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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients frequently develop muscle atrophy and weakness in the intensive-care-unit setting [intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW)]. Sepsis, systemic inflammation, and acute-phase response are major risk factors. We reported earlier that the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) is increased and accumulates in muscle of ICUAW patients, but its relevance was unknown. Our objectives were to identify SAA1 receptors and their downstream signalling pathways in myocytes and skeletal muscle and to investigate the role of SAA1 in inflammation-induced muscle atrophy. METHODS: We performed cell-based in vitro and animal in vivo experiments. The atrophic effect of SAA1 on differentiated C2C12 myotubes was investigated by analysing gene expression, protein content, and the atrophy phenotype. We used the cecal ligation and puncture model to induce polymicrobial sepsis in wild type mice, which were treated with the IкB kinase inhibitor Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS)-345541 or vehicle. Morphological and molecular analyses were used to investigate the phenotype of inflammation-induced muscle atrophy and the effects of BMS-345541 treatment. RESULTS: The SAA1 receptors Tlr2, Tlr4, Cd36, P2rx7, Vimp, and Scarb1 were all expressed in myocytes and skeletal muscle. Treatment of differentiated C2C12 myotubes with recombinant SAA1 caused myotube atrophy and increased interleukin 6 (Il6) gene expression. These effects were mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4. SAA1 increased the phosphorylation and activity of the transcription factor nuclear factor 'kappa-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B-cells (NF-κB) p65 via TLR2 and TLR4 leading to an increased binding of NF-κB to NF-κB response elements in the promoter region of its target genes resulting in an increased expression of NF-κB target genes. In polymicrobial sepsis, skeletal muscle mass, tissue morphology, gene expression, and protein content were associated with the atrophy response. Inhibition of NF-κB signalling by BMS-345541 increased survival (28.6% vs. 91.7%, P < 0.01). BMS-345541 diminished inflammation-induced atrophy as shown by a reduced weight loss of the gastrocnemius/plantaris (vehicle: -21.2% and BMS-345541: -10.4%; P < 0.05), tibialis anterior (vehicle: -22.7% and BMS-345541: -17.1%; P < 0.05) and soleus (vehicle: -21.1% and BMS-345541: -11.3%; P < 0.05) in septic mice. Analysis of the fiber type specific myocyte cross-sectional area showed that BMS-345541 reduced inflammation-induced atrophy of slow/type I and fast/type II myofibers compared with vehicle-treated septic mice. BMS-345541 reversed the inflammation-induced atrophy program as indicated by a reduced expression of the atrogenes Trim63/MuRF1, Fbxo32/Atrogin1, and Fbxo30/MuSA1. CONCLUSIONS: SAA1 activates the TLR2/TLR4//NF-κB p65 signalling pathway to cause myocyte atrophy. Systemic inhibition of the NF-κB pathway reduced muscle atrophy and increased survival of septic mice. The SAA1/TLR2/TLR4//NF-κB p65 atrophy pathway could have utility in combatting ICUAW.

2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401672

RESUMO

AIMS: In the placebo-controlled, double-blind BOne marrOw transfer to enhance ST-elevation infarct regeneration (BOOST) 2 trial, intracoronary autologous bone marrow cell (BMC) transfer did not improve recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at 6 months in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and moderately reduced LVEF. Regional myocardial perfusion as determined by adenosine stress perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (S-CMR) may be more sensitive than global LVEF in detecting BMC treatment effects. Here, we sought to evaluate (i) the changes of myocardial perfusion in the infarct area over time (ii) the effects of BMC therapy on infarct perfusion, and (iii) the relation of infarct perfusion to LVEF recovery at 6 months. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 51 patients from BOOST-2 (placebo, n = 10; BMC, n = 41), S-CMR was performed 5.1 ± 2.9 days after PCI (before placebo/BMC treatment) and after 6 months. Infarct perfusion improved from baseline to 6 months in the overall patient cohort as reflected by the semi-quantitative parameters, perfusion defect-infarct size ratio (change from 0.54 ± 0.20 to 0.43 ± 0.22; P = 0.006) and perfusion defect-upslope ratio (0.54 ± 0.23 to 0.68 ± 0.22; P < 0.001), irrespective of randomised treatment. Perfusion defect-upslope ratio at baseline correlated with LVEF recovery (r = 0.62; P < 0.001) after 6 months, with a threshold of 0.54 providing the best sensitivity (79%) and specificity (74%) (area under the curve, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.67-0.92). CONCLUSION: Infarct perfusion improves from baseline to 6 months and predicts LVEF recovery in STEMI patients undergoing early PCI. Intracoronary BMC therapy did not enhance infarct perfusion in the BOOST-2 trial.

3.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 12(7): e002384, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipids are increasingly involved in cardiovascular risk prediction as potential proarrhythmic influencers. However, knowledge is limited about the specific mechanisms connecting lipid alterations with atrial conduction. METHODS: To shed light on this issue, we conducted a broad assessment of 151 sphingo- and phospholipids, measured using mass spectrometry, for association with atrial conduction, measured by P wave duration (PWD) from standard electrocardiograms, in the MICROS study (Microisolates in South Tyrol) (n=839). Causal pathways involving lipidomics, body mass index (BMI), and PWD were assessed using 2-sample Mendelian randomization analyses based on published genome-wide association studies of lipidomics (n=4034) and BMI (n=734 481), and genetic association analysis of PWD in 5 population-based studies (n=24 236). RESULTS: We identified an association with relative phosphatidylcholine 38:3 (%PC 38:3) concentration, which was replicated in the ORCADES (Orkney Complex Disease Study; n=951), with a pooled association across studies of 2.59 (95% CI, 1.3-3.9; P=1.1×10-4) ms PWD per mol% increase. While being independent of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels, the %PC 38:3-PWD association was mediated by BMI. Results supported a causal effect of BMI on both PWD ( P=8.3×10-5) and %PC 38:3 ( P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Increased %PC 38:3 levels are consistently associated with longer PWD, partly because of the confounding effect of BMI. The causal effect of BMI on PWD reinforces evidence of BMI's involvement into atrial electrical activity.

4.
Physiol Genomics ; 51(8): 356-367, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274368

RESUMO

To gain new insights into the complex pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) we performed a quantitative approach to identify genes with expression patterns that linearly correlate with parameters of cardiac morphology (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter indexed by body surface are (LVEDDI), systolic function [LV ejection fraction (LVEF)], and serum levels of cardiac peptide hormone NH2-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in human endomyocardial biopsies of 47 DCM patients and eight individuals with normal LVEF. A set of genes was identified as common heart failure markers characterized by correlation of their expression with cardiac morphology, systolic function, and NT-proBNP. Among them are already known genes encoding e.g., the natriuretic peptide hormones NPPA and NPPB and its converting enzyme corin, but also potential new heart failure markers like EP300 antisense RNA1 and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) along with other genes with so far unknown relation to heart function. In contrast, the expression of other genes including the Ca2+ flux regulating genes phospholamban (PLN), sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA), and extracellular matrix proteins showed significant correlation with LVEF and LVEDDI only. Those genes seem to reflect more specifically pathological alterations of systolic function and morphology in DCM hearts.

5.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119267

RESUMO

AIM: Both progenitor and differentiated cells were previously shown to secrete cardio-protective substances, but so far there has been no direct comparison of the paracrine effects of the two cell types on heart failure. The study sought to compare the paracrine effect of selected progenitors and the corresponding non-progenitor mononuclear cardiac cells on the cardiac function of transgenic heart failure mice. In addition, we aimed to further enhance the paracrine effect of the cells via pretreatment with the heart failure mediator aldosterone. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic heart failure mice were injected with the supernatant of murine cardiac stem cell antigen-1 positive (Sca-1+) and negative (Sca-1-) cells with or without aldosterone pretreatment. Cardiac function was determined using small animal magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, heart failure markers were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RT-PCR and bead-based multiplexing assay. While only the secretome of aldosterone pretreated Sca-1+ cells led to a significant improvement in cardiac function, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide plasma levels were significantly lower and galectin-1 levels significantly higher in mice that were treated with either kind of secretome compared to untreated controls. CONCLUSIONS: In this first direct comparison of the paracrine effects of progenitor cells and a heterogeneous population of mononuclear cardiac cells the supernatants of both cell types showed cardio-protective properties which might be of great relevance for endogenous repair. During heart failure raised aldosterone levels might further increase the paracrine effect of progenitor cells.

6.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of percutaneous extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is based on immediate cardiovascular stabilization allowing for sufficient end-organ perfusion, thus improving the outcome in patients with circulatory arrest. Lifebridge® (Zoll Medical GmbH, Germany) is a portable ECLS device designed for rapid application due to its automated set-up. METHODS: A total of 60 tertiary cardiovascular centers were interrogated with regard to application and short-term results after use of Lifebridge ECLS system. Detailed data were collected by standardized case report forms in all centers consented to participate in the study. Demographic and clinical baseline characteristics of the patient population, procedural and follow-up data were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 444 patients were analyzed regarding mortality. The detailed study cohort consisted of 112 patients. A total of 80% of the study subjects represented patients post cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 43% were in cardiogenic shock and 50% suffered from acute myocardial infarction. The survival rates were 36% immediately after device implementation and 16% after 30 days. Multivariable analysis revealed that only serum lactate concentration at admission could be proven as independent predictor of patients' outcome. Patients with lactate concentrations above 10 mmol/L exhibited > 95% mortality (p < 0.05 versus below 10 mmol/L). CONCLUSION: The present study provides real-world clinical data of patients treated with a transportable automated ECLS system. In conclusion, Lifebridge is a safely applicable cardiorespiratory stabilization tool associated with acceptable complication rates. Nevertheless, mortality rates were high in these critically ill patients, especially in those showing high lactate concentrations at admission.

7.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 553-576, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989768

RESUMO

Cardiomyopathies are a heterogeneous group of heart muscle diseases and an important cause of heart failure (HF). Current knowledge on incidence, pathophysiology and natural history of HF in cardiomyopathies is limited, and distinct features of their therapeutic responses have not been systematically addressed. Therefore, this position paper focuses on epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history and latest developments in treatment of HF in patients with dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM) and restrictive (RCM) cardiomyopathies. In DCM, HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has high incidence and prevalence and represents the most frequent cause of death, despite improvements in treatment. In addition, advanced HF in DCM is one of the leading indications for heart transplantation. In HCM, HF with preserved ejection (HFpEF) affects most patients with obstructive, and ∼10% of patients with non-obstructive HCM. A timely treatment is important, since development of advanced HF, although rare in HCM, portends a poor prognosis. In RCM, HFpEF is common, while HFrEF occurs later and more frequently in amyloidosis or iron overload/haemochromatosis. Irrespective of RCM aetiology, HF is a harbinger of a poor outcome. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of HF in cardiomyopathies have significant implications for therapeutic decision-making. In addition, new aetiology-specific treatment options (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy, transthyretin stabilizers, immunoadsorption, immunotherapy, etc.) have shown a potential to improve outcomes. Still, causative therapies of many cardiomyopathies are lacking, highlighting the need for the development of effective strategies to prevent and treat HF in cardiomyopathies.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004144

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and pathological cardiac aging share a complex pathophysiology, including extracellular matrix remodelling (EMR). Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) deficiency is associated with EMR. The roles of PAR1 and PAR2 have not been studied in HFpEF, age-dependent cardiac fibrosis, or diastolic dysfunction (DD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Evaluation of endomyocardial biopsies from patients with HFpEF (n = 14) revealed that a reduced cardiac PAR2 expression was associated with aggravated DD and increased myocardial fibrosis (r = -0.7336, P = 0.0028). In line, 1-year-old PAR2-knockout (PAR2ko) mice suffered from DD with preserved systolic function, associated with an increased age-dependent α-smooth muscle actin expression, collagen deposition (1.7-fold increase, P = 0.0003), lysyl oxidase activity, collagen cross-linking (2.2-fold increase, P = 0.0008), endothelial activation, and inflammation. In the absence of PAR2, the receptor-regulating protein caveolin-1 was down-regulated, contributing to an augmented profibrotic PAR1 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß)-dependent signalling. This enhanced TGF-ß/PAR1 signalling caused N-proteinase (ADAMTS3) and C-proteinase (BMP1)-related increased collagen I production from cardiac fibroblasts (CFs). PAR2 overexpression in PAR2ko CFs reversed these effects. The treatment with the PAR1 antagonist, vorapaxar, reduced cardiac fibrosis by 44% (P = 0.03) and reduced inflammation in a metabolic disease model (apolipoprotein E-ko mice). Patients with HFpEF with upstream PAR inhibition via FXa inhibitors (n = 40) also exhibited reduced circulating markers of fibrosis and DD compared with patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: Protease-activated receptor 2 is an important regulator of profibrotic PAR1 and TGF-ß signalling in the heart. Modulation of the FXa/FIIa-PAR1/PAR2/TGF-ß-axis might be a promising therapeutic approach to reduce HFpEF.

9.
Int J Cardiol ; 292: 156-159, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiodepressant antibodies contribute to cardiac dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Changes in immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation modulate the activity of various autoimmune diseases and influence disease activity as well as severity of various autoimmune diseases. We hypothesized that alterations in IgG glycosylation are involved in the disease course of DCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: IgG glycosylation was analyzed in plasma samples of 50 DCM patients using a lectin-based ELISA. Negative inotropic (cardiodepressant) activity (NIA) of antibodies was assessed by measuring the effect of purified DCM-IgG on the shortening of isolated rat cardiomyocytes by means of a video-edge detection system. IgG obtained from plasma of healthy blood donors served as control. DCM-IgG contained significantly less sialic acid (-25%) and galactose (-16%; both P < 0.001), but showed no significant differences in core-fucosylation compared to controls. Interestingly, IgG with NIA displayed a lower percentage of sialylation (-16%, P < 0.001) core-fucosylation (-15%, P = 0.015) and galactosylation (-10%, P = 0.129) than IgG without NIA. The extent of NIA was directly associated with IgG sialylation (r = 0.68; P < 0.001) and galactosylation (r = 0.37; P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Reduced sialylation and galactosylation of IgGs enhances their cardiodepressant activity in DCM indicating that changes in IgG glycosylation may be involved in the pathogenesis of DCM.

10.
Heart Rhythm ; 16(9): 1314-1319, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and its main binding protein insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) have been related to several cardiovascular diseases. The relation with atrial fibrillation (AF) is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels with prevalent and incident AF in a large population-based study. METHODS: Data from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were collected. At presentation, a medical examination, standardized electrocardiographic assessment, and measurements of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were performed. Incident AF was assessed in individuals without AF at baseline (SHIP-1) who developed AF during follow-up (SHIP-2; after a mean of 5.2 years). RESULTS: Of 3160 participants, 66 (2.1%) exhibited AF at baseline. IGF-1 levels and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratios were significantly lower in individuals with AF than in those without AF (IGF-1: 104.2 ± 41.6 ng/mL vs 142.9 ± 53.5 ng/mL, P < .001 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3: 0.031 ± (0.009 ng/mL vs 0.036 ± 0.010 ng/mL, P = .006, respectively). Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models showed that a low IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio was associated with prevalent AF (odds ratios 0.67; 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.94; P = .021). Of 1817 individuals without AF at baseline, 27 (1.5%) developed AF during follow-up. In these participants, IGF-1 levels, but not IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratios, were significantly lower (IGF-1: 113.3 ± 38.6 ng/mL vs 147.2 ± 51.6 ng/mL, P = .013 and IGF-1/IGFBP-3: 0.033 ± 0.008 ng/mL vs 0.036 ± 0.010 ng/mL, P = .176). CONCLUSION: Low IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratios are associated with a higher prevalence of AF. There seems to be a similar impact in incident AF.

12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1886: 203-217, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374869

RESUMO

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are part of an immunological response and one of the mechanisms by which neutrophils protect the host from pathogen invasion and proliferation. Notwithstanding their protective role, NETs have also been linked to the development of a variety of disorders, including cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. Since the first reports on NETs in 2004 it has been possible to image NETs by a variety of imaging techniques. Despite this, such reports seldomly include contact probe methods, and therefore lack the unique insights such techniques typically provide. In fact, more than 10 years have passed since the discovery of NETs, and although their importance as part of a unique cellular response mechanism has become very clear, studies that attempt to address them by atomic force microscopy (AFM) remain very limited. Particularly striking is the almost absent information on the mechanical properties of NETs, and factors that may influence them. The fact that NETs are a particularly adhesive network of filaments poses a considerable technical challenge for contact probe methods and can limit advances involving either imaging or manipulation of NETs by AFM. The current set of protocols aims at aiding a knowledgeable AFM operator to obtain AFM images and to perform force spectroscopy experiments with such samples. A variety of different topics, including sample preparation and data analysis, are discussed.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Silicatos de Alumínio , Análise de Dados , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo
13.
Circulation ; 139(10): 1249-1258, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous mechanical circulatory support devices are increasingly used in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS), despite limited evidence for their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes associated with use of the Impella device compared with intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and medical treatment in patients with AMI-CS. METHODS: Data of patients with AMI-CS treated with the Impella device at European tertiary care hospitals were collected retrospectively. All patients underwent early revascularization and received optimal medical treatment. Using IABP-SHOCK II (Intraaortic Balloon Pump in Cardiogenic Shock II) trial inclusion and exclusion criteria, 372 patients were identified and included in this analysis. These patients were matched to 600 patients from the IABP-SHOCK II trial. The following baseline criteria were used as matching parameters: age, sex, mechanical ventilation, ejection fraction, prior cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and lactate. Primary end point was 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: In total, 237 patients treated with an Impella could be matched to 237 patients from the IABP-SHOCK II trial. Baseline parameters were similarly distributed after matching. There was no significant difference in 30-day all-cause mortality (48.5% versus 46.4%, P=0.64). Severe or life-threatening bleeding (8.5% versus 3.0%, P<0.01) and peripheral vascular complications (9.8% versus 3.8%, P=0.01) occurred significantly more often in the Impella group. Limiting the analysis to IABP-treated patients as a control group did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective analysis of patients with AMI-CS, the use of an Impella device was not associated with lower 30-day mortality compared with matched patients from the IABP-SHOCK II trial treated with an IABP or medical therapy. To further evaluate this, a large randomized trial is warranted to determine the effect of the Impella device on outcome in patients with AMI-CS. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03313687.

14.
Circulation ; 2018 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) in cardiogenic shock is still a subject of intense debate despite the neutral results of the IABP-SHOCK II trial (Intraaortic Balloon Pump in Cardiogenic Shock II) with subsequent downgrading in international guidelines. So far, randomized data on the impact of IABP on long-term clinical outcomes in patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction are lacking. Furthermore, only limited evidence is available on general long-term outcomes of patients with cardiogenic shock treated by contemporary practice. METHODS: The IABP-SHOCK II trial is a multicenter, randomized, openlabel trial. Between 2009 and 2012, 600 patients with cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction undergoing early revascularization were randomized to IABP versus control. RESULTS: Long-term follow-up was performed 6.2 years (interquartile range 5.6-6.7) after initial randomization. Follow-up was completed for 591 of 600 patients (98.5%). Mortality was not different between the IABP and the control group (66.3% versus 67.0%; relative risk, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11; P=0.98). There were also no differences in recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, repeat revascularization, or rehospitalization for cardiac reasons (all P>0.05). Survivors' quality of life as assessed by the EuroQol 5D questionnaire and the New York Heart Association class did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: IABP has no effect on all-cause mortality at 6-year longterm follow-up. Mortality is still very high, with two thirds of patients with cardiogenic shock dying despite contemporary treatment with revascularization therapy. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT00491036.

15.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

16.
J Sleep Res ; : e12770, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272383

RESUMO

Identification of obstructive sleep apnea and risk factors is important for reduction in symptoms and cardiovascular risk, and for improvement of quality of life. The population-based Study of Health in Pomerania investigated risk factors and clinical diseases in a general population of northeast Germany. Additional polysomnography was applied to measure sleep and respiration with the objective of assessing prevalence and risk factors of obstructive sleep apnea in a German cohort. One-thousand, two-hundred and eight people between 20 and 81 years old (54% men, median age 54 years) underwent overnight polysomnography. The estimated obstructive sleep apnea prevalence was 46% (59% men, 33% women) for an apnea-hypopnea index ≥5%, and 21% (30% men, 13% women) for an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15. The estimated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome prevalence (apnea-hypopnea index ≥5; Epworth Sleepiness Scale >10) was 6%. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea continuously increased with age for men and women with, however, later onset for women. Gender, age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, snoring, alcohol consumption (for women only) and self-reported cardiovascular diseases were significantly positively associated with obstructive sleep apnea, whereas daytime sleepiness was not. Diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were positively associated with severe obstructive sleep apnea. The associations became non-significant after adjustment for body mass. Women exhibited stronger associations than men. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea was high, with almost half the population presenting some kind of obstructive sleep apnea. The continuous increase of obstructive sleep apnea with age challenges the current theory that mortality due to obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular co-morbidities affect obstructive sleep apnea prevalence at an advanced age. Also, gender differences regarding obstructive sleep apnea and associations are significant for recognizing obstructive sleep apnea mechanisms and therapy responsiveness.

17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16066, 2018 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30375472

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) reduces the risk for mortality. Whether the beneficial effects of PA are domain specific is unclear. We associated leisure time (LTPA), sports (SPA) and work (WPA) related PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with all-cause mortality in two German population-based cohorts. We used data of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP, n = 2,935, median age 53; 48% male) and the Cardiovascular Disease, Living and Ageing in Halle study (CARLA, n = 1,776, median age 64 and 54% male). Mortality was determined after a median follow-up of 8.2 years in SHIP (n = 332) and 11.5 years in CARLA (n = 409). LTPA (SHIP: hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD] 0.82 95%-CI 0.73 to 0.91 and CARLA: HR per SD 0.70: 95%-CI 0.59 to 0.82) and SPA (SHIP: HR per SD 0.80 95%-CI 0.71 to 0.91 and CARLA: HR per SD 0.70 95%-CI 0.60 to 0.82) but not WPA were inversely associated with all-cause mortality. In a subsample CRF was inversely related to mortality and positively to LTPA and sports SPA. No association was found for WPA. Our results may suggest that the inverse association between PA and mortality are partly influenced by higher CRF.

18.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246939

RESUMO

AIMS: Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. No direct comparisons between ularitide-a synthetic natriuretic peptide being evaluated in ADHF-and other vasoactive substances are available. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine haemodynamic effect sizes from randomized double-blind trials in ADHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eligible studies enrolled patients with ADHF requiring hospitalization and haemodynamic monitoring. Patients received 24-48 h of infusion with a vasoactive substance or comparator. Primary outcome measure was pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP). Treatment effects were quantified as changes from baseline using mean differences between study drug and comparator. Results were analysed using random-effects (primary analysis) and fixed-effects meta-analyses. Twelve randomized, double-blind studies were identified with data after 3, 6, and 24 h of treatment (n = 622, 644, and 644, respectively). At 6 h, significant PAWP benefits for ularitide over placebo were seen (Hedges' g effect size, -0.979; P < 0.0001). On meta-analysis, treatment difference between ularitide and pooled other agents was statistically significant (-0.501; P = 0.0303). Effect sizes were numerically higher with ularitide than other treatments at 3 and 24 h. After 6 h, a significant difference in effect size between ularitide and all other treatments was observed for right atrial pressure (Hedges' g, -0.797 for ularitide and -0.304 for other treatments; P = 0.0274). CONCLUSIONS: After 6 h, ularitide demonstrated high effect sizes for PAWP and right atrial pressure. Improvements in these parameters were greater with ularitide vs. pooled data for other vasoactive drugs.

19.
Int J Cardiol ; 270: 278-286, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30082120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) has been shown to be an important modulator of the innate immune system, but its role in cardiac diseases is unknown. We investigated whether MD-2 plays a role as risk predictor and contributor in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 174 patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF <45%) due to DCM. Coronary artery disease and severe valvular diseases were excluded in all patients by angiography or echocardiography. Cardiac inflammation, viral infection and MD-2 expression were analyzed from right ventricular endomyocardial biopsies. MD-2 was quantified by ELISA in serum upon first hospital admission. Myocyte contractility and inflammatory response after stimulation with recombinant MD-2 protein were analyzed in isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Median follow-up of the patients was 3.51 years (2.73; 4.48) with 34 deaths. Absolute mortality risk increases in patients displaying a MD-2 serum concentration greater than the median (302 ng/ml) was 23% (P < 0.0001). Age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression analyses demonstrated that mortality risk was highly related to MD-2 concentrations (P < 0.001), but not to age or sex. An increase of 100 ng/ml in the MD-2 level was associated with an absolute mortality risk increase of 50.4%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses showed no difference between MD-2 and nterminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), while the combination of both MD-2 and NT-pro-BNP resulted in a significantly increased capability of risk prediction when compared to NT-pro-BNP alone (P = 0.014). In-vitro, recombinant MD-2 decreases cell shortening and modulates cytokine activation in isolated cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION: MD-2 predicts long-term outcome in DCM patients and improves mortality risk prediction capability compared to NT-pro-BNP alone. In addition, MD-2 exerts direct negative inotropic effects on isolated cardiomyocytes in-vitro. Further randomized trials should confirm MD-2 as a diagnostic and therapeutic target.

20.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061520

RESUMO

Low homoarginine is an independent marker of mortality in heart failure patients and incident cardiovascular events. Whether homoarginine is related with healthier cardiac structure and function is currently unclear. We used data of the population-based "Study of Health in Pomerania" (SHIP-Trend) to assess this relation. Homoarginine was measured in serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Linear regression models assessed the relation between homoarginine and several structural as well as functional parameters and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP). All models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and renal function. A total of 3113 subjects (median age 48 (25th percentile 37 to 75th percentile 60) years, 46% male) were included. A standard deviation decrease in homoarginine was associated with a larger left ventricular diastolic diameter (0.3; 95%-confidence interval (CI): 0.2 to 0.5 mm; p < 0.001), left ventricular systolic diameter (0.38; 95%-CI: -0.22 to 0.54 mm; p < 0.001) as well as a less relative wall thickness (⁻0.003 95%-CI: -0.006 to -0.0008; p = 0.01), left ventricular ejection fraction (⁻0.47; 95%-CI: ⁻0.79 to -0.15%; p < 0.01) and fractional shortening (-0.35; 95%-CI: -0.62 to 0.07%; p = 0.01). Low homoarginine was also related to higher NTproBNP (-0.02 95%-CI: -0.034 to -0.009 log pg/mL; p < 0.01). Lower serum homoarginine is associated with dilatation of the heart and decreased function. Prospective clinical studies should assess if homoarginine supplementation improves cardiac health in subjects with low serum concentrations.

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