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1.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1902778, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045544

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide guidelines for the accurate pathologic diagnosis of breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL), the preoperative evaluation of the patient with suspected BIA-ALCL, and the pathologic evaluation of the capsulectomy specimen. METHODS: To better inform patients and healthcare providers about BIA-ALCL, we convened to review diagnostic procedures used in the evaluation of patients with suspected BIA-ALCL. We focused on the processing of the seroma fluid/effusion surrounding the implant, the handling of capsulectomy specimens following removal of implant(s), and the preoperative evaluation of the patient with suspected BIA-ALCL. Recommendations were based on the published literature and our experience to optimize procedures to obtain an accurate diagnosis and assess for tumor invasion and the extent of the disease. RECOMMENDATIONS: Early diagnosis of BIA-ALCL is important as the disease can progress and deaths have been reported. Because the most common presentation of BIA-ALCL is swelling of the breast with fluid collection, an accurate diagnosis requires cytologic evaluation of the effusion fluid surrounding the affected implant. The first priority is cytocentrifugation and filtration of fresh, unfixed effusion fluid to produce air-dried smears that are stained with Wright-Giemsa or other Romanowsky-type stains. Preparation of a cell block is desirable to allow for hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded histologic sections. Cell block sections can be used for polymerase chain reaction-based investigation of T-cell receptor gene rearrangement to detect clonality. Fixation and mapping of the capsulectomy specimen to select multiple representative sections are advised to assess for microscopic tumor involvement and capsular invasion. It is appropriate to assess lymph node involvement by excisional biopsy material rather than fine needle aspiration, due to propensity for focal involvement.

3.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 13(2): 127-139, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903826

RESUMO

Introduction: T-cell lymphomas represent a broad group of malignant T-cell neoplasms with marked molecular, clinical, and biologic heterogeneity. Survival rates after conventional chemotherapy regimens are poor for most subtypes and new therapies are needed. Rapidly expanding knowledge in the field of epigenomics and the development of an increasing number of epigenetic-modifying agents have created new opportunities for epigenetic therapies for patients with this complex group of diseases.Areas covered: The present review summarizes current knowledge on epigenetic alterations in T-cell lymphomas, availability, and mechanisms of action of epigenetic-modifying agents, results of clinical trials of epigenetic therapies in T-cell lymphomas, status of FDA approval, and biomarker approaches to guide therapy. Promising future directions are discussed.Expert opinion: Mutations in epigenetic-modifying genes are among the most common genetic alterations in T-cell lymphomas, highlighting the potential for epigenetic therapies to improve management of this group of diseases. Single-agent efficacy is well documented, leading to FDA approval for several indications, but overall response rates and durability of responses remain modest. Critical next steps for the field include optimizing combination therapies that incorporate epigenetic-modifying agents and developing predictive biomarkers that help guide patient and drug selection.

4.
Histopathology ; 76(3): 481-485, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557339

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to review our 5-year experience with clinical FISH testing for TP63 rearrangements using both TP63 break-apart (BAP) and TBL1XR1/TP63 dual-fusion (D-FISH) probes to evaluate the frequency of TP63 rearrangements and the distribution of TBL1XR1 vs. alternate partner loci, and to assess whether both probe sets are necessary in all cases undergoing FISH testing. METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective review of the Mayo Clinic cytogenetic database identified 470 patients evaluated by FISH testing for TP63 rearrangements in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue using both BAP and D-FISH probes. Of these, 25 (5.3%) had TP63 rearrangements. All samples were being investigated for anaplastic large-cell lymphoma or other T cell lymphoma subtypes. A TBL1XR1 partner was identified by D-FISH in 12 (48%) of 25 cases. All cases positive by TBL1XR1/TP63 D-FISH were also positive by TP63 BAP FISH. CONCLUSION: This is the largest series of TP63 rearrangements to date. The frequency of positive results among cases referred to a large reference laboratory for TP63 FISH testing was 5.3%. Approximately half of TP63 rearrangements have a TBL1XR1 partner. TP63 BAP FISH testing is sufficient for up-front testing of FFPE tissue samples. However, because of the genomic proximity of the TP63 and TBL1XR1 loci, we recommend reflex TBL1XR1/TP63 D-FISH testing in positive and equivocal cases.

5.
Clin Epidemiol ; 11: 987-996, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814771

RESUMO

Background: Hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration at diagnosis is associated with outcome in cancer. In a recently reported simplified 3-factor prognostic score in Hodgkin lymphoma, Hgb, along with age and clinical stage, outperformed the classical International Prognostic Score with seven parameters. Methods: In the present study, we investigated if pretherapeutic Hgb concentration added prognostic information to the NCCN-IPI in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We included patients from the Danish Lymphoma Registry (LYFO; N = 3499) and from the Molecular Epidemiology Resource (MER; N = 1225), Mayo Clinic and University of Iowa. Four sex-specific Hgb groups were defined: below transfusion threshold, from transfusion threshold to below lower limit of normal, from lower limit of normal to the population mean, and above the mean. We used multivariable Cox regression to estimate the hazard rate ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS), adjusting for sex, NCCN-IPI, comorbidity, and rituximab treatment. Results: Approximately half of the patients had Hgb levels below the lower limit of normal. Compared to patients with Hgb levels above the mean, an inferior OS was directly correlated with lower pretreatment Hgb within the predefined groups (HR=1.23, HR=1.51, and HR=2.05, respectively). These findings were validated in the MER. Conclusion: Based on multivariable analysis, lower pretreatment Hgb, even within the normal range but below the mean, added prognostic information to established indices such as the NCCN-IPI and the Charlson comorbidity index.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human pegivirus (HPgV) is a single-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae. Although no definitive association between HPgV infection and disease has been identified, previous studies have suggested an association of HPgV viremia with risk of lymphomas. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis, including 1 cohort study and 14 case-control studies, assessing the association of HPgV viremia with adult lymphomas. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model, overall and by geographic region and lymphoma subtype. RESULTS: The overall OR for lymphoma was 2.85 (95% CI, 1.98-4.11), with statistically significantly elevated ORs observed in 8 of 15 studies. There was a small amount of heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 28.9%; Q = 18.27, P = .16), and the funnel plot provided no evidence for publication bias. The strongest association with lymphoma risk was observed for studies from Southern Europe (OR, 5.68 [95% CI, 1.98-16.3]), whereas weaker ORs (with 95% CIs) were observed for studies from North America (2.24 [1.76-2.85]), Northern Europe (2.90 [.45-18.7), and the Middle East (2.51 [.87-7.27]), but all of similar magnitude. Participants with HPgV viremia had statistically significantly increased risks (OR [95% CI]) for developing diffuse large B-cell (3.29 [1.63-6.62]), follicular (3.01 [1.95-4.63]), marginal zone (1.90 [1.13-3.18]), and T-cell (2.11 [1.17-3.89]) lymphomas, while the risk for Hodgkin lymphoma (3.53 [.48-25.9]) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (1.45 [.45-4.66]) were increased but did not achieve statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis supports a positive association of HPgV viremia with lymphoma risk, overall and for the major lymphoma subtypes.

8.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(10): 84, 2019 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611550

RESUMO

Signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα) is a key member of the "do-not-eat-me" signaling pathway, but its biological role and clinical relevance in B-cell NHL is relatively unknown. Using biopsy specimens from follicular lymphoma (FL), we identified three subsets (CD14+SIRPαhi, CD14-SIRPαlow, and CD14-SIRPαneg) of monocyte/macrophages (Mo/MΦ) based on CD14 and SIRPα expression. CD14+SIRPαhi cells expressed common Mo/MΦ markers; exhibited characteristic differentiation, migration, and phagocytosis; and suppressed T-cell function. CD14-SIRPαlow cells expressed fewer typical Mo/MΦ markers; migrated less and phagocytosed tumor cells less efficiently; and stimulated rather than suppressed T-cell function. Interestingly, the CD14-SIRPαneg subset expressed distinct Mo/MΦ markers compared to the other two subsets; had limited ability to migrate and phagocytose; but stimulated T-cell function. When using SIRPα-Fc to block the interaction between SIRPα and CD47, alone or in combination with rituximab, phagocytosis of tumor cells was differentially increased in the three Mo/MΦ subsets. Clinically, increased numbers of CD14+SIRPαhi cells were associated with an inferior survival in FL. In contrast, increased numbers of the CD14-SIRPαlow subset appeared to correlate with a better survival. Taken together, our results show that SIRPα expression delineates unique subsets of intratumoral Mo/MΦs with differing prognostic importance.

9.
Blood ; 134(24): 2159-2170, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562134

RESUMO

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell malignancies; approximately one-third of cases are designated as PTCL-not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS). Using gene-expression profiling (GEP), we have previously defined 2 major molecular subtypes of PTCL-NOS, PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21, which have distinct biological differences in oncogenic pathways and prognosis. In the current study, we generated an immunohistochemistry (IHC) algorithm to identify the 2 subtypes in paraffin tissue using antibodies to key transcriptional factors (GATA3 and TBX21) and their target proteins (CCR4 and CXCR3). In a training cohort of 49 cases of PTCL-NOS with corresponding GEP data, the 2 subtypes identified by the IHC algorithm matched the GEP results with high sensitivity (85%) and showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) (P = .03). The IHC algorithm classification showed high interobserver reproducibility among pathologists and was validated in a second PTCL-NOS cohort (n = 124), where a significant difference in OS between the PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21 subtypes was confirmed (P = .003). In multivariate analysis, a high International Prognostic Index score (3-5) and the PTCL-GATA3 subtype identified by IHC were independent adverse predictors of OS (P = .0015). Additionally, the 2 IHC-defined subtypes were significantly associated with distinct morphological features (P < .001), and there was a significant enrichment of an activated CD8+ cytotoxic phenotype in the PTCL-TBX21 subtype (P = .03). The IHC algorithm will aid in identifying the 2 subtypes in clinical practice, which will aid the future clinical management of patients and facilitate risk stratification in clinical trials.

10.
Blood Cancer J ; 9(9): 73, 2019 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471540

RESUMO

Copy number alterations (CNAs) of 9p24.1 occur frequently in Hodgkin lymphoma, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL), primary central nervous system lymphoma, and primary testicular lymphoma, resulting in overexpression of PD-L1 and sensitivity to PD-1 blockade-based immunotherapy. While 9p24.1 CNA was also reported in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), little is known about its molecular or clinical significance. In this study, we analyzed the prevalence of 9p24.1 CNA in newly diagnosed DLBCL and examined its association with PD-L1, PD-L2, and JAK2 expression, clinical characteristics, and outcome. We found that 10% of DLBCL cases had CNA of 9p24.1, with 6.5% gains, and 3.5% amplifications. Only the cases with a 9p24.1 amplification had high levels of PD-L1, PD-L2, and JAK2 expression. Gains or amplifications of 9p24.1 were associated with a younger age and the ABC/non-GCB subtype. Compared with DLBCL cases without 9p24.1 CNA, the cases with a 9p24.1 amplification had a trend of better event-free survival. Furthermore, the amplification cases had a gene expression and mutation profile similar to those of PMBCL. Our data suggest that amplification of 9p24.1 identifies a unique subset of DLBCL with clinical and molecular features resembling PMBCL that may be amenable to PD-1 blockade-based immunotherapy.

11.
Expert Rev Hematol ; 12(10): 833-843, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365276

RESUMO

Introduction: The classification of lymphomas is based on the postulated normal counterparts of lymphoid neoplasms and currently constitutes over 100 definite or provisional entities. As this number of entities implies, lymphomas show marked pathological, genetic, and clinical heterogeneity. Recent molecular findings have significantly advanced our understanding of lymphomas. Areas covered: The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms was updated in 2017. The present review summarizes the new findings that have been gained in the areas of mature T-cell neoplasms, Hodgkin lymphomas, and histiocytic/dendritic cell neoplasms since the publication of the 2017 WHO classification. Expert opinion: Although formal revisions to the WHO classification are published only periodically, our understanding of the pathologic, genetic, and clinical features of lymphoid neoplasms is constantly evolving, particularly in the age of -omics technologies and targeted therapeutics. Even in the relatively short time since the publication of the 2017 WHO classification, many significant findings have been identified in the entities covered in this review.

12.
Blood ; 134(16): 1289-1297, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350266

RESUMO

Some patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) present with a concurrent indolent lymphoma at diagnosis. Their outcomes in the rituximab era are not fully defined. Using a prospectively followed cohort of 1324 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with immunochemotherapy, we defined the prevalence, characteristics, and outcome of DLBCL with concurrent indolent lymphoma. Compared with patients with DLBCL alone (n = 1153; 87.1%), patients with concurrent DLBCL and follicular lymphoma (FL) (n = 109; 8.2%) had fewer elevations in lactate dehydrogenase, lower International Prognostic Index (IPI), and predominantly germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) subtype, whereas patients with concurrent DLBCL and other indolent lymphomas (n = 62; 4.7%) had more stage III-IV disease and a trend toward higher IPI and non-GCB subtype. After adjusting for IPI, patients with concurrent DLBCL and FL had similar event-free survival (EFS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.95) and a trend of better overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.75) compared with patients with DLBCL alone, but nearly identical EFS (HR = 1.00) and OS (HR = 0.84) compared with patients with GCB DLBCL alone. Patients with concurrent DLBCL and other indolent lymphomas had similar EFS (HR = 1.19) and OS (HR = 1.09) compared with patients with DLBCL alone. In conclusion, DLBCL patients with concurrent FL predominantly had the GCB subtype with outcomes similar to that of GCB DLBCL patients. DLBCL patients with concurrent other indolent lymphoma had similar outcomes compared with patients with DLBCL alone. These patients should not be summarily excluded from DLBCL clinical trials.

13.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 43(9): 1282-1290, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283630

RESUMO

The 2017 World Health Organization update introduced a new category of nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma with T-follicular helper phenotype (PTCL-TFH) defined by expression of at least 2 or 3 TFH markers. Our study assesses the utility of an immunohistochemical panel of 5 TFH markers (CD10, BCL6, PD-1, CXCL13, and ICOS) for identification of TFH phenotype in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and PTCL not otherwise specified (NOS). Immunohistochemical for the 5 markers was performed on 22 cases of AITL and 29 cases of PTCL-NOS. Cases were reviewed for morphologic features characteristic of AITL. All AITL cases showed expression of ≥2 TFH markers. This panel resulted in reclassification of 41% PTCL-NOS cases to PTCL-TFH. Positive percent agreement for the TFH phenotype is 97% for PD1, 94% for ICOS, 44% for CD10 and CXCL13, and 29% for BCL6. Negative percent agreement for TFH phenotype is 100% for CD10, BCL6, and CXCL13, 82% for ICOS and 71% for PD1. AITL cases were more likely than PTCL-TFH cases to contain expanded CD21-positive follicular dendritic cell meshworks, clear cell cytology and polymorphous inflammatory background; however, there was a significant (P<0.005) Kruskal-Wallis trend in all morphologic variables between the 3 groups suggesting a continuum from PTCL-NOS to PTCL-TFH to AITL. The median number of morphologic features of AITL also correlated significantly with number of TFH markers positive (Spearman coefficient ρ=0.759). In summary, the stain panel chosen will have an impact on cases classified as PTCL-TFH. This entity may exist along a spectrum between PTCL-NOS and AITL.

14.
Br J Haematol ; 186(6): 820-828, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135975

RESUMO

The diabetes mellitus (DM) drug metformin targets mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibits lymphoma growth in vitro. We investigated whether metformin affected outcomes of newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL, n = 869) and follicular lymphoma (FL, n = 895) patients enrolled in the Mayo component of the Molecular Epidemiology Resource cohort study between 2002 and 2015. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, prognostic index and treatment were used to estimate the association of metformin exposure (No DM/No metformin; DM/No metformin; DM/Metformin) with event-free (EFS), lymphoma-specific (LSS) and overall (OS) survival. Compared to No DM/No metformin DLBCL patients, there was no association of DM/Metformin (n = 48; HR = 1·05, 95% CI 0·59-1·89) or DM/No metformin(n = 54; HR = 1·41, 95% CI 0·88-2·26) with EFS; results were similar for LSS and OS. Compared to No DM/No metformin FL patients, there was no association of DM/Metformin (n = 37; HR = 1·16, 95% CI 0·71-1·89) or DM/No metformin (n = 19; HR = 1·16, 95% CI 0·66-2·04) with EFS; results were similar for LSS. However, DM/Metformin was associated with inferior OS (HR = 2·17; 95% CI 1·19-3·95) compared to No DM/No metformin. In conclusion, we found no evidence that metformin use was associated with improved outcomes in newly diagnosed DLBCL and FL.

15.
Blood ; 133(26): 2776-2789, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101622

RESUMO

Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCLs) represent a relatively common group of T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-NHLs) that are unified by similar pathologic features but demonstrate marked genetic heterogeneity. ALCLs are broadly classified as being anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)+ or ALK-, based on the presence or absence of ALK rearrangements. Exome sequencing of 62 T-NHLs identified a previously unreported recurrent mutation in the musculin gene, MSC E116K, exclusively in ALK- ALCLs. Additional sequencing for a total of 238 T-NHLs confirmed the specificity of MSC E116K for ALK- ALCL and further demonstrated that 14 of 15 mutated cases (93%) had coexisting DUSP22 rearrangements. Musculin is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that heterodimerizes with other bHLH proteins to regulate lymphocyte development. The E116K mutation localized to the DNA binding domain of musculin and permitted formation of musculin-bHLH heterodimers but prevented their binding to authentic target sequence. Functional analysis showed MSCE116K acted in a dominant-negative fashion, reversing wild-type musculin-induced repression of MYC and cell cycle inhibition. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and transcriptome analysis identified the cell cycle regulatory gene E2F2 as a direct transcriptional target of musculin. MSCE116K reversed E2F2-induced cell cycle arrest and promoted expression of the CD30-IRF4-MYC axis, whereas its expression was reciprocally induced by binding of IRF4 to the MSC promoter. Finally, ALCL cells expressing MSC E116K were preferentially targeted by the BET inhibitor JQ1. These findings identify a novel recurrent MSC mutation as a key driver of the CD30-IRF4-MYC axis and cell cycle progression in a unique subset of ALCLs.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Linfoma Anaplásico de Células Grandes/genética , Quinase do Linfoma Anaplásico/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Mutação
16.
J Cutan Pathol ; 46(9): 637-644, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a systemic peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a follicular helper T-cell (TFH ) immunophenotype that frequently involves the skin. However, the histopathology of cutaneous involvement by AITL has not been fully established. METHODS: We reviewed the clinicopathological features of 19 patients seen at our institution with AITL involving the skin. Pan-T-cell and TFH marker expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected using in situ hybridization (ISH) for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (EBER). T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement was evaluated by PCR. RESULTS: AITL affected both trunk and extremities in 15/19 cases (79%). Perivascular infiltration by small and/or medium-sized lymphocytes was seen in 18/19 (95%). Granulomatous inflammation was identified in 4/19 (21%). Aberrant loss of CD2, CD5, or CD7 was identified in 1/18 (6%), 2/18 (11%), or 7/19 (37%) cases, respectively. Seventeen of eighteen evaluable cases (95%) expressed 2 to 3 TFH markers: PD-1 in 19/19 (100%), BCL6 in 94% (17/18), and CD10 in 37% (7/19). EBV-positive cells were detected in 3/18 (17%) with varying density. Clonal TCR gene rearrangement was identified in 9/11 (82%). CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous involvement by AITL shows relatively non-specific histopathological features. However, an immunohistochemical panel including TFH markers and EBER ISH is useful in differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T , Linfoma de Células T Periférico , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/patologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/imunologia , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/patologia , Linfoma Cutâneo de Células T/virologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/patologia , Linfoma de Células T Periférico/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/virologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/patologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/virologia
19.
Am J Hematol ; 94(6): 658-666, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916801

RESUMO

Indolent B-cell lymphomas other than follicular lymphoma account for up to 10% of all B-cell neoplasms. While they typically follow a slowly progressive course, some patients experience rapid progression and early mortality. Prognostic scoring systems have not been adopted, hindering the ability of clinicians or researchers to predict outcomes, or risk-stratify patients during clinical trials. To address this, we evaluated the utility of existing prognostic indices and novel, early disease-related outcomes, to predict subsequent long term survival. Baseline characteristics and outcomes data were generated from a longitudinal cohort study that prospectively enrolled 632 patients newly diagnosed with marginal zone lymphoma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphomas, or B-cell lymphomas not otherwise specified, beginning in 2002. The International Prognostic Index (IPI), Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI), and MALT International prognostic index (MALT-IPI) demonstrated c-statistics that ranged from 0.593-0.612 for event-free survival (EFS), and 0.683-0.714 for overall survival (OS). Patients who attained event-free survival at 12 months (EFS12) experienced similar mortality to the US general population (standardized mortality ratio [SMR] 1.19; 95% CI 0.95-1.46). Patients who did not attain EFS12 had subsequent worse morality (SMR 3.14 (95% CI 2.05-4.59). The MALT-IPI demonstrated utility in predicting subsequent long-term outcomes among patients with non-follicular indolent B-cell lymphomas. This index should be used by clinicians giving guidance to patients at the time of initial diagnosis, and risk stratification during clinical studies. The divergent long-term outcomes experienced by patients who do or do not attain EFS12 suggest there exists a subset of patients who harbor high-risk disease. Future research efforts should focus on methods to identify these patients at the time of diagnosis, in order to enable risk-tailored therapy.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma de Zona Marginal Tipo Células B/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
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