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1.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22Suppl 02(Suppl 02): E190012.SUPL.2, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) indicators, including laboratory tests, in the population of Brazilian women of reproductive age, according to whether or not they receive the Bolsa Família (BF) benefit. METHODS: A total of 3,131 women aged 18 to 49 years old who participated in the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde ) laboratory examination sub-sample were considered. We compared indicators among women of reproductive age (18 to 49 years old) who reported receiving BF or not, and calculated prevalence and confidence intervals, using Pearson's χ2. RESULTS: Women of reproductive age who were beneficiaries of BF had worse health outcomes, such as a greater occurrence of being overweight (33.5%) and obese (26.9%) (p < 0.001), having hypertension (13.4% versus 4.4%, p < 0.001), used more tobacco (11.2% versus 8.2%, p = 0.029), and perceived their health as worse (6.2% versus 2.4%, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Several NCD indicators were worse among women of childbearing age who were beneficiaries of BF. It should be emphasized that this is not a causal relationship, with BF being a marker of inequalities among women. The benefit has been directed to the population with greater health needs, and seeks to reduce inequities.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Assistência Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Valores de Referência , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 53: e03441, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trajectory taken by pregnant women for delivery care in Belo Horizonte and its relation with the reproductive outcomes. METHOD: A cross-sectional study using a database from a study conducted in Belo Horizonte. The studied variables were referent to the trajectory of women seeking delivery care, to their social, demographic and health care characteristics, and to the reproductive outcomes. Odds Ratios were estimated with their 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the factors associated with unfavorable trajectory and outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 1,087 cases were studied, of which 39.3% had an unfavorable trajectory. The chance of having an unfavorable trajectory was higher for women who were not Belo Horizonte residents, with lower education, non-white race/color, and who had undergone prenatal care in public healthcare service. The prevalence of reproductive outcomes was similar regardless of the trajectory status, except for vaginal delivery. CONCLUSION: An unfavorable trajectory remains high, and shows weaknesses in the health care services network to guarantee timely and qualified access to pregnant women. However, the care received in the health services outweighs the risks of an unfavorable trajectory.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodução , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
3.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(4): 386-406, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986134

RESUMO

The authors estimated the prevalence and trends of overweight, obesity, diabetes and hypertension among Brazilian women of reproductive age. A time series was constructed with Vigitel data from 2008 to 2015 and we analyzed trends of the prevalence of these conditions, considering sociodemographic characteristics. We observed an increasing trend in prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes (for some sociodemographic characteristics), and stationary trends for hypertension. Our results highlight the need for early interventions in lifestyle of this population to reduce the NCDs risk factors burden and potentially contribute to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes and reduce the NCDs load.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03441, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1003096

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the trajectory taken by pregnant women for delivery care in Belo Horizonte and its relation with the reproductive outcomes. Method: A cross-sectional study using a database from a study conducted in Belo Horizonte. The studied variables were referent to the trajectory of women seeking delivery care, to their social, demographic and health care characteristics, and to the reproductive outcomes. Odds Ratios were estimated with their 95% confidence intervals to evaluate the factors associated with unfavorable trajectory and outcomes. Results: A total of 1,087 cases were studied, of which 39.3% had an unfavorable trajectory. The chance of having an unfavorable trajectory was higher for women who were not Belo Horizonte residents, with lower education, non-white race/color, and who had undergone prenatal care in public healthcare service. The prevalence of reproductive outcomes was similar regardless of the trajectory status, except for vaginal delivery. Conclusion: An unfavorable trajectory remains high, and shows weaknesses in the health care services network to guarantee timely and qualified access to pregnant women. However, the care received in the health services outweighs the risks of an unfavorable trajectory.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Analizar la trayectoria recorrida por las embarazadas para asistencia al parto en Belo Horizonte y su relación con los resultados reproductivos. Método: Estudio transversal, que utilizó la base de datos de una investigación llevada a cabo en Belo Horizonte. Las variables estudiadas fueron referentes a la trayectoria de la mujer en búsqueda de atención al parto, a sus características sociales, demográficas y de asistencia y a los resultados reproductivos. Se estimó Odds Ratios con sus intervalos del 95% de confianza para evaluar los factores asociados con la trayectoria desfavorable y a los resultados. Resultados: Fueron estudiados 1.087 casos, de los que el 39,3% tuvieron trayectoria desfavorable. La probabilidad de tener trayectoria desfavorable fue mayor para las mujeres no residentes en Belo Horizonte, con menor escolaridad, de la raza/color no blanco y que realizaron el prenatal en el servicio público. La prevalencia de los resultados reproductivos fue semejante, independientemente del status de la trayectoria, excepto para parto vaginal. Conclusión: La trayectoria desfavorable, todavía elevada, evidencia fragilidades de la red de servicios sanitarios para asegurar el acceso oportuno y calificado a las gestantes. Sin embargo, la asistencia recibida en los servicios sanitarios supera los riesgos de la trayectoria.


RESUMO Objetivo: Analisar a trajetória percorrida pelas gestantes para assistência ao parto em Belo Horizonte e sua relação com os desfechos reprodutivos. Método: Estudo transversal, que utilizou base de dados de uma pesquisa realizada em Belo Horizonte. As variáveis estudadas foram referentes à trajetória da mulher em busca de atendimento para o parto, às suas características sociais, demográficas e assistenciais e aos desfechos reprodutivos. Estimou-se Odds Ratios com seus intervalos de 95% de confiança para avaliar os fatores associados à trajetória desfavorável e aos desfechos. Resultados: Foram estudados 1.087 casos, dos quais 39,3% tiveram trajetória desfavorável. A chance de ter trajetória desfavorável foi maior para mulheres não residentes em Belo Horizonte, com menor escolaridade, da raça/cor não branca e que realizaram o pré-natal no serviço público. A prevalência dos desfechos reprodutivos foi semelhante, independentemente do status da trajetória, exceto para parto vaginal. Conclusão: A trajetória desfavorável, ainda elevada, evidencia fragilidades da rede de serviços de saúde para garantir acesso oportuno e qualificado às gestantes. Porém, a assistência recebida nos serviços de saúde supera os riscos da trajetória.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Avaliação em Saúde , Parto , Gestantes , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Enfermagem Obstétrica
5.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22(supl.2): E190012.SUPL.2, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1042224

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência dos indicadores de doenças crônicas não transmíssiveis (DCNT), incluindo exames laboratoriais, na população de mulheres brasileiras em idade reprodutiva segundo o recebimento do benefício Bolsa Família (BF). Métodos: Consideraram-se as 3.131 mulheres de 18 a 49 anos que participaram da submamostra de exames laboratoriais da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde (PNS). Foram comparados indicadores entre as mulheres em idade reprodutiva (18 a 49 anos) que disseram ter ou não Bolsa Família e calculados prevalência e intervalo de confiança (IC) usando χ2 de Pearson. Resultados: Observou-se que as mulheres em idade reprodutiva beneficiárias do BF quando comparadas às não beneficiárias têm piores desfechos em saúde, como maior ocorrência de sobrepeso (33,5%) e obesidade (26,9%) (p < 0,001), hipertensão 13,4% versus 4,4% (p < 0,001), uso de tabaco (11,2%) versus 8,2% (p = 0,029), além de 6,2% perceberem sua saúde pior, em comparação a 2,4% das mulheres não beneficiárias (p<0,001). Conclusão: Diversos indicadores de DCNT tiveram pior desempenho entre as mulheres em idade reprodutiva beneficiárias do BF. Destaca-se que essa não é uma relação causal, sendo o BF um marcador de desigualdade entre mulheres. O benefício tem sido direcionado à população com maior necessidade em saúde, buscando assim reduzir iniquidades.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) indicators, including laboratory tests, in the population of Brazilian women of reproductive age, according to whether or not they receive the Bolsa Família (BF) benefit. Methods: A total of 3,131 women aged 18 to 49 years old who participated in the National Health Survey (Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde ) laboratory examination sub-sample were considered. We compared indicators among women of reproductive age (18 to 49 years old) who reported receiving BF or not, and calculated prevalence and confidence intervals, using Pearson's χ2. Results: Women of reproductive age who were beneficiaries of BF had worse health outcomes, such as a greater occurrence of being overweight (33.5%) and obese (26.9%) (p < 0.001), having hypertension (13.4% versus 4.4%, p < 0.001), used more tobacco (11.2% versus 8.2%, p = 0.029), and perceived their health as worse (6.2% versus 2.4%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Several NCD indicators were worse among women of childbearing age who were beneficiaries of BF. It should be emphasized that this is not a causal relationship, with BF being a marker of inequalities among women. The benefit has been directed to the population with greater health needs, and seeks to reduce inequities.

6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180004, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517455

RESUMO

AIM: To analyze the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs among schoolchildren according to demographic factors, family context and mental health. METHODS: We used data from the National School-based Health Survey 2015 and included in the sample 102,301 schoolchildren in the 9th grade. We estimated the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in the last 30 days and drug experimentation according to demographic, mental health and family context variables. Then, a bivariate analysis was performed using Pearson's χ2 test and the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated. Finally, we conducted a multivariate analysis including independent variables with an unadjusted association (p < 0.20), for each outcome, estimating the adjusted OR with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco consumption was 5.6%; alcohol consumption, 23.8%; and drug experimentation, 9.0%. Multivariate analysis has indicated that living with parents, having meals with parents or guardian, and family supervision were associated with lower substance consumption; whereas missing classes without parental consent has increased the chances of substance use. Increased chance of substance use was also associated with white skin color, increasing age, to work, feeling lonely and having insomnia. Not having friends was associated with drug and tobacco use, but this was protective for alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Family supervision was protective for psychoactive substance use among Brazilian schoolchildren, whereas work, loneliness and insomnia have increased their chances of use.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180005, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relation between parental supervision and sociodemographic factors and alcohol use by Brazilian adolescents. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study with data from National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2015, which included 16,608 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, students from Brazilian public and private schools. Variables related to alcohol use, sociodemographic factors and parental supervision were evaluated. In order to analyze the relation between sociodemographic variables, parental supervision and use of alcohol among adolescents, prevalence ratios stratified by sex were used. RESULTS: It was observed that 61.4% of the adolescents had tried alcohol, 27.2% had a drunken episode in their lifetime, 9.3% have had problems with alcohol and 29.3% reported alcohol use in last 30 days. The lack of parental supervision was associated with increased use of alcohol. The proportion of alcohol use was higher for girls, and also among those who were older than 16 years, worked, did not live with one or both parents, and lived in the South, regardless of sex. CONCLUSION: The results showed early alcohol experimentation and occurrence of problems due to its use among Brazilian adolescents. In addition, the lack of monitoring by parents and guardians shows a risk of alcohol use in this age.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Pais-Filho , Psicologia do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Assunção de Riscos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia
8.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21(suppl 1): e180013, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze sexual and reproductive health indicators of adolescents based on data from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2015, comparing them to the data from 2009 and 2012. METHODS: Cross-sectional study that has analyzed data from 9th grade students from PeNSE 2015, 2012 and 2009. We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals for the following indicators: sexual initiation, condom use in the last sexual intercourse, counseling for pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and free condoms in the three rounds of the survey. Prevalence of all indicators accessed in 2015 was estimated according to sex, type of school and region. Pearson's χ2 test was used. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexual initiation reported by adolescents has decreased from 30.5%, in 2009, to 27.5%, in 2015, as well as the use of condom in the last intercourse, from 75.9 to 66.2%, respectively. In respect to counseling, there was a reduction regarding pregnancy prevention in public schools, from 81.1 to 79.3% and in relation to free condom in private schools, from 65.4 to 57.3%. About 30% reported using both condom and another contraceptive method, and 19.5% did not use any method. Boys presented greater prevalence of sexual initiation, higher number of partners and reduced prevalence of condom use. Adolescents living in North, Northeast and Central-West regions presented worse indicators. CONCLUSION: There was a reduction in sexual initiation and condom use among Brazilian adolescents, boys were more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections, and girls from public schools were more vulnerable to pregnancy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Reprodutivo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Aconselhamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 52(0): e03390, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of the Pap test and analyze the factors associated with its non-attendance by Brazilian women. METHOD: Cross-sectional, population-based study in which were used Vigitel (Surveillance System for Protective and Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey ) data and were included women in the target age range of the screening. The coverage and prevalence of non-screening were assessed according to sociodemographic, behavioral and health characteristics. RESULTS: Data from 22,580 women were included. About 17.1% of women did not take the Pap test in the three previous years. Women in the age groups of 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years showed a higher prevalence of having the test compared to those aged 25-34 years (p<0.05). The following factors were associated with the non-attendance: women with less than 12 years of study (p<0.05), who declared not having a partner (p<0.0001), residents of Northeast, Midwest and North regions (p<0.05), malnourished (p=0.017), who self-assessed their health as negative and presented at least one negative health behavior (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Despite the high coverage of this screening, it remains unsatisfactory in population subgroups, such as women living without a partner, with low educational level, malnourished, who self-assessed their health status as negative, and with at least one negative health behavior.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Esfregaço Vaginal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle
10.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 52: e03390, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-985034

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a prevalência do exame Papanicolaou e analisar fatores associados à sua não realização pelas mulheres brasileiras. Método Estudo transversal, de base populacional, que utilizou dados do Vigitel e incluiu mulheres na faixa etária alvo do rastreio. Avaliaram-se a cobertura e a prevalência de não realização do rastreamento segundo características sociodemográficas, comportamentais e de saúde. Resultados Foram incluídos dados de 22.580 mulheres. Cerca de 17,1% das mulheres não realizaram o exame nos últimos 3 anos. Mulheres nas faixas etárias de 35 a 44, 45 a 54 e 55 a 64 anos, apresentaram maior prevalência de realização quando comparadas às de 25 a 34 anos (p<0,05). Os fatores associados à não realização do exame foram: mulheres com menos de 12 anos de estudo (p<0,05), que declararam não ter companheiro (p<0,0001), residentes nas regiões Nordeste, Centro-Oeste e Norte (p<0,05), desnutridas (p=0,017), que autoavaliaram sua saúde como negativa e que apresentaram pelo menos um comportamento negativo em saúde (p<0,0001). Conclusão Apesar da elevada cobertura do exame, ela ainda é insatisfatória em subgrupos populacionais, como mulheres que vivem sem companheiro, com baixa escolaridade, desnutridas, que autoavaliam seu estado de saúde como negativo e que possuem pelo menos um comportamento negativo em saúde.


RESUMEN Objetivo Estimar la prevalencia del examen Papanicolaou y analizar los factores asociados con su no realización por la mujeres brasileñas. Método Estudio transversal, de base poblacional, que utilizó datos del Vigitel e incluyó a mujeres en el rango de edad blanco del rastreo. Se evaluaron la cobertura y la prevalencia de no realización del rastreo según los rasgos sociodemográficos, sanitarios y de comportamiento. Resultados Fueron incluidos datos de 22.580 mujeres. Un 17,1% de las mujeres no realizaron el examen los últimos tres años. Mujeres en los rangos de edad de 35 a 44, 45 a 54 y 55 a 64 años presentaron mayor prevalencia de realización cuando comparadas con las de 25 a 34 años (p<0,05). Los factores asociados con la no realización del examen fueron: mujeres con menos de 12 años de estudio (p<0,05), quienes manifestaron no tener a compañero (p<0,0001), residentes en las regiones Nordeste, Centro Oeste y Norte (p<0,05), desnutridas (p=0,017), que autoevaluaron su salud como negativa y que presentaron por lo menos un comportamiento negativo en salud (p<0,0001). Conclusión Pese a la elevada cobertura del examen, todavía es insatisfactoria en subgrupos poblaciones, como mujeres que viven sin compañero, con baja escolaridad, desnutridas, que autoevaluaron su estado de salud como negativo y que tienen por lo menos un comportamiento sanitario negativo.


ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the prevalence of the Pap test and analyze the factors associated with its non-attendance by Brazilian women. Method Cross-sectional, population-based study in which were used Vigitel (Surveillance System for Protective and Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey ) data and were included women in the target age range of the screening. The coverage and prevalence of non-screening were assessed according to sociodemographic, behavioral and health characteristics. Results Data from 22,580 women were included. About 17.1% of women did not take the Pap test in the three previous years. Women in the age groups of 35-44, 45-54 and 55-64 years showed a higher prevalence of having the test compared to those aged 25-34 years (p<0.05). The following factors were associated with the non-attendance: women with less than 12 years of study (p<0.05), who declared not having a partner (p<0.0001), residents of Northeast, Midwest and North regions (p<0.05), malnourished (p=0.017), who self-assessed their health as negative and presented at least one negative health behavior (p<0.0001). Conclusion Despite the high coverage of this screening, it remains unsatisfactory in population subgroups, such as women living without a partner, with low educational level, malnourished, who self-assessed their health status as negative, and with at least one negative health behavior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Teste de Papanicolaou/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermagem Oncológica , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Mulher , Iniquidade Social
11.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180005, 2018. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977705

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Avaliar a relação de indicadores de supervisão dos pais e fatores sociodemográficos com o uso de álcool pelos adolescentes brasileiros. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo transversal com dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) de 2015. A amostra foi composta de 16.608 adolescentes de 13 a 17 anos estudantes de escolas públicas e privadas brasileiras. Foram analisadas variáveis relacionadas ao uso de álcool, aos fatores sociodemográficos e aos indicadores de supervisão dos estudantes pelos pais. Foram calculadas razões de prevalência (RPs) para análise das relações existentes entre as variáveis sociodemográficas, de supervisão dos pais e o uso de álcool por adolescentes. As análises foram estratificadas por sexo. Resultados: Encontrou-se que 61,4% dos adolescentes já haviam experimentado bebida alcoólica, 27,2% já tiveram episódio de embriaguez alguma vez na vida, 9,3% já tiveram problemas devido ao uso de álcool e 29,3% relataram uso nos últimos 30 dias. Menores escores de supervisão dos pais se associaram à maior prevalência de uso de álcool, que também foi elevada entre as meninas, os que tinham idade superior a 16 anos, moravam na Região Sul, trabalhavam e não moravam com os pais. Conclusão: Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram, em adolescentes, a experimentação precoce de bebidas alcoólicas e a ocorrência de problemas devido ao uso da substância. Além disso, a falta de supervisão e acompanhamento mais próximo dos filhos pelos pais e responsáveis aumentou o uso de álcool nessa idade.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the relation between parental supervision and sociodemographic factors and alcohol use by Brazilian adolescents. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with data from National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) 2015, which included 16,608 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, students from Brazilian public and private schools. Variables related to alcohol use, sociodemographic factors and parental supervision were evaluated. In order to analyze the relation between sociodemographic variables, parental supervision and use of alcohol among adolescents, prevalence ratios stratified by sex were used. Results: It was observed that 61.4% of the adolescents had tried alcohol, 27.2% had a drunken episode in their lifetime, 9.3% have had problems with alcohol and 29.3% reported alcohol use in last 30 days. The lack of parental supervision was associated with increased use of alcohol. The proportion of alcohol use was higher for girls, and also among those who were older than 16 years, worked, did not live with one or both parents, and lived in the South, regardless of sex. Conclusion: The results showed early alcohol experimentation and occurrence of problems due to its use among Brazilian adolescents. In addition, the lack of monitoring by parents and guardians shows a risk of alcohol use in this age.

12.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180013, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977706

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar indicadores de saúde sexual e reprodutiva de adolescentes com base nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (PeNSE) em 2015, comparando-os aos de 2009 e 2012. Métodos: Estudo transversal que analisou dados de escolares do nono ano da PeNSE 2015, 2012 e 2009. Estimou-se a prevalência com intervalos de confiança de 95% para indicadores de iniciação sexual, uso do preservativo na última relação sexual, ter recebido orientação para gravidez, infecções sexualmente transmissíveis e preservativo grátis nas três edições. Prevalências dos indicadores de 2015 foram estimadas segundo sexo, dependência administrativa da escola e região. Utilizou-se o teste do χ2 de Pearson para diferenças estatísticas. Resultados: A prevalência de iniciação sexual apresentou queda, de 30,5% em 2009 para 27,5% em 2015, assim como do uso de preservativo, de 75,9 para 66,2%. Notou-se queda da orientação para prevenção de gravidez nas escolas públicas, de 81,1 para 79,3% e de preservativo gratuito nas escolas privadas, de 65,4 para 57,3%. Cerca de 30% relataram uso combinado de preservativo e outro método e 19,5% não fizeram uso de método algum. Observou-se que meninos apresentaram maior prevalência de iniciação sexual, maior número de parceiros e menor uso de preservativo. As regiões norte, nordeste e centro-oeste apresentaram pior desempenho dos indicadores. Conclusão: Evidenciou-se diminuição da iniciação sexual e do uso de preservativo entre adolescentes, maior vulnerabilidade às infecções sexualmente transmissíveis nos meninos e à gravidez entre as adolescentes de escolas públicas.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze sexual and reproductive health indicators of adolescents based on data from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2015, comparing them to the data from 2009 and 2012. Methods: Cross-sectional study that has analyzed data from 9th grade students from PeNSE 2015, 2012 and 2009. We estimated prevalence and 95% confidence intervals for the following indicators: sexual initiation, condom use in the last sexual intercourse, counseling for pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and free condoms in the three rounds of the survey. Prevalence of all indicators accessed in 2015 was estimated according to sex, type of school and region. Pearson's χ2 test was used. Results: The prevalence of sexual initiation reported by adolescents has decreased from 30.5%, in 2009, to 27.5%, in 2015, as well as the use of condom in the last intercourse, from 75.9 to 66.2%, respectively. In respect to counseling, there was a reduction regarding pregnancy prevention in public schools, from 81.1 to 79.3% and in relation to free condom in private schools, from 65.4 to 57.3%. About 30% reported using both condom and another contraceptive method, and 19.5% did not use any method. Boys presented greater prevalence of sexual initiation, higher number of partners and reduced prevalence of condom use. Adolescents living in North, Northeast and Central-West regions presented worse indicators. Conclusion: There was a reduction in sexual initiation and condom use among Brazilian adolescents, boys were more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections, and girls from public schools were more vulnerable to pregnancy.

13.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 21(supl.1): e180004, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-977709

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar o uso de substâncias psicoativas (tabaco, álcool e drogas ilícitas) em escolares em relação a fatores sociodemográficos, contexto familiar e saúde mental. Métodos: Foram utilizados dados da amostra de 102.301 escolares do nono ano da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar de 2015. Realizou-se o cálculo da prevalência de uso de tabaco e de álcool nos últimos 30 dias e experimentação de drogas, segundo variáveis sociodemográficas, contexto familiar e saúde mental. Procedeu-se a análise univariada, por teste do χ2 de Pearson e cálculo das odds ratios (OR) não ajustadas. Por fim, realizou-se análise multivariada para cada desfecho com as variáveis que apresentaram associação com os desfechos (p < 0,20), calculando-se as OR ajustadas com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: A prevalência de uso de tabaco foi de 5,6%; do uso de álcool, 23,8%; e da experimentação de drogas, 9,0%. A análise multivariada apontou que, no contexto familiar, morar com os pais, fazer refeição com pais ou responsável e a supervisão familiar foram associados a menor uso de substâncias; enquanto faltar às aulas sem consentimento dos pais aumentou a chance de uso. Maior chance do uso de substâncias esteve ainda associada a cor branca, aumento da idade, trabalhar, sentir-se solitário e ter insônia. Não ter amigos foi associado com uso de drogas e tabaco, porém foi protetor para o uso de álcool. Conclusões: A supervisão familiar foi protetora do uso de substâncias psicoativas em escolares brasileiros, enquanto trabalhar, sentir-se solitário e ter insônia aumentaram suas chances de uso.


ABSTRACT: Aim: To analyze the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs among schoolchildren according to demographic factors, family context and mental health. Methods: We used data from the National School-based Health Survey 2015 and included in the sample 102,301 schoolchildren in the 9th grade. We estimated the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in the last 30 days and drug experimentation according to demographic, mental health and family context variables. Then, a bivariate analysis was performed using Pearson's χ2 test and the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated. Finally, we conducted a multivariate analysis including independent variables with an unadjusted association (p < 0.20), for each outcome, estimating the adjusted OR with a 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of tobacco consumption was 5.6%; alcohol consumption, 23.8%; and drug experimentation, 9.0%. Multivariate analysis has indicated that living with parents, having meals with parents or guardian, and family supervision were associated with lower substance consumption; whereas missing classes without parental consent has increased the chances of substance use. Increased chance of substance use was also associated with white skin color, increasing age, to work, feeling lonely and having insomnia. Not having friends was associated with drug and tobacco use, but this was protective for alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Family supervision was protective for psychoactive substance use among Brazilian schoolchildren, whereas work, loneliness and insomnia have increased their chances of use.

14.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 25: e2971, 2017 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29069270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health indicators in the Brazilian population, according to gender, age, education and region of residence. METHOD: cross-sectional study that used data from 41,134 participants of the Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (Vigitel). The ideal cardiovascular health assessment considers four behavioral factors: not smoking; body mass index less than 25 kg/m2; practicing physical activity, eating fruits and vegetables five or more times per day; and two clinical factors (no diagnosis of diabetes or hypertension). The sum of factors at ideal levels results in a score ranging from zero (worse cardiovascular health) to six (ideal cardiovascular health). RESULTS: considering the six factors, only 3.4% of the studied population presented ideal levels of cardiovascular health, with the majority of participants (57.6%) presenting three or four ideal factors. Women had higher prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health (3.8% versus 2.9% for men) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: the findings of this study are consistent with the elevated risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease, observed in the Brazilian population. This may contribute to a better understanding of the scenario of cardiovascular health in the urban population of the country.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Saúde da População Urbana
15.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 30(5): 458-465, Set.-Out. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-885861

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar associação entre analgesia farmacológica e desfechos do parto. Métodos: Estudo transversal que utilizou amostra representativa dos partos realizados em 2013, em uma maternidade de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foram incluídos dados de 978 partos, excluindo-se as cesarianas eletivas. A exposição principal foi o uso de analgesia farmacológica durante o trabalho de parto e o desfecho classificado como parto vaginal, vaginal instrumentalizado e cesariana. Verificou-se a associação entre analgesia e os desfechos do parto por meio de regressão logística multinominal para obter as estimativas de Odds Ratio (OR) com seus respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança, e o modelo final foi ajustado por idade da mulher, número de partos anteriores, presença de acompanhante ou doula e dilatação cervical no momento da analgesia. Resultados: Do total de nascimentos, 87,1% foram vaginais e 12,9% cesariana. A prevalência do uso de analgesia farmacológica foi 34,2% e do parto instrumentalizado de 8,4%. Cerca de 70% das mulheres tiveram gestação de risco habitual. Mesmo após ajuste por confundidores, o uso da analgesia aumentou em 3,5 vezes a chance de parto instrumentalizado (p<0,0001) e para as mulheres com gestação de alto risco esse aumento foi ainda superior (OR=4,62; p<0,0001). Não houve associação do uso da analgesia com a cesariana (p=0,320). Conclusão: O uso de analgesia farmacológica modifica o desfecho do parto, aumentando as chances de parto instrumentalizado, principalmente em mulheres com gravidez de alto risco. Nesse contexto considera-se importante orientar as mulheres quanto aos potenciais riscos e benefícios da analgesia para uma escolha segura.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between pharmacological analgesia and childbirth outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a representative sample of childbirth performed in 2013, at a maternity hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Data from 978 childbirths were included, excluding elective cesareans. The main exposure was the use of pharmacological analgesia during labor, with the outcome classified as vaginal, instrumental vaginal, or cesarean delivery. The association between analgesia and childbirth outcomes was assessed using multinomial logistic regression to obtain Odds Ratio (OR) estimates with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The final model was adjusted for the woman's age, number of previous births, presence of companion or doula, and cervical dilatation at the time of analgesia. Results: Among the total number of births, 87.1% were vaginal and 12.9% were cesarean. The prevalence of the use of pharmacological analgesia was 34.2%, and delivery with instrumentation was 8.4%. About 70% of the women had a normal risk pregnancy. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, the use of analgesia increased the chance of delivery with instrumentation by 3.5 times (p<0.0001); for women with high-risk pregnancies, this increase was even higher (OR=4.62; p<0.0001). There was no association between analgesia and cesarean section (p=0.320). Conclusion: The use of pharmacological analgesia modifies the outcome of childbirth, increasing the chances of delivery with instrumentation, especially in women with high-risk pregnancies. In this context, it is important to guide women about the potential risks and benefits of analgesia so they may make a safe choice.

16.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 30(5): 458-465, Set.-Out. 2017. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-885876

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: Investigar associação entre analgesia farmacológica e desfechos do parto. Métodos: Estudo transversal que utilizou amostra representativa dos partos realizados em 2013, em uma maternidade de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Foram incluídos dados de 978 partos, excluindo-se as cesarianas eletivas. A exposição principal foi o uso de analgesia farmacológica durante o trabalho de parto e o desfecho classificado como parto vaginal, vaginal instrumentalizado e cesariana. Verificou-se a associação entre analgesia e os desfechos do parto por meio de regressão logística multinominal para obter as estimativas de Odds Ratio (OR) com seus respectivos intervalos de 95% de confiança, e o modelo final foi ajustado por idade da mulher, número de partos anteriores, presença de acompanhante ou doula e dilatação cervical no momento da analgesia. Resultados: Do total de nascimentos, 87,1% foram vaginais e 12,9% cesariana. A prevalência do uso de analgesia farmacológica foi 34,2% e do parto instrumentalizado de 8,4%. Cerca de 70% das mulheres tiveram gestação de risco habitual. Mesmo após ajuste por confundidores, o uso da analgesia aumentou em 3,5 vezes a chance de parto instrumentalizado (p<0,0001) e para as mulheres com gestação de alto risco esse aumento foi ainda superior (OR=4,62; p<0,0001). Não houve associação do uso da analgesia com a cesariana (p=0,320). Conclusão: O uso de analgesia farmacológica modifica o desfecho do parto, aumentando as chances de parto instrumentalizado, principalmente em mulheres com gravidez de alto risco. Nesse contexto considera-se importante orientar as mulheres quanto aos potenciais riscos e benefícios da analgesia para uma escolha segura.


Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between pharmacological analgesia and childbirth outcomes. Methods: A cross-sectional study using a representative sample of childbirth performed in 2013, at a maternity hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Data from 978 childbirths were included, excluding elective cesareans. The main exposure was the use of pharmacological analgesia during labor, with the outcome classified as vaginal, instrumental vaginal, or cesarean delivery. The association between analgesia and childbirth outcomes was assessed using multinomial logistic regression to obtain Odds Ratio (OR) estimates with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The final model was adjusted for the woman's age, number of previous births, presence of companion or doula, and cervical dilatation at the time of analgesia. Results: Among the total number of births, 87.1% were vaginal and 12.9% were cesarean. The prevalence of the use of pharmacological analgesia was 34.2%, and delivery with instrumentation was 8.4%. About 70% of the women had a normal risk pregnancy. Even after adjusting for confounding variables, the use of analgesia increased the chance of delivery with instrumentation by 3.5 times (p<0.0001); for women with high-risk pregnancies, this increase was even higher (OR=4.62; p<0.0001). There was no association between analgesia and cesarean section (p=0.320). Conclusion: The use of pharmacological analgesia modifies the outcome of childbirth, increasing the chances of delivery with instrumentation, especially in women with high-risk pregnancies. In this context, it is important to guide women about the potential risks and benefits of analgesia so they may make a safe choice.

17.
Rev Rene (Online) ; 18(4): 468-475, jul - ago 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-859391

RESUMO

Objetivo: verificar a prevalência de incapacidade funcional para realização de atividades básicas e instrumentais de vida diária em idosos. Métodos: estudo transversal que utilizou dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, cuja amostra foi de 7.373 idosos. Resultados: a prevalência de incapacidade funcional para atividades básicas e instrumentais foi de 8,4% (Intervalo de Confiança 95,0%: 7,4-9,4) e 22,0% (Intervalo de Confiança 95,0%: 20,4- 23,6), respectivamente, sendo maior no sexo feminino, naqueles mais longevos (>75) e sem níveis de instrução. Aspectos demográficos, como menor faixa etária e sexo masculino, atenuaram a prevalência de incapacidade. Conclusão: os idosos apresentaram maior prevalência de incapacidade funcional para as atividades instrumentais tais como, fazer compras, administrar finanças, tomar remédios e sair sozinho.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso Fragilizado , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Prevalência
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 20Suppl 01(Suppl 01): 217-232, 2017 May.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658385

RESUMO

Objective:: To analyze the global burden of disease related to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to selected risk factors in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units. Methods:: Databases from the Global Burden of Disease study in Brazil and its Federated Units were used, estimating the summary exposure value (SEV) for selected environmental, behavioral, and metabolic risk factors (RFs), and their combinations. The DALYs were used as the main metric. The ranking of major RFs between 1990 and 2015 was compiled, comparing data by sex and states. Results:: The analyzed RFs account for 38.8% of the loss of DALYs in the country. Dietary risks was the main cause of DALYs in 2015. In men, dietary risks contributed to 12.2% of DALYs and in women, to 11.1%. Other RFs were high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, smoking, high fasting plasma glucose and, among men, alcohol and drug use. The main RFs were metabolic and behavioral. In most states, dietary risks was the main RF, followed by high blood pressure. Conclusion:: Dietary risks leads the RF ranking for Brazil and its Federated Units. Men are more exposed to behavioral risk factors, and women are more exposed to metabolic ones.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 20(1): 136-146, 2017.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513801

RESUMO

Introduction:: Physical activity in Brazil is assessed by the Telephone-based Risk Factor Surveillance System for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL). Objectives:: To evaluate the reliability and concurrent validity of VIGITEL physical activity indicators. Methods:: For the reliability study, 305 individuals responded to VIGITEL interviews, which were repeated with intervals of 7 - 15 days, in Belo Horizonte, 2013. The evaluated indicators included "sufficiently active on leisure time," "active in transportation," "inactive in four domains of physical activity (leisure, work, transportation, and housework)," and "watching TV for long periods." Kappa coefficient (k) was used to measure agreement between both interviews. For concurrent validity assessment, the same subjects also responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), used as reference method for comparison of VIGITEL indicators. Comparison was assessed by measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV). Results:: Reliability study showed substantial agreement for active individuals in leisure time (k = 0.70) and inactive individuals (k = 0.64). The agreement of watching TV for long periods was moderate (k = 0.56) and the activeness in transportation showed fair agreement (k = 0.35). In comparison to the reference method, sensitivity ranged from 54.8 to 67.7 in frequency of inactive, active in leisure time and work. Transportation domain was represented by 11.9 of sensitivity. Specificity ranged from 72.0 to 91.2 among four domains of physical activity and inactive. Conclusion:: Physical activity questionnaire used by the surveillance system seems to be reliable in all domains, except in transportation questions. VIGITEL was considered comparable to GPAQ in most aspects of physical activity evaluation.


Assuntos
Exercício , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Telefone , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 20(supl.1): 217-232, Mai. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-843756

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar a carga global de doença, quanto aos anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (disability adjusted life years - DALYs) atribuídos a fatores de risco (FRs) selecionados, para Brasil e 27 Unidades Federadas (UFs). Métodos: Foram utilizadas bases de dados do estudo Carga Global de Doença (Global Burden of Disease - GBD) para Brasil e UFs estimando a síntese de exposição de risco (summary exposure value - SEV) para FRs selecionados, incluindo os ambientais, comportamentais, metabólicos e suas combinações. Os DALYs foram usados como métrica principal do estudo. Construiu-se o ranking dos principais FRs entre 1990 e 2015, com comparações por sexo e UF. Resultados: Os FRs analisados explicariam 38,8% da perda de DALYs no país. A dieta inadequada foi a principal causa de DALYs em 2015. Em homens, a dieta inadequada contribuiu com 12,2% dos DALYs, e, em mulheres, com 11,1% deles. Outros FRs importantes foram: pressão arterial sistólica elevada, índice de massa corporal (IMC) elevado, tabagismo, glicose sérica elevada; entre homens, destaca-se o uso de álcool e drogas. Os principais FRs foram metabólicos e comportamentais. Na maioria das UFs, predominou a dieta inadequada, seguida da pressão arterial elevada. Conclusão: A dieta inadequada lidera o ranking de FRs para Brasil e UF. Os homens estão mais expostos aos FRs comportamentais, e as mulheres, aos metabólicos.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the global burden of disease related to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to selected risk factors in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units. Methods: Databases from the Global Burden of Disease study in Brazil and its Federated Units were used, estimating the summary exposure value (SEV) for selected environmental, behavioral, and metabolic risk factors (RFs), and their combinations. The DALYs were used as the main metric. The ranking of major RFs between 1990 and 2015 was compiled, comparing data by sex and states. Results: The analyzed RFs account for 38.8% of the loss of DALYs in the country. Dietary risks was the main cause of DALYs in 2015. In men, dietary risks contributed to 12.2% of DALYs and in women, to 11.1%. Other RFs were high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, smoking, high fasting plasma glucose and, among men, alcohol and drug use. The main RFs were metabolic and behavioral. In most states, dietary risks was the main RF, followed by high blood pressure. Conclusion: Dietary risks leads the RF ranking for Brazil and its Federated Units. Men are more exposed to behavioral risk factors, and women are more exposed to metabolic ones.

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