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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498765

RESUMO

Only a small fraction of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) cases are caused by germline variants in the high-penetrance breast cancer 1 and 2 genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2). BRCA1-associated ring domain 1 (BARD1), nuclear partner of BRCA1, has been suggested as a potential HBOC risk gene, although its prevalence and penetrance are variable according to populations and type of tumor. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of BARD1 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with clinical suspicion of HBOC. A comprehensive BARD1 screening by multigene panel analysis was performed in 4015 unrelated patients according to our regional guidelines for genetic testing in hereditary cancer. In addition, 51,202 Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as a control population. In our patient cohort, we identified 19 patients with heterozygous BARD1 truncating variants (0.47%), whereas the frequency observed in the gnomAD controls was 0.12%. We found a statistically significant association of truncating BARD1 variants with overall risk (odds ratio (OR) = 3.78; CI = 2.10-6.48; p = 1.16 × 10-5). This association remained significant in the hereditary breast cancer (HBC) group (OR = 4.18; CI = 2.10-7.70; p = 5.45 × 10-5). Furthermore, deleterious BARD1 variants were enriched among triple-negative BC patients (OR = 5.40; CI = 1.77-18.15; p = 0.001) compared to other BC subtypes. Our results support the role of BARD1 as a moderate penetrance BC predisposing gene and highlight a stronger association with triple-negative tumors.

2.
Clin Chem ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene panel testing by massive parallel sequencing has increased the diagnostic yield but also the number of variants of uncertain significance. Clinical interpretation of genomic data requires expertise for each gene and disease. Heterozygous ATM pathogenic variants increase the risk of cancer, particularly breast cancer. For this reason, ATM is included in most hereditary cancer panels. It is a large gene, showing a high number of variants, most of them of uncertain significance. Hence, we initiated a collaborative effort to improve and standardize variant classification for the ATM gene. METHODS: Six independent laboratories collected information from 766 ATM variant carriers harboring 283 different variants. Data were submitted in a consensus template form, variant nomenclature and clinical information were curated, and monthly team conferences were established to review and adapt American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics/Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG/AMP) criteria to ATM, which were used to classify 50 representative variants. RESULTS: Amid 283 different variants, 99 appeared more than once, 35 had differences in classification among laboratories. Refinement of ACMG/AMP criteria to ATM involved specification for twenty-one criteria and adjustment of strength for fourteen others. Afterwards, 50 variants carried by 254 index cases were classified with the established framework resulting in a consensus classification for all of them and a reduction in the number of variants of uncertain significance from 58% to 42%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight the relevance of data sharing and data curation by multidisciplinary experts to achieve improved variant classification that will eventually improve clinical management.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Germline CNVs are important contributors to hereditary cancer. In genetic diagnostics, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is commonly used to identify them. However, MLPA is time-consuming and expensive if applied to many genes, hence many routine laboratories test only a subset of genes of interest. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based CNV detection tool (DECoN) as first-tier screening to decrease costs and turnaround time and expand CNV analysis to all genes of clinical interest in our diagnostics routine. We used DECoN in a retrospective cohort of 1860 patients where a limited number of genes were previously analysed by MLPA, and in a prospective cohort of 2041 patients, without MLPA analysis. In the retrospective cohort, 6 new CNVs were identified and confirmed by MLPA. In the prospective cohort, 19 CNVs were identified and confirmed by MLPA, 8 of these would have been lost in our previous MLPA-restricted detection strategy. Also, the number of genes tested by MLPA across all samples decreased by 93.0% in the prospective cohort. CONCLUSION: Including an in silico germline NGS CNV detection tool improved our genetic diagnostics strategy in hereditary cancer, both increasing the number of CNVs detected and reducing turnaround time and costs.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 141: 1-8, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) is an inherited disorder with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancers (OC). Mutations in BRCA1-BRCA2 explains less than a half of cases. In the last decade several genes with different penetrance have been associated with an increased risk of BC or OC. A recurrent heterozygous ERCC3 truncating mutation increases the risk for breast cancer in patients with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Our study aimed to investigate the role of ERCC3 truncating variants in a cohort of patients with suspicion of HBOC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ERCC3 screening by multigene-panel analysis in 1311 unrelated patients after our regional consensus for genetic testing in hereditary cancer was done. In addition, 453 Spanish cancer-free individuals and 51,343 GnomAD non-Finnish, non-cancer European individuals were used as control populations. RESULTS: We identified 13 patients with heterozygous ERCC3 truncating variants (0.99%). Five of them also carried a mutation in a high- /moderate-penetrance HBOC gene (BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and TP53) being Multilocus Inherited Neoplasia Alleles syndrome (MINAS) patients. The frequency in 453 Spanish controls was of 0.22%; similar to that observed in 51,343 non-Finnish European GnomAD population (0.24%). We found an almost statistically significant association of truncating ERCC3 variants with BC (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, confidence interval [CI] = 0.6-5.93, P = 0.11), and we observed for the first time a significant association with OC (OR = 4.74, CI = 1-14.34, P = 0.028), that holds even after removing MINAS cases. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest HBOC series comprehensively analysed for ERCC3 mutations, and the first study identifying ERCC3 as a cancer risk for OC.

5.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(12): 1453-1468, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011440

RESUMO

RNA analyses are a potent tool to identify spliceogenic effects of DNA variants, although they are time-consuming and cannot always be performed. We present splicing assays of 20 variants that represent a variety of mutation types in 10 hereditary cancer genes and attempt to incorporate these results into American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) classification guidelines. Sixteen single-nucleotide variants, 3 exon duplications, and 1 single-exon deletion were selected and prioritized by in silico algorithms. RNA was extracted from short-term lymphocyte cultures to perform RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing, and allele-specific expression was assessed whenever possible. Aberrant transcripts were detected in 14 variants (70%). Variant interpretation was difficult, especially comparing old classification standards to generic ACMG guidelines and a proposal was devised to weigh functional analyses at RNA level. According to the ACMG guidelines, only 12 variants were reclassified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic because the other two variants did not gather enough evidence. This study highlights the importance of RNA studies to improve variant classification. However, it also indicates the challenge of incorporating these results into generic ACMG guidelines and the need to refine these criteria gene specifically. Nevertheless, 60% of variants were reclassified, thus improving genetic counseling and surveillance for carriers of these variants.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2128-2142, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906215

RESUMO

CHEK2 variants are associated with intermediate breast cancer risk, among other cancers. We aimed to comprehensively describe CHEK2 variants in a Spanish hereditary cancer (HC) cohort and adjust the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines for their classification. First, three CHEK2 frequent variants were screened in a retrospective Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer cohort of 516 patients. After, the whole CHEK2 coding region was analyzed by next-generation sequencing in 1848 prospective patients with HC suspicion. We refined ACMG-AMP criteria and applied different combined rules to classify CHEK2 variants and define risk alleles. We identified 10 CHEK2 null variants, 6 missense variants with discordant interpretation in ClinVar database, and 35 additional variants of unknown significance. Twelve variants were classified as (likely)-pathogenic; two can also be considered "established risk-alleles" and one as "likely risk-allele." The prevalence of (likely)-pathogenic variants in the HC cohort was 0.8% (1.3% in breast cancer patients and 1.0% in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients). Here, we provide ACMG adjustment guidelines to classify CHEK2 variants. We hope that this study would be useful for variant classification of other genes with low effect variants.

7.
Genet Med ; 22(12): 2089-2100, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792570

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline pathogenic variants in the exonuclease domain (ED) of polymerases POLE and POLD1 predispose to adenomatous polyps, colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial tumors, and other malignancies, and exhibit increased mutation rate and highly specific associated mutational signatures. The tumor spectrum and prevalence of POLE and POLD1 variants in hereditary cancer are evaluated in this study. METHODS: POLE and POLD1 were sequenced in 2813 unrelated probands referred for genetic counseling (2309 hereditary cancer patients subjected to a multigene panel, and 504 patients selected based on phenotypic characteristics). Cosegregation and case-control studies, yeast-based functional assays, and tumor mutational analyses were performed for variant interpretation. RESULTS: Twelve ED missense variants, 6 loss-of-function, and 23 outside-ED predicted-deleterious missense variants, all with population allele frequencies <1%, were identified. One ED variant (POLE p.Met294Arg) was classified as likely pathogenic, four as likely benign, and seven as variants of unknown significance. The most commonly associated tumor types were colorectal, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Loss-of-function and outside-ED variants are likely not pathogenic for this syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Polymerase proofreading-associated syndrome constitutes 0.1-0.4% of familial cancer cases, reaching 0.3-0.7% when only CRC and polyposis are considered. ED variant interpretation is challenging and should include multiple pieces of evidence.

8.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 28(12): 1645-1655, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561899

RESUMO

Although germline copy-number variants (CNVs) are the genetic cause of multiple hereditary diseases, detecting them from targeted next-generation sequencing data (NGS) remains a challenge. Existing tools perform well for large CNVs but struggle with single and multi-exon alterations. The aim of this work is to evaluate CNV calling tools working on gene panel NGS data and their suitability as a screening step before orthogonal confirmation in genetic diagnostics strategies. Five tools (DECoN, CoNVaDING, panelcn.MOPS, ExomeDepth, and CODEX2) were tested against four genetic diagnostics datasets (two in-house and two external) for a total of 495 samples with 231 single and multi-exon validated CNVs. The evaluation was performed using the default and sensitivity-optimized parameters. Results showed that most tools were highly sensitive and specific, but the performance was dataset dependant. When evaluating them in our diagnostics scenario, DECoN and panelcn.MOPS detected all CNVs with the exception of one mosaic CNV missed by DECoN. However, DECoN outperformed panelcn.MOPS specificity achieving values greater than 0.90 when using the optimized parameters. In our in-house datasets, DECoN and panelcn.MOPS showed the highest performance for CNV screening before orthogonal confirmation. Benchmarking and optimization code is freely available at https://github.com/TranslationalBioinformaticsIGTP/CNVbenchmarkeR .

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32235514

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by biallelic mutations in FA genes. Monoallelic mutations in five of these genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, BRIP1 and RAD51C) increase the susceptibility to breast/ovarian cancer and are used in clinical diagnostics as bona-fide hereditary cancer genes. Increasing evidence suggests that monoallelic mutations in other FA genes could predispose to tumor development, especially breast cancer. The objective of this study is to assess the mutational spectrum of 14 additional FA genes (FANCA, FANCB, FANCC, FANCD2, FANCE, FANCF, FANCG, FANCI, FANCL, FANCM, FANCP, FANCQ, FANCR and FANCU) in a cohort of hereditary cancer patients, to compare with local cancer-free controls as well as GnomAD. A total of 1021 hereditary cancer patients and 194 controls were analyzed using our next generation custom sequencing panel. We identified 35 pathogenic variants in eight genes. A significant association with the risk of breast cancer/breast and ovarian cancer was found for carriers of FANCA mutations (odds ratio (OR) = 3.14 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-6.17, p = 0.003). Two patients with early-onset cancer showed a pathogenic FA variant in addition to another germline mutation, suggesting a modifier role for FA variants. Our results encourage a comprehensive analysis of FA genes in larger studies to better assess their role in cancer risk.

11.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 30(1): 83-88, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical impact on fertility in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess ovarian reserve as measured by anti-mullerian hormone levels in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, as well as to investigate the impact of anti-mullerian hormone levels on reproductive outcomes. METHODS: The study involved a cohort of women who tested positive for BRCA1 and BRCA2 screening or were tested for a BRCA1 or BRCA2 family mutation. Blood samples were collected for anti-mullerian hormone analysis and the reproductive outcomes were analyzed after a mean follow-up of 9 years. Participants were classified into BRCA mutation-positive versus BRCA mutation-negative. Controls were healthy relatives who tested negative for the family mutation. All patients were contacted by telephone to collect data on reproductive outcomes. Linear regression was used to predict anti-mullerian hormone levels by BRCA status adjusted for a polynomial form of age. RESULTS: Results of anti-mullerian hormone analysis and reproductive outcomes were available for 135 women (BRCA mutation-negative, n=66; BRCA1 mutation-positive, n=32; BRCA2 mutation-positive, n=37). Anti-mullerian hormone curves according to BRCA status and adjusted by age showed that BRCA2 mutation-positive patients have lower levels of anti-mullerian hormone as compared with BRCA-negative and BRCA1 mutation-positive. Among the women who tried to conceive, infertility was observed in 18.7% of BRCA mutation-negative women, in 22.2% of BRCA1 mutation-positive women, and in 30.8% of BRCA2 mutation-positive women (p=0.499). In the multivariable analysis, there were no factors independently associated with infertility. DISCUSSION: BRCA2 mutation-positive carriers showed more diminished anti-mullerian hormone levels than BRCA1 mutation-positive and BRCA mutation-negative women. However, these differences do not appear to have a negative impact on reproductive outcome. This is important to consider at the time of reproductive counseling in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Reserva Ovariana/genética , Reprodução/genética , Adulto , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Genes BRCA2 , Humanos
12.
Eur Urol ; 76(6): 831-842, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. OBJECTIVE: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p = 0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p = 0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p = 0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65). CONCLUSIONS: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.

13.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
14.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Processamento Alternativo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Neoplasias/genética
15.
Int J Cancer ; 145(10): 2682-2691, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927264

RESUMO

Multigene panels provide a powerful tool for analyzing several genes simultaneously. We evaluated the frequency of pathogenic variants (PV) in customized predefined panels according to clinical suspicion by phenotype and compared it to the yield obtained in the analysis of our clinical research gene panel. We also investigated mutational yield of opportunistic testing of BRCA1/2 and mismatch repair (MMR) genes in all patients. A total of 1,205 unrelated probands with clinical suspicion of hereditary cancer were screened for germline mutations using panel testing. Overall, 1,048 females and 157 males were analyzed, mean age at cancer diagnosis was 48; 883 had hereditary breast/ovarian cancer-suspicion, 205 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)-suspicion, 73 adenomatous-polyposis-suspicion and 44 with other/multiple clinical criteria. At least one PV was found in 150 probands (12%) analyzed by our customized phenotype-driven panel. Tumoral MMR deficiency predicted for the presence of germline MMR gene mutations in patients with HNPCC-suspicion (46/136 vs. 0/56 in patients with and without MMR deficiency, respectively). Opportunistic testing additionally identified five MSH6, one BRCA1 and one BRCA2 carriers (0.6%). The analysis of the extended 24-gene panel provided 25 additional PVs (2%), including in 4 out of 51 individuals harboring MMR-proficient colorectal tumors (2 CHEK2 and 2 ATM). Phenotype-based panels provide a notable rate of PVs with clinical actionability. Opportunistic testing of MMR and BRCA genes leads to a significant straightforward identification of MSH6, BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and endorses the model of opportunistic testing of genes with clinical utility within a standard genetic counseling framework.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(4): 350-364, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. METHODS: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Med Genet ; 56(8): 521-525, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580288

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Genetic testing of hereditary cancer using comprehensive gene panels can identify patients with more than one pathogenic mutation in high and/or moderate-risk-associated cancer genes. This phenomenon is known as multilocus inherited neoplasia alleles syndrome (MINAS), which has been potentially linked to more severe clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and clinical features of MINAS in a large cohort of adult patients with hereditary cancer homogeneously tested with the same gene panel. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 1023 unrelated patients with suspicion of hereditary cancer was screened using a validated panel including up to 135 genes associated with hereditary cancer and phakomatoses. RESULTS: Thirteen (1.37%) patients harbouring two pathogenic mutations in dominant cancer-predisposing genes were identified, representing 5.7% (13/226) of patients with pathogenic mutations. Most (10/13) of these cases presented clinical manifestations associated with only one of the mutations identified. One case showed mutations in MEN1 and MLH1 and developed tumours associated with both cancer syndromes. Interestingly, three of the double mutants had a young age of onset or severe breast cancer phenotype and carried mutations in moderate to low-risk DNA damage repair-associated genes; two of them presented biallelic inactivation of CHEK2. We included these two patients for the sake of their clinical interest although we are aware that they do not exactly fulfil the definition of MINAS since both mutations are in the same gene. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Genetic analysis of a broad cancer gene panel identified the largest series of patients with MINAS described in a single study. Overall, our data do not support the existence of more severe manifestations in double mutants at the time of diagnosis although they do confirm previous evidence of severe phenotype in biallelic CHEK2 and other DNA repair cancer-predisposing genes.


Assuntos
Alelos , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome
18.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(2): 497-503, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105462

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Classification of rare BRCA1 missense variants presents a major challenge for the counseling and treatment of patients. Variant classification can be complicated by conflicting lines of evidence. BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val) has been shown to abrogate BRCA1 protein homologous DNA repair; however, multiple sequence alignment demonstrates a lack of sequence conservation at this position, suggesting that glycine at position 1770 may not be essential for cellular maintenance in humans. We analyzed clinical information to resolve the classification of BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val). METHODS: We performed multifactorial likelihood analysis combining segregation data for 14 informative families, and breast tumor histopathological data for 17 variant carriers, ascertained through the ENIGMA consortium. RESULTS: Bayes segregation analysis gave a likelihood ratio of 101:1 in favor of pathogenicity. The vast majority of breast tumors showed features indicative of pathogenic variant carrier status, resulting in a likelihood ratio of 15800794:1 towards pathogenicity. Despite a low prior probability of pathogenicity (0.03) based on bioinformatic prediction, multifactorial likelihood analysis including segregation and histopathology analysis gave a posterior probability of > 0.99 and final classification of Pathogenic. CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that BRCA1 c.5309G>T p.(Gly1770Val), previously described as a Moroccan founder variant, should be treated as a disease-causing variant despite a lack of evolutionary conservation at this amino acid position. Additionally, we stress that bioinformatic information should be used in combination with other data, either direct clinical evidence or some form of clinical calibration, to arrive at a final clinical classification.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Evolução Molecular , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Sequência Conservada , Reparo do DNA/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Alinhamento de Sequência
20.
Br J Cancer ; 118(2): 266-276, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort. METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV. RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers. CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.


Assuntos
Calicreínas/metabolismo , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
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