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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048168, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older multimorbid adults have a high risk of mortality and a short life expectancy (LE). Providing high-value care and avoiding care overuse, including of preventive care, is a serious challenge among multimorbid patients. While guidelines recommend to tailor preventive care according to the estimated LE, there is no tool to estimate LE in this specific population. Our objective is therefore to develop an LE estimator for older multimorbid adults by transforming a mortality prognostic index, which will be developed and internally validated in a prospective cohort. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will analyse data of the Optimising Therapy to Prevent Avoidable Hospital Admissions in Multimorbid Older People cohort study in Bern, Switzerland. 822 participants were included at hospitalisation with age of 70 years or older, multimorbidity (three or more chronic medical conditions) and polypharmacy (use of five drugs or more for >30 days). All-cause mortality will be assessed during 3 years of follow-up. We will apply a flexible parametric survival model with backward stepwise selection to identify the mortality risk predictors. The model will be internally validated using bootstrapping techniques. We will derive a point-based risk score from the regression coefficients. We will transform the 3-year mortality prognostic index into an LE estimator using the Gompertz survival function. We will perform a qualitative assessment of the clinical usability of the LE estimator and its application. We will conduct the development and validation of the mortality prognostic index following the Prognosis Research Strategy (PROGRESS) framework and report it following the Transparent Reporting of a Multivariable Prediction Model for Individual Prognosis or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) statement. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Written informed consent by patients themselves or, in the case of cognitive impairment, by a legal representative, was required before enrolment. The local ethics committee (Kantonale Ethikkommission Bern) has approved the study. We plan to publish the results in peer-reviewed journals and present them at national and international conferences.


Assuntos
Expectativa de Vida , Multimorbidade , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Polimedicação , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 185(3): 375-385, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228632

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate if subclinical thyroid dysfunction is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: Swiss-AF is a prospective cohort of community-dwelling participants aged ≥ 65 years with AF. Primary outcome was a composite endpoint of CV events (myocardial infarctions, stroke/transitory ischemic events, systemic embolism, heart failure (HF) hospitalizations, CV deaths). Secondary outcomes were component endpoints, total mortality, and AF-progression. Exposures were thyroid dysfunction categories, TSH and fT4. Sensitivity analyses were performed for amiodarone use, thyroid hormones use, and competing events. Results: 2415 patients were included (mean age: 73.2 years; 27% women). 196 (8.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism and 53 (2.3%) subclinical hyperthyroidism. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction was not associated with CV events, during a median follow-up of 2.1 years (max 5 years): age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR) of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.69-1.41) for subclinical hypothyroidism and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.23-1.32) for subclinical hyperthyroidism. Results remained robust following multivariable adjustment and sensitivity analyses. In euthyroid patients, fT4 levels were associated with an increased risk for the composite endpoint and HF (adjHR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.04-2.05; adjHR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08-2.66, respectively, for the highest quintile vs the middle quintile). Results remained similar following multivariable adjustment and remained significant for HF in sensitivity analyses. No association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and total mortality or AF-progression was found. Conclusions: Subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with increased CV risk in AF patients. Higher levels of fT4 with normal TSH were associated with a higher risk for HF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações
3.
BMJ ; 374: n1585, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of optimising drug treatment on drug related hospital admissions in older adults with multimorbidity and polypharmacy admitted to hospital. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: 110 clusters of inpatient wards within university based hospitals in four European countries (Switzerland, Netherlands, Belgium, and Republic of Ireland) defined by attending hospital doctors. PARTICIPANTS: 2008 older adults (≥70 years) with multimorbidity (≥3 chronic conditions) and polypharmacy (≥5 drugs used long term). INTERVENTION: Clinical staff clusters were randomised to usual care or a structured pharmacotherapy optimisation intervention performed at the individual level jointly by a doctor and a pharmacist, with the support of a clinical decision software system deploying the screening tool of older person's prescriptions and screening tool to alert to the right treatment (STOPP/START) criteria to identify potentially inappropriate prescribing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Primary outcome was first drug related hospital admission within 12 months. RESULTS: 2008 older adults (median nine drugs) were randomised and enrolled in 54 intervention clusters (963 participants) and 56 control clusters (1045 participants) receiving usual care. In the intervention arm, 86.1% of participants (n=789) had inappropriate prescribing, with a mean of 2.75 (SD 2.24) STOPP/START recommendations for each participant. 62.2% (n=491) had ≥1 recommendation successfully implemented at two months, predominantly discontinuation of potentially inappropriate drugs. In the intervention group, 211 participants (21.9%) experienced a first drug related hospital admission compared with 234 (22.4%) in the control group. In the intention-to-treat analysis censored for death as competing event (n=375, 18.7%), the hazard ratio for first drug related hospital admission was 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 1.17). In the per protocol analysis, the hazard ratio for a drug related hospital admission was 0.91 (0.69 to 1.19). The hazard ratio for first fall was 0.96 (0.79 to 1.15; 237 v 263 first falls) and for death was 0.90 (0.71 to 1.13; 172 v 203 deaths). CONCLUSIONS: Inappropriate prescribing was common in older adults with multimorbidity and polypharmacy admitted to hospital and was reduced through an intervention to optimise pharmacotherapy, but without effect on drug related hospital admissions. Additional efforts are needed to identify pharmacotherapy optimisation interventions that reduce inappropriate prescribing and improve patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02986425.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Multimorbidade , Polimedicação , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise por Conglomerados , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Prescrição Inadequada/efeitos adversos
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e2036645, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566107

RESUMO

Importance: Previous trials on the effect of levothyroxine on depressive symptom scores in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism were limited by small sample sizes (N = 57 to 94) and potential biases. Objective: To assess the effect of levothyroxine on the development of depressive symptoms in older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism in the largest trial on this subject and to update a previous meta-analysis including the results from this study. Design, Setting, and Participants: This predefined ancillary study analyzed data from participants in the Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Untreated Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism (TRUST) trial, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial conducted from April 2013 to October 31, 2016. The TRUST trial included adults aged 65 years or older diagnosed with subclinical hypothyroidism, defined as the presence of persistently elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (4.6-19.9 mIU/L) with free thyroxine (T4) within the reference range. Participants were identified from clinical and general practitioner laboratory databases and recruited from the community in Switzerland, the Netherlands, Ireland, and the UK. This ancillary study included a subgroup of 472 participants from the Netherlands and Switzerland; after exclusions, a total of 427 participants (211 randomized to levothyroxine and 216 to placebo) were analyzed. This analysis was conducted from December 1, 2019, to September 1, 2020. Interventions: Randomization to either levothyroxine or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depressive symptom scores after 12 months measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), with higher scores indicating more depressive symptoms (minimal clinically important difference = 2). Results: A total of 427 participants with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean [SD] age, 74.52 [6.29] years; 239 women [56%]) were included in this analysis. The mean (SD) TSH level was 6.57 (2.22) mIU/L at baseline and decreased after 12 months to 3.83 (2.29) mIU/L in the levothyroxine group; in the placebo group, it decreased from 6.55 (2.04) mIU/L to 5.91 (2.66) mIU/L. At baseline, the mean (SD) GDS-15 score was 1.26 (1.85) in the levothyroxine group and 0.96 (1.58) in the placebo group. The mean (SD) GDS-15 score at 12 months was 1.39 (2.13) in the levothyroxine and 1.07 (1.67) in the placebo group with an adjusted between-group difference of 0.15 for levothyroxine vs placebo (95% CI, -0.15 to 0.46; P = .33). In a subgroup analysis including participants with a GDS-15 of at least 2, the adjusted between-group difference was 0.61 (95% CI, -0.32 to 1.53; P = .20). Results did not differ according to age, sex, or TSH levels. A previous meta-analysis (N = 278) on the association of levothyroxine with depressive symptoms was updated to include these findings, resulting in an overall standardized mean difference of 0.09 (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.22). Conclusions and Relevance: This ancillary study of a randomized clinical trial found that depressive symptoms did not differ after levothyroxine therapy compared with placebo after 12 months; thus, these results do not provide evidence in favor of levothyroxine therapy in older persons with subclinical hypothyroidism to reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01853579.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Depressão/psicologia , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/psicologia , Masculino , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(4): 931-940, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Balancing bleeding risk and stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common challenge. Though several bleeding risk scores exist, most have not included patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). We aimed at developing a novel bleeding risk score for patients with AF on oral anticoagulants (OAC) including both vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and DOACs. METHODS: We included patients with AF on OACs from a prospective multicenter cohort study in Switzerland (SWISS-AF). The outcome was time to first bleeding. Bleeding events were defined as major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. We used backward elimination to identify bleeding risk variables. We derived the score using a point score system based on the ß-coefficients from the multivariable model. We used the Brier score for model calibration (<0.25 indicating good calibration), and Harrel's c-statistics for model discrimination. RESULTS: We included 2147 patients with AF on OAC (72.5% male, mean age 73.4 ± 8.2 years), of whom 1209 (56.3%) took DOACs. After a follow-up of 4.4 years, a total of 255 (11.9%) bleeding events occurred. After backward elimination, age > 75 years, history of cancer, prior major hemorrhage, and arterial hypertension remained in the final prediction model. The Brier score was 0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.27), the c-statistic at 12 months was 0.71 (95% CI 0.63-0.80). CONCLUSION: In this prospective cohort study of AF patients and predominantly DOAC users, we successfully derived a bleeding risk prediction model with good calibration and discrimination.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Suíça
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19111, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154486

RESUMO

In subclinical hypothyroidism, the presence of depressive symptoms is often a reason for starting levothyroxine treatment. However, data are conflicting on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms. We aimed to examine the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms in all prospective cohorts with relevant data available. We performed a systematic review of the literature from Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Library from inception to 10th May 2019. We included prospective cohorts with data on thyroid status at baseline and depressive symptoms during follow-up. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms measured at first available follow-up, expressed on the Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI) scale (range 0-63, higher values indicate more depressive symptoms, minimal clinically important difference: 5 points). We performed a two-stage individual participant data (IPD) analysis comparing participants with subclinical hypo- or hyperthyroidism versus euthyroidism, adjusting for depressive symptoms at baseline, age, sex, education, and income (PROSPERO CRD42018091627). Six cohorts met the inclusion criteria, with IPD on 23,038 participants. Their mean age was 60 years, 65% were female, 21,025 were euthyroid, 1342 had subclinical hypothyroidism and 671 subclinical hyperthyroidism. At first available follow-up [mean 8.2 (± 4.3) years], BDI scores did not differ between participants with subclinical hypothyroidism (mean difference = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = - 0.17 to 0.76, I2 = 15.6) or subclinical hyperthyroidism (- 0.10, 95% confidence interval = - 0.67 to 0.48, I2 = 3.2) compared to euthyroidism. This systematic review and IPD analysis of six prospective cohort studies found no clinically relevant association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction at baseline and depressive symptoms during follow-up. The results were robust in all sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Our results are in contrast with the traditional notion that subclinical thyroid dysfunction, and subclinical hypothyroidism in particular, is associated with depressive symptoms. Consequently, our results do not support the practice of prescribing levothyroxine in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism to reduce the risk of developing depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Depressão/complicações , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/complicações , Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Tireóidea
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(12): e014890, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529888

RESUMO

Background A cointervention in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) is medical care given in addition to the tested intervention. If cointerventions are unbalanced between trial arms, the results may be biased. We hypothesized that cointerventions would be more adequately reported in RCTs without full blinding or at risk of bias. Methods and Results To describe the reporting of cointerventions and to evaluate the factors associated with their reporting, we did a systematic search of all RCTs evaluating pharmacological interventions on cardiovascular outcomes published in 5 high-impact journals. The reporting of cointerventions, blinding, and risk of bias were extracted and evaluated independently by 2 reviewers (E.M., L.A.). Cointerventions were inadequately reported in 87 of 123 RCTs (70.7%), with 56 (45.5%) providing no information on cointerventions and 31 (25.2%) providing only partial information. Of the RCTs, 52 (42.3%) had inadequate blinding of participants and/or personnel and 63 (51.2%) of the RCTs were judged at risk of bias. In univariable analysis, the reporting of cointerventions was not associated with blinding of participants and/or personnel (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.47-2.27 for adequately versus inadequately blinded trials) or with risk of bias (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 0.67-3.21 for at low risk of bias versus trials at risk of bias). In multivariable analysis, only a follow-up of <1 month was associated with the adequate reporting of cointerventions (OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.21-10.91). Conclusions More than two-thirds of recent major cardiovascular trials did not adequately report cointerventions. The quality of reporting was not better among trials that were not fully blinded or at risk for bias. Registration URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSP​ERO/. Unique identifier: CRD42018106771.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Viés , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(9): e89-e94, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue often triggers screening for and treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism. However, data on the impact of levothyroxine on fatigue is limited and previous studies might not have captured all aspects of fatigue. METHOD: This study is nested within the randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter TRUST trial, including community-dwelling participants aged ≥65 and older, with persistent subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH 4.60-19.99 mIU/L, normal free thyroxine levels) from Switzerland and Ireland. Interventions consisted of daily levothyroxine starting with 50 µg (25 µg if weight <50 kg or known coronary heart diseases) together with dose adjustments to achieve a normal TSH and mock titration in the placebo group. Main outcome was the change in physical and mental fatigability using the Pittsburgh Fatigability Scale over 1 year, assessed through multivariable linear regression with adjustment for country, sex, and levothyroxine starting dose. RESULTS: Among 230 participants, the mean ± standard deviation (SD) TSH was 6.2 ± 1.9 mIU/L at baseline and decreased to 3.1 ± 1.3 with LT4 (n = 119) versus 5.3 ± 2.3 with placebo (n = 111, p < .001) after 1 year. After adjustment we found no between-group difference at 1 year on perceived physical (0.2; 95% CI -1.8 to 2.1; p = .88), or mental fatigability (-1.0; 95% CI -2.8 to 0.8; p = .26). In participants with higher fatigability at baseline (≥15 points for the physical score [n = 88] or ≥13 points for the mental score [n = 41]), the adjusted between-group differences at 1 year were 0.4 (95% CI -3.6 to 2.8, p = .79) and -2.2 (95% CI -8.8 to 4.5, p = .51). CONCLUSIONS: Levothyroxine in older adults with mild subclinical hypothyroidism provides no change in physical or mental fatigability.


Assuntos
Fadiga/etiologia , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Masculino , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(11): 709-716, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: L-thyroxine does not improve hypothyroid symptoms among adults with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). However, those with greater symptom burden before treatment may still benefit. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether L-thyroxine improves hypothyroid symptoms and tiredness among older adults with SCH and greater symptom burden. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of the randomized, placebo-controlled trial TRUST (Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Untreated Older Adults with Subclinical Hypothyroidism Trial). (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01660126). SETTING: Switzerland, Ireland, the Netherlands, and Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 638 persons aged 65 years or older with persistent SCH (thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4.60 to 19.9 mIU/L for >3 months and normal free thyroxine level) and complete outcome data. INTERVENTION: L-thyroxine or matching placebo with mock dose titration. MEASUREMENTS: 1-year change in Hypothyroid Symptoms and Tiredness scores (range, 0 to 100; higher scores indicate more symptoms) on the Thyroid-Related Quality-of-Life Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaire among participants with high symptom burden (baseline Hypothyroid Symptoms score >30 or Tiredness score >40) versus lower symptom burden. RESULTS: 132 participants had Hypothyroid Symptoms scores greater than 30, and 133 had Tiredness scores greater than 40. Among the group with high symptom burden, the Hypothyroid Symptoms score improved similarly between those receiving L-thyroxine (mean within-group change, -12.3 [95% CI, -16.6 to -8.0]) and those receiving placebo (mean within-group change, -10.4 [CI, -15.3 to -5.4]) at 1 year; the adjusted between-group difference was -2.0 (CI, -5.5 to 1.5; P = 0.27). Improvements in Tiredness scores were also similar between those receiving L-thyroxine (mean within-group change, -8.9 [CI, -14.5 to -3.3]) and those receiving placebo (mean within-group change, -10.9 [CI, -16.0 to -5.8]); the adjusted between-group difference was 0.0 (CI, -4.1 to 4.0; P = 0.99). There was no evidence that baseline Hypothyroid Symptoms score or Tiredness score modified the effects of L-thyroxine versus placebo (P for interaction = 0.20 and 0.82, respectively). LIMITATION: Post hoc analysis, small sample size, and examination of only patients with 1-year outcome data. CONCLUSION: In older adults with SCH and high symptom burden at baseline, L-thyroxine did not improve hypothyroid symptoms or tiredness compared with placebo. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: European Union FP7.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tireotropina/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 220, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several approaches to medication optimisation by identifying drug-related problems in older people have been described. Although some interventions have shown reductions in drug-related problems (DRPs), evidence supporting the effectiveness of medication reviews on clinical and economic outcomes is lacking. Application of the STOPP/START (version 2) explicit screening tool for inappropriate prescribing has decreased inappropriate prescribing and significantly reduced adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and associated healthcare costs in older patients with multi-morbidity and polypharmacy. Therefore, application of STOPP/START criteria during a medication review is likely to be beneficial. Incorporation of explicit screening tools into clinical decision support systems (CDSS) has gained traction as a means to improve both quality and efficiency in the rather time-consuming medication review process. Although CDSS can generate more potential inappropriate medication recommendations, some of these have been shown to be less clinically relevant, resulting in alert fatigue. Moreover, explicit tools such as STOPP/START do not cover all relevant DRPs on an individual patient level. The OPERAM study aims to assess the impact of a structured drug review on the quality of pharmacotherapy in older people with multi-morbidity and polypharmacy. The aim of this paper is to describe the structured, multi-component intervention of the OPERAM trial and compare it with the approach in the comparator arm. METHOD: This paper describes a multi-component intervention, integrating interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness in defining DRPs. The intervention involves a structured history-taking of medication (SHiM), a medication review according to the systemic tool to reduce inappropriate prescribing (STRIP) method, assisted by a clinical decision support system (STRIP Assistant, STRIPA) with integrated STOPP/START criteria (version 2), followed by shared decision-making with both patient and attending physician. The developed method integrates patient input, patient data, involvement from other healthcare professionals and CDSS-assistance into one structured intervention. DISCUSSION: The clinical and economical effectiveness of this experimental intervention will be evaluated in a cohort of hospitalised, older patients with multi-morbidity and polypharmacy in the multicentre, randomized controlled OPERAM trial (OPtimising thERapy to prevent Avoidable hospital admissions in the Multi-morbid elderly), which will be completed in the last quarter of 2019. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Universal Trial Number: U1111-1181-9400 Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02986425, Registered 08 December 2016. FOPH (Swiss national portal): SNCTP000002183. Netherlands Trial Register: NTR6012 (07-10-2016).


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Hospitalização , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Reconciliação de Medicamentos/métodos , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados , Idoso , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Multimorbidade , Polimedicação , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Am J Med ; 133(7): 848-856.e5, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism has been associated with heart failure, but only small trials assessed whether treatment with levothyroxine has an impact on cardiac function. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial nested within the TRUST trial, Swiss participants ages ≥65 years with subclinical hypothyroidism (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH] 4.60-19.99 mIU/L; free thyroxine level within reference range) were randomized to levothyroxine (starting dose of 50 µg daily) to achieve TSH normalization or placebo. The primary outcomes were the left ventricular ejection fraction for systolic function and the ratio between mitral peak velocity of early filling to early diastolic mitral annular velocity (E/e' ratio) for diastolic function. Secondary outcomes included e' lateral/septal, left atrial volume index, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure. RESULTS: A total of 185 participants (mean age 74.1 years, 47% women) underwent echocardiography at the end of the trial. After a median treatment duration of 18.4 months, the mean TSH decreased from 6.35 mIU/L to 3.55 mIU/L with levothyroxine (n = 96), and it remained elevated at 5.29 mIU/L with placebo (n = 89). The adjusted between-group difference was not significant for the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (62.7% vs 62.5%, difference = 0.4%, 95% confidence interval -1.8% to 2.5%, P = 0.72) and the E/e' ratio (10.6 vs 10.1, difference 0.4, 95% confidence interval -0.7 to 1.4, P = 0.47). No differences were found for the secondary diastolic function parameters or for interaction according to sex, baseline TSH, preexisting heart failure, and treatment duration (P value >0.05). CONCLUSION: Systolic and diastolic heart function did not differ after treatment with levothyroxine compared with placebo in older adults with mild subclinical hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Tiroxina/administração & dosagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Diástole , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Sístole , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(1)2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702015

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Both thyroid dysfunction and levothyroxine (LT4) therapy have been associated with bone loss, but studies on the effect of LT4 for subclinical hypothyroidism (SHypo) on bone yielded conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of LT4 treatment on bone mineral density (BMD), Trabecular Bone Score (TBS), and bone turnover markers (BTMs) in older adults with SHypo. DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: Planned nested substudy of the double-blind placebo-controlled TRUST trial. Participants with SHypo were randomized to LT4 with dose titration versus placebo with computerized mock titration. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 196 community-dwelling adults over 65 years enrolled at the Swiss TRUST sites had baseline and 1-year follow-up bone examinations; 4 participants withdrew due to adverse events not related to treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: One-year percentage changes of BMD, TBS, and 2 serum BTMs (serum CTX-1 [sCTX] and procollagen type 1 N-terminal polypeptide [P1NP]). Student's t-test for unadjusted analyses and linear regression adjusted for clinical center and sex were performed. RESULTS: Mean age was 74.3 years ± 5.7, 45.4% were women, and 19.6% were osteoporotic. The unadjusted 1-year change in lumbar spine BMD was similar between LT4 (+0.8%) and placebo-treated groups (-0.6%; between-groups difference +1.4%: 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.1 to 2.9, P = .059). Likewise, there were no between-group differences in 1-year change in TBS (-1.3%: 95% CI -3.1 to 0.6, P = .19), total hip BMD (-0.2%: 95% CI -1.1 to 0.1, P = .61), or BTMs levels (sCTX +24.1%: 95% CI -7.9 to 56.2, P = .14), or after adjustment for clinical centers and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Over 1-year levothyroxine had no effect on bone health in older adults with SHypo. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01660126 and NCT02491008.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Masculino , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tiroxina/farmacologia
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14804, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616014

RESUMO

Previous studies reported lower rates of recurrent venous thromboembolism (rVTE) among statin users, but this association could be influenced by concurrent anticoagulation and confounding by statin indication. This study aimed to confirm the beneficial association between statins and rVTE, stratified according to periods with and without anticoagulation, and additionally employ propensity score weighted approach to reduce risk of confounding by indication. The setting was a prospective multicentre cohort study and the outcome was time to first rVTE in statin vs. non-statin users. 980 participants with acute VTE were enrolled (mean age 75.0 years, 47% women), with median follow-up of 2.5 years. Of 241 (24.3%) statin users, 21 (8.7%) suffered rVTE vs. 99 (13.4%) among 739 non-users. The overall adjusted sub-hazard ratio (aSHR) for rVTE comparing statin users to non-users was 0.72 (95%CI 0.44 to 1.19, p = 0.20). This association was only apparent during periods without anticoagulation (aSHR 0.50, 95%CI 0.27 to 0.92, p = 0.03; vs. with anticoagulation: aSHR 1.34, 95%CI 0.54 to 3.35, p = 0.53). Using propensity scores, the rVTE risk during periods without anticoagulation fell further (aSHR 0.20, 95%CI 0.08 to 0.49, p < 0.001). In conclusion, statin use is associated with a more pronounced risk reduction for rVTE than previously estimated, but only during periods without anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e031080, 2019 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481568

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are major risk factors for potentially inappropriate prescribing (eg, overprescribing and underprescribing), and systematic medication reviews are complex and time consuming. In this trial, the investigators aim to determine if a systematic software-based medication review improves medication appropriateness more than standard care in older, multimorbid patients with polypharmacy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Optimising PharmacoTherapy In the multimorbid elderly in primary CAre is a cluster randomised controlled trial that will include outpatients from the Swiss primary care setting, aged ≥65 years with ≥three chronic medical conditions and concurrent use of ≥five chronic medications. Patients treated by the same general practitioner (GP) constitute a cluster, and clusters are randomised 1:1 to either a standard care sham intervention, in which the GP discusses with the patient if the medication list is complete, or a systematic medication review intervention based on the use of the 'Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing'-Assistant (STRIPA). STRIPA is a web-based clinical decision support system that helps customise medication reviews. It is based on the validated 'Screening Tool of Older Person's Prescriptions' (STOPP) and 'Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment' (START) criteria to detect potentially inappropriate prescribing. The trial's follow-up period is 12 months. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The primary endpoint is medication appropriateness, as measured jointly by the change in the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) and Assessment of Underutilisation (AOU). Secondary endpoints include the degree of polypharmacy, overprescribing and underprescribing, the number of falls and fractures, quality of life, the amount of formal and informal care received by patients, survival, patients' quality adjusted life years, patients' medical costs, cost-effectiveness of the intervention, percentage of recommendations accepted by GPs, percentage of recommendation rejected by GPs and patients' willingness to have medications deprescribed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ethics committee of the canton of Bern in Switzerland approved the trial protocol. The results of this trial will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. MAIN FUNDING: Swiss National Science Foundation, National Research Programme (NRP 74) 'Smarter Healthcare'. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03724539), KOFAM (Swiss national portal) (SNCTP000003060), Universal Trial Number (U1111-1226-8013).


Assuntos
Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Clínicos Gerais/normas , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Multimorbidade/tendências , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suíça
15.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029716, 2019 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350252

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prospective cohort studies on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms have yielded conflicting findings, possibly because of differences in age, sex, thyroid-stimulating hormone cut-off levels or degree of baseline depressive symptoms. Analysis of individual participant data (IPD) may help clarify this association. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a systematic review and IPD meta-analysis of prospective studies on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and depressive symptoms. We will identify studies through a systematic search of the literature in the Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases from inception to April 2019 and from the Thyroid Studies Collaboration. We will ask corresponding authors of studies that meet our inclusion criteria to collaborate by providing IPD. Our primary outcome will be depressive symptoms at the first available individual follow-up, measured on a validated scale. We will convert all the scores to the Beck Depression Inventory scale. For each cohort, we will estimate the mean difference of depressive symptoms between participants with subclinical hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism and control adjusted for depressive symptoms at baseline. Furthermore, we will adjust our multivariable linear regression analyses for age, sex, education and income. We will pool the effect estimates of all studies in a random-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity will be assessed by I2. Our secondary outcomes will be depressive symptoms at a specific follow-up time, at the last available individual follow-up and incidence of depression at the first, last and at a specific follow-up time. For the binary outcome of incident depression, we will use a logistic regression model. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required as primary data will not be collected. Our findings will have considerable implications for patient care. We will seek to publish this systematic review and IPD meta-analysis in a high-impact clinical journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018091627.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Tireotropina/metabolismo
16.
BMJ Open ; 9(6): e026769, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164366

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multimorbidity and polypharmacy are important risk factors for drug-related hospital admissions (DRAs). DRAs are often linked to prescribing problems (overprescribing and underprescribing), as well as non-adherence with drug regimens for different reasons. In this trial, we aim to assess whether a structured medication review compared with standard care can reduce DRAs in multimorbid older patients with polypharmacy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: OPtimising thERapy to prevent Avoidable hospital admissions in Multimorbid older people is a European multicentre, cluster randomised, controlled trial. Hospitalised patients ≥70 years with ≥3 chronic medical conditions and concurrent use of ≥5 chronic medications are included in the four participating study centres of Bern (Switzerland), Utrecht (The Netherlands), Brussels (Belgium) and Cork (Ireland). Patients treated by the same prescribing physician constitute a cluster, and clusters are randomised 1:1 to either standard care or Systematic Tool to Reduce Inappropriate Prescribing (STRIP) intervention with the help of a clinical decision support system, the STRIP Assistant. STRIP is a structured method performing customised medication reviews, based on Screening Tool of Older People's Prescriptions/Screening Tool to Alert to Right Treatment criteria to detect potentially inappropriate prescribing. The primary endpoint is any DRA where the main reason or a contributory reason for the patient's admission is caused by overtreatment or undertreatment, and/or inappropriate treatment. Secondary endpoints include number of any hospitalisations, all-cause mortality, number of falls, quality of life, degree of polypharmacy, activities of daily living, patient's drug compliance, the number of significant drug-drug interactions, drug overuse and underuse and potentially inappropriate medication. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The local Ethics Committees in Switzerland, Ireland, The Netherlands and Belgium approved this trial protocol. We will publish the results of this trial in a peer-reviewed journal. MAIN FUNDING: European Union's Horizon 2020 programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02986425 , SNCTP000002183 , NTR6012, U1111-1181-9400.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Geriatria , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/prevenção & controle , Lista de Medicamentos Potencialmente Inapropriados/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Análise por Conglomerados , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Multimorbidade , Polimedicação , Qualidade de Vida
18.
JAMA ; 320(13): 1349-1359, 2018 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285179

RESUMO

Importance: The benefit of thyroid hormone therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is uncertain. New evidence from recent large randomized clinical trials warrants an update of previous meta-analyses. Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of the association of thyroid hormone therapy with quality of life and thyroid-related symptoms in adults with subclinical hypothyroidism. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, Emcare, and Academic Search Premier from inception until July 4, 2018. Study Selection: Randomized clinical trials that compared thyroid hormone therapy with placebo or no therapy in nonpregnant adults with subclinical hypothyroidism were eligible. Two reviewers independently evaluated eligibility based on titles and abstracts of all retrieved studies. Studies not excluded in this first step were independently assessed for inclusion after full-text evaluation by 2 reviewers. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Two independent reviewers extracted data, assessed risk of bias (Cochrane risk-of-bias tool), and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE tool). For synthesis, differences in clinical scores were transformed (eg, quality of life) into standardized mean differences (SMDs; positive values indicate benefit of thyroid hormone therapy; 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 correspond to small, moderate, and large effects, respectively). Random-effects models for meta-analyses were applied. Main Outcomes and Measures: General quality of life and thyroid-related symptoms after a minimum follow-up of 3 months. Results: Overall, 21 of 3088 initially identified publications met the inclusion criteria, with 2192 adults randomized. After treatment (range, 3-18 months), thyroid hormone therapy was associated with lowering the mean thyrotropin value into the normal reference range compared with placebo (range, 0.5-3.7 mIU/L vs 4.6 to 14.7 mIU/L) but was not associated with benefit regarding general quality of life (n = 796; SMD, -0.11; 95% CI, -0.25 to 0.03; I2=66.7%) or thyroid-related symptoms (n = 858; SMD, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.12 to 0.14; I2=0.0%). Overall, risk of bias was low and the quality of evidence assessed with the GRADE tool was judged moderate to high. Conclusions and Relevance: Among nonpregnant adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, the use of thyroid hormone therapy was not associated with improvements in general quality of life or thyroid-related symptoms. These findings do not support the routine use of thyroid hormone therapy in adults with subclinical hypothyroidism.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/efeitos adversos
19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(10): 3658-3667, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113667

RESUMO

Context: Anemia and thyroid dysfunction often co-occur, and both increase with age. Human data on relationships between thyroid disease and anemia are scarce. Objective: To investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between clinical thyroid status and anemia. Design: Individual participant data meta-analysis. Setting: Sixteen cohorts participating in the Thyroid Studies Collaboration (n = 42,162). Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome measure was anemia (hemoglobin <130 g/L in men and <120 g/L in women). Results: Cross-sectionally, participants with abnormal thyroid status had an increased risk of having anemia compared with euthyroid participants [overt hypothyroidism, pooled OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.35 to 2.50), subclinical hypothyroidism 1.21 (1.02 to 1.43), subclinical hyperthyroidism 1.27 (1.03 to 1.57), and overt hyperthyroidism 1.69 (1.00 to 2.87)]. Hemoglobin levels were lower in all groups compared with participants with euthyroidism. In the longitudinal analyses (n = 25,466 from 14 cohorts), the pooled hazard ratio for the risk of development of anemia was 1.38 (95% CI 0.86 to 2.20) for overt hypothyroidism, 1.18 (1.00 to 1.38) for subclinical hypothyroidism, 1.15 (0.94 to 1.42) for subclinical hyperthyroidism, and 1.47 (0.91 to 2.38) for overt hyperthyroidism. Sensitivity analyses excluding thyroid medication or high levels of C-reactive protein yielded similar results. No differences in mean annual change in hemoglobin levels were observed between the thyroid hormone status groups. Conclusion: Higher odds of having anemia were observed in participants with both hypothyroid function and hyperthyroid function. In addition, reduced thyroid function at baseline showed a trend of increased risk of developing anemia during follow-up. It remains to be assessed in a randomized controlled trial whether treatment is effective in reducing anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/complicações , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Anemia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Prognóstico , Testes de Função Tireóidea
20.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196631, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29709030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guidelines for thyroid function evaluation recommend testing TSH first, then assessing fT4 only if TSH is out of the reference range (two-step), but many clinicians initially request both TSH and fT4 (one-step). Given limitations of previous studies, we aimed to compare the two-step with the one-step approach in an unselected community-dwelling study population, and develop a prediction score based on clinical parameters that could identify at-risk patients for thyroid dysfunction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the population-based Busselton Health Study. METHODS: We compared the two-step with the one-step approach, focusing on cases that would be missed by the two-step approach, i.e. those with normal TSH, but out-of-range fT4. We used likelihood ratio tests to identify demographic and clinical parameters associated with thyroid dysfunction and developed a clinical prediction score by using a beta-coefficient based scoring method. RESULTS: Following the two-step approach, 93.0% of all 4471 participants had normal TSH and would not need further testing. The two-step approach would have missed 3.8% of all participants (169 of 4471) with a normal TSH, but a fT4 outside the reference range. In 85% (144 of 169) of these cases, fT4 fell within 2 pmol/l of fT4 reference range limits, consistent with healthy outliers. The clinical prediction score that performed best excluded only 22.5% of participants from TSH testing. CONCLUSION: The two-step approach may avoid measuring fT4 in as many as 93% of individuals with a very small risk of missing thyroid dysfunction. Our findings do not support the simultaneous initial measurement of both TSH and fT4.


Assuntos
Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/sangue , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Funções Verossimilhança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Austrália Ocidental , Adulto Jovem
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