studied) Nannostomus species. Interspecific comparative genome hybridization (CGH) using whole genomic DNAs mapped against the chromosome background of N. beckfordi found a moderate divergence in the repetitive DNA content among the species' genomes. Collectively, our data suggest that the karyotype differentiation in Nannostomus has been largely driven by major structural rearrangements, accompanied by only low to moderate dynamics of repetitive DNA at the sub-chromosomal level. Possible mechanisms and factors behind the elevated tolerance to such a rate of karyotype change in Nannostomus are discussed.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Evolução Molecular , Cariótipo , Filogenia , Animais
19.
Comp Cytogenet ; 14(1): 27-42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998448

RESUMO

The karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics of three Acestrorhynchus Eigenmann et Kennedy, 1903 species were examined using conventional and molecular protocols. These species had invariably a diploid chromosome number 2n = 50. Acestrorhynchus falcatus (Block, 1794) and Acestrorhynchus falcirostris (Cuvier, 1819) had the karyotype composed of 16 metacentric (m) + 28 submetacentric (sm) + 6 subtelocentric (st) chromosomes while Acestrorhynchus microlepis (Schomburgk, 1841) had the karyotype composed of 14m+30sm+6st elements. In this species, differences of the conventional and molecular markers between the populations of Catalão Lake (AM) and of Apeu Stream (PA) were found. Thus the individuals of Pará (Apeu) were named Acestrorhynchus prope microlepis. The distribution of the constitutive heterochromatin blocks was species-specific, with C-positive bands in the centromeric and telomeric regions of a number of different chromosomes, as well as in interstitial sites and completely heterochromatic arms. The phenotypes of nucleolus organizer region (NOR) were simple, i. e. in a terminal position on the p arm of pair No. 23 except in A. microlepis, in which it was located on the q arm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed 18S rDNA sites on one chromosome pair in karyotype of A. falcirostris and A. prope microlepis (pair No. 23) and three pairs (Nos. 12, 23, 24) in A. falcatus and (Nos. 8, 23, 24) in A. microlepis; 5S rDNA sites were detected in one chromosome pair in all three species. The mapping of the telomeric sequences revealed terminal sequences in all the chromosomes, as well as the presence of interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) in a number of chromosome pairs. The cytogenetic data recorded in the present study indicate that A. prope microlepis may be an unnamed species.

20.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 18(4): e200055, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-1135408

RESUMO

The South American giant fishes of the genus Arapaima, commonly known as pirarucu, are one of the most iconic among Osteoglossiformes. Previously cytogenetic studies have identified their karyotype characteristics; however, characterization of cytotaxonomic differentiation across their distribution range remains unknown. In this study, we compared chromosomal characteristics using conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols in pirarucu populations from the Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia river basins to verify if there is differentiation among representatives of this genus. Our data revealed that individuals from all populations present the same diploid chromosome number 2n=56 and karyotype composed of 14 pairs of meta- to submetacentric and 14 pairs of subtelo- to acrocentric chromosomes. The minor and major rDNA sites are in separate chromosomal pairs, in which major rDNA sites corresponds to large heterochromatic blocks. Comparative genomic hybridizations (CGH) showed that the genome of these populations shared a great portion of repetitive elements, due to a lack of substantial specific signals. Our comparative cytogenetic data analysis of pirarucu suggested that, although significant genetic differences occur among populations, their general karyotype patterns remain conserved.(AU)


Os peixes gigantes da América do Sul do gêneroArapaima, comumente conhecidos como pirarucus, são um dos mais icônicos de Osteoglossiformes. Estudos citogenéticos prévios identificaram suas características cariotípicas, entretanto a caracterização da diferenciação citotaxonômica através de suas distribuições geográficas ainda são desconhecidas. Nesse estudo, nós comparamos características cromossômicas utilizando técnicas de citogenética clássica e molecular em populações das bacias dos rios Amazonas e Tocantins-Araguaia, a fim de verificar se há alguma diferenciação entre representantes desse gênero. Nossos dados revelaram que indivíduos de todas as populações apresentam número diploide de 2n=56 cromossomos e que seus cariótipos são compostos de 14 pares de cromossomos meta- e submetacêntricos e 14 pares de subtelo- e acrocêntricos. Os sítios maiores e menores de rDNA estão localizados em pares cromossômicos separados, onde os sítios maiores de rDNA correspondem a grandes blocos heterocromáticos. Hibridizações genômicas comparativas (CGH) mostraram que o genoma dos espécimes dessas populações é amplamente compartilhado, devido à falta de sinais substanciais específicos. Nossos dados de citogenética comparativa do pirarucu sugerem que embora diferenças genéticas significativas ocorram entre populações, os padrões cariotípicos gerais se mantêm conservados.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Citogenética , Cariótipo , Peixes/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ecossistema Amazônico , Rios , Análise de Dados
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