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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2682-2691, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927264

RESUMO

Multigene panels provide a powerful tool for analyzing several genes simultaneously. We evaluated the frequency of pathogenic variants (PV) in customized predefined panels according to clinical suspicion by phenotype and compared it to the yield obtained in the analysis of our clinical research gene panel. We also investigated mutational yield of opportunistic testing of BRCA1/2 and mismatch repair (MMR) genes in all patients. A total of 1,205 unrelated probands with clinical suspicion of hereditary cancer were screened for germline mutations using panel testing. Overall, 1,048 females and 157 males were analyzed, mean age at cancer diagnosis was 48; 883 had hereditary breast/ovarian cancer-suspicion, 205 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-suspicion, 73 adenomatous-polyposis-suspicion and 44 with other/multiple clinical criteria. At least one PV was found in 150 probands (12%) analyzed by our customized phenotype-driven panel. Tumoral MMR deficiency predicted for the presence of germline MMR gene mutations in patients with HNPCC-suspicion (46/136 vs. 0/56 in patients with and without MMR deficiency, respectively). Opportunistic testing additionally identified five MSH6, one BRCA1 and one BRCA2 carriers (0.6%). The analysis of the extended 24-gene panel provided 25 additional PVs (2%), including in 4 out of 51 individuals harboring MMR-proficient colorectal tumors (2 CHEK2 and 2 ATM). Phenotype-based panels provide a notable rate of PVs with clinical actionability. Opportunistic testing of MMR and BRCA genes leads to a significant straightforward identification of MSH6, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and endorses the model of opportunistic testing of genes with clinical utility within a standard genetic counseling framework.

5.
J Med Genet ; 56(8): 521-525, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580288

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Genetic testing of hereditary cancer using comprehensive gene panels can identify patients with more than one pathogenic mutation in high and/or moderate-risk-associated cancer genes. This phenomenon is known as multilocus inherited neoplasia alleles syndrome (MINAS), which has been potentially linked to more severe clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clinical features of MINAS in a large cohort of adult patients with hereditary cancer homogeneously tested with the same gene panel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 1023 unrelated patients with suspicion of hereditary cancer was screened using a validated panel including up to 135 genes associated with hereditary cancer and phakomatoses. RESULTS: Thirteen (1.37%) patients harbouring two pathogenic mutations in dominant cancer-predisposing genes were identified, representing 5.7% (13/226) of patients with pathogenic mutations. Most (10/13) of these cases presented clinical manifestations associated with only one of the mutations identified. One case showed mutations in MEN1 and MLH1 and developed tumours associated with both cancer syndromes. Interestingly, three of the double mutants had a young age of onset or severe breast cancer phenotype and carried mutations in moderate to low-risk DNA damage repair-associated genes; two of them presented biallelic inactivation of CHEK2. We included these two patients for the sake of their clinical interest although we are aware that they do not exactly fulfil the definition of MINAS since both mutations are in the same gene. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Genetic analysis of a broad cancer gene panel identified the largest series of patients with MINAS described in a single study. Overall, our data do not support the existence of more severe manifestations in double mutants at the time of diagnosis although they do confirm previous evidence of severe phenotype in biallelic CHEK2 and other DNA repair cancer-predisposing genes.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

Background: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. Methods: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Conclusion: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(2): 497-503, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Classification of rare BRCA1 missense variants presents a major challenge for the counseling and treatment of patients. Variant classification can be complicated by conflicting lines of evidence. BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val) has been shown to abrogate BRCA1 protein homologous DNA repair; however, multiple sequence alignment demonstrates a lack of sequence conservation at this position, suggesting that glycine at position 1770 may not be essential for cellular maintenance in humans. We analyzed clinical information to resolve the classification of BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val). METHODS: We performed multifactorial likelihood analysis combining segregation data for 14 informative families, and breast tumor histopathological data for 17 variant carriers, ascertained through the ENIGMA consortium. RESULTS: Bayes segregation analysis gave a likelihood ratio of 101:1 in favor of pathogenicity. The vast majority of breast tumors showed features indicative of pathogenic variant carrier status, resulting in a likelihood ratio of 15800794:1 towards pathogenicity. Despite a low prior probability of pathogenicity (0.03) based on bioinformatic prediction, multifactorial likelihood analysis including segregation and histopathology analysis gave a posterior probability of > 0.99 and final classification of Pathogenic. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val), previously described as a Moroccan founder variant, should be treated as a disease-causing variant despite a lack of evolutionary conservation at this amino acid position. Additionally, we stress that bioinformatic information should be used in combination with other data, either direct clinical evidence or some form of clinical calibration, to arrive at a final clinical classification.

9.
Br J Cancer ; 118(2): 266-276, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 141(7): 1365-1380, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28577310

RESUMO

In a proportion of patients presenting mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors, no germline MMR mutations are identified, the so-called Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). Recently, MMR-deficient tumors have been associated with germline mutations in POLE and MUTYH or double somatic MMR events. Our aim was to elucidate the molecular basis of MSH2-deficient LS-suspected cases using a comprehensive analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC)-associated genes at germline and somatic level. Fifty-eight probands harboring MSH2-deficient tumors were included. Germline mutational analysis of MSH2 (including EPCAM deletions) and MSH6 was performed. Pathogenicity of MSH2 variants was assessed by RNA analysis and multifactorial likelihood calculations. MSH2 cDNA and methylation of MSH2 and MSH6 promoters were studied. Matched blood and tumor DNA were analyzed using a customized next generation sequencing panel. Thirty-five individuals were carriers of pathogenic or probably pathogenic variants in MSH2 and EPCAM. Five patients harbored 4 different MSH2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) and one had 2 novel MSH6 promoter VUS. Pathogenicity assessment allowed the reclassification of the 4 MSH2 VUS and 6 probably pathogenic variants as pathogenic mutations, enabling a total of 40 LS diagnostics. Predicted pathogenic germline variants in BUB1, SETD2, FAN1 and MUTYH were identified in 5 cases. Three patients had double somatic hits in MSH2 or MSH6, and another 2 had somatic alterations in other MMR genes and/or proofreading polymerases. In conclusion, our comprehensive strategy combining germline and somatic mutational status of CRC-associated genes by means of a subexome panel allows the elucidation of up to 86% of MSH2-deficient suspected LS tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/deficiência , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Metilação de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Exodesoxirribonucleases/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 7: 39348, 2017 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28051113

RESUMO

We wanted to implement an NGS strategy to globally analyze hereditary cancer with diagnostic quality while retaining the same degree of understanding and control we had in pre-NGS strategies. To do this, we developed the I2HCP panel, a custom bait library covering 122 hereditary cancer genes. We improved bait design, tested different NGS platforms and created a clinically driven custom data analysis pipeline. The I2HCP panel was developed using a training set of hereditary colorectal cancer, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and neurofibromatosis patients and reached an accuracy, analytical sensitivity and specificity greater than 99%, which was maintained in a validation set. I2HCP changed our diagnostic approach, involving clinicians and a genetic diagnostics team from panel design to reporting. The new strategy improved diagnostic sensitivity, solved uncertain clinical diagnoses and identified mutations in new genes. We assessed the genetic variation in the complete set of hereditary cancer genes, revealing a complex variation landscape that coexists with the disease-causing mutation. We developed, validated and implemented a custom NGS-based strategy for hereditary cancer diagnostics that improved our previous workflows. Additionally, the existence of a rich genetic variation in hereditary cancer genes favors the use of this panel to investigate their role in cancer risk.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Sci Rep ; 7: 37984, 2017 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050010

RESUMO

Next generation sequencing panels have been developed for hereditary cancer, although there is some debate about their cost-effectiveness compared to exome sequencing. The performance of two panels is compared to exome sequencing. Twenty-four patients were selected: ten with identified mutations (control set) and fourteen suspicious of hereditary cancer but with no mutation (discovery set). TruSight Cancer (94 genes) and a custom panel (122 genes) were assessed alongside exome sequencing. Eighty-three genes were targeted by the two panels and exome sequencing. More than 99% of bases had a read depth of over 30x in the panels, whereas exome sequencing covered 94%. Variant calling with standard settings identified the 10 mutations in the control set, with the exception of MSH6 c.255dupC using TruSight Cancer. In the discovery set, 240 unique non-silent coding and canonic splice-site variants were identified in the panel genes, 7 of them putatively pathogenic (in ATM, BARD1, CHEK2, ERCC3, FANCL, FANCM, MSH2). The three approaches identified a similar number of variants in the shared genes. Exomes were more expensive than panels but provided additional data. In terms of cost and depth, panels are a suitable option for genetic diagnostics, although exomes also identify variants in non-targeted genes.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 161(1): 117-134, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. CONCLUSION: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158801, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463617

RESUMO

Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 155(2): 253-60, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26780556

RESUMO

Germline inactivating mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOCS). Genetic testing of these genes identifies a significant proportion of variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Elucidation of the clinical impact of these variants is an important challenge in genetic diagnostics and counseling. In this study, we assess the RNA effect of 28 BRCA1 and BRCA2 VUS identified in our set of HBOCS families with the aim of gaining insight into their clinical relevance. mRNA was extracted from VUS carriers and controls lymphocytes cultured for 5-6 days and treated with puromycin. RNA was reverse transcribed to perform transcriptional analysis for the study of splicing aberrations. In silico prediction tools were used to select those variants most likely to affect the RNA splicing process. Six out of the 28 variants analyzed showed an aberrant splicing pattern and could therefore be classified as probably pathogenic mutations. Reclassification of VUS improves the genetic counseling and clinical surveillance of carriers of these mutations and highlights the importance of RNA studies in routine diagnostic laboratories.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de RNA/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
16.
Fam Cancer ; 14(4): 505-13, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26026974

RESUMO

Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease that represents <1% of all breast cancers (BCs). We analyze the results of a multicenter study performed in Spanish familial MBC including family history of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOCS) and clinicopathological features. We also study the relationship between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutational status in male relatives affected with cancer (MAC) and, family history and tumor types. The study included 312 men index cases with family history of HBOCS and 61 MAC BRCA1/2 mutation-carriers. Family history, histological grade (HG), clinicopathological and immunohistochemistry data were collected. BRCA1/2 mutation analyses were performed by direct sequencing or screening methods and the large rearrangements by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification. We found 49 mutation-carriers (15.7%), 95.9% with BRCA2 mutations. BRCA2 mutation-carriers were associated with families with at least one MBC and one BC in female (type II; p = 0.05). Strong association were found between the presence of pathogenic mutations in MBCs and the advanced HG (p = 0.003). c.658_659delTG, c.2808_2811delACAA, c.6275_6276delTT and c.9026_9030delATCAT were the most prevalent mutations. In 61 MAC we found 20 mutations in BRCA1 and 41 in BRCA2. For MAC we show that mutational status was differentially associated with family history (p = 0.018) and tumor type, being BRCA2 mutations linked with BC and prostatic cancer (p = 0.018). MBC caused by BRCA1/2 mutations define two types of MBCs. The most frequent caused by BRCA2 mutation linked to type II families and the rarest one attributed to BRCA1 mutation. Tumor associated with MAC suggest that only BRCA2 mutations have to do with a specific type of cancer (BC and prostatic cancer); but the linkage to tumors is questionable for BRCA1 mutations .


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteína BRCA2/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Prognóstico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0120020, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25830658

RESUMO

While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4) (false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p = 0.043). Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045). Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05) for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients' survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Aurora Quinase A/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinogênese/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Glândulas Mamárias Humanas/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética
18.
Hum Mutat ; 35(3): 271-7, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24227591

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized genomic research and is set to have a major impact on genetic diagnostics thanks to the advent of benchtop sequencers and flexible kits for targeted libraries. Among the main hurdles in NGS are the difficulty of performing bioinformatic analysis of the huge volume of data generated and the high number of false positive calls that could be obtained, depending on the NGS technology and the analysis pipeline. Here, we present the development of a free and user-friendly Web data analysis tool that detects and filters sequence variants, provides coverage information, and allows the user to customize some basic parameters. The tool has been developed to provide accurate genetic analysis of targeted sequencing of common high-risk hereditary cancer genes using amplicon libraries run in a GS Junior System. The Web resource is linked to our own mutation database, to assist in the clinical classification of identified variants. We believe that this tool will greatly facilitate the use of the NGS approach in routine laboratories.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genes Neoplásicos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Internet , Genoma Humano , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Interface Usuário-Computador
19.
Carcinogenesis ; 34(11): 2505-11, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23929434

RESUMO

BRCA2-c.2808_2811del (3036delACAA) is one of the most reported germ line mutations in non-Ashkenazi breast cancer patients. We investigated its genetic origin in 51 Spanish carrier families that were genotyped with 11 13q polymorphic markers. Three independent associated haplotypes were clearly distinguished accounting for 23 [west Castilla y León (WCL)], 20 [east Castilla y León (ECL)] and 6 (South of Spain) families. Mutation age was estimated with the Disequilibrium Mapping using Likelihood Estimation software in a range of 45-68 and 45-71 generations for WCL and ECL haplotypes, respectively. The most prevalent variants, c.2808_2811del and c.2803G > A, were located in a double-hairpin loop structure (c.2794-c.2825) predicted by Quikfold that was proposed as a mutational hotspot. To check this hypothesis, random mutagenesis was performed over a 923 bp fragment of BRCA2, and 86 DNA variants were characterized. Interestingly, three mutations reported in the mutation databases (c.2680G > A, c.2944del and c.2957dup) were replicated and 20 affected the same position with different nucleotide changes. Moreover, five variants were placed in the same hairpin loop of c.2808_2811del, and one affected the same position (c.2808A > G). In conclusion, our results support that at least three different mutational events occurred to generate c.2808_2811del. Other highly prevalent DNA variants, such as BRCA1-c.68_69delAG, BRCA2-c.5946delT and c.8537delAG, are concentrated in hairpin loops, suggesting that these structures may represent mutational hotspots.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pareamento de Bases , Sequência de Bases , Família , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese , Polimorfismo Genético , Prognóstico , Espanha
20.
PLoS One ; 8(4): e61302, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23613828

RESUMO

Germline inactivating mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are responsible for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS). Genetic testing of these genes is available, although approximately 15% of tests identify variants of uncertain significance (VUS). Classification of these variants into pathogenic or non-pathogenic type is an important challenge in genetic diagnosis and counseling. The aim of the present study is to functionally assess a set of 7 missense VUS (Q1409L, S1473P, E1586G, R1589H, Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V) located in the C-terminal region of BRCA1 by combining in silico prediction tools and structural analysis with a transcription activation (TA) assay. The in silico prediction programs gave discrepant results making its interpretation difficult. Structural analysis of the three variants located in the BRCT domains (Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V) reveals significant alterations of BRCT structure. The TA assay shows that variants Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V dramatically compromise the transcriptional activity of BRCA1, while variants Q1409L, S1473P, E1586G and R1589H behave like wild-type BRCA1. In conclusion, our results suggest that variants Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V can be classified as likely pathogenic BRCA1 mutations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/química , Proteína BRCA1/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Bioensaio , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Ativação Transcricional/genética
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