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1.
Pain Physician ; 22(1S): S1-S74, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regenerative medicine is a medical subspecialty that seeks to recruit and enhance the body's own inherent healing armamentarium in the treatment of patient pathology. This therapy's intention is to assist in the repair, and to potentially replace or restore damaged tissue through the use of autologous or allogenic biologics. This field is rising like a Phoenix from the ashes of underperforming conventional therapy midst the hopes and high expectations of patients and medical personnel alike. But, because this is a relatively new area of medicine that has yet to substantiate its outcomes, care must be taken in its public presentation and promises as well as in its use. OBJECTIVE: To provide guidance for the responsible, safe, and effective use of biologic therapy in the lumbar spine. To present a template on which to build standardized therapies using biologics. To ground potential administrators of biologics in the knowledge of the current outcome statistics and to stimulate those interested in providing biologic therapy to participate in high quality research that will ultimately promote and further advance this area of medicine. METHODS: The methodology used has included the development of objectives and key questions. A panel of experts from various medical specialties and subspecialties as well as differing regions collaborated in the formation of these guidelines and submitted (if any) their appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest. Trustworthy standards were employed in the creation of these guidelines. The literature pertaining to regenerative medicine, its effectiveness, and adverse consequences was thoroughly reviewed using a best evidence synthesis of the available literature. The grading for recommendation was provided as described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE: Lumbar Disc Injections: Based on the available evidence regarding the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), including one high-quality randomized controlled trial (RCT), multiple moderate-quality observational studies, a single-arm meta-analysis and evidence from a systematic review, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level III (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best-evidence synthesis. Based on the available evidence regarding the use of medicinal signaling/ mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) with a high-quality RCT, multiple moderate-quality observational studies, a single-arm meta-analysis, and 2 systematic reviews, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level III (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Lumbar Epidural Injections Based on one high-quality RCT, multiple relevant moderate-quality observational studies and a single-arm meta-analysis, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Lumbar Facet Joint Injections Based on one high-quality RCT and 2 moderate-quality observational studies, the qualitative evidence for facet joint injections with PRP has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. Sacroiliac Joint Injection Based on one high-quality RCT, one moderate-quality observational study, and one low-quality case report, the qualitative evidence has been assessed as Level IV (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis. CONCLUSION: Based on the evidence synthesis summarized above, there is Level III evidence for intradiscal injections of PRP and MSCs, whereas the evidence is considered Level IV for lumbar facet joint, lumbar epidural, and sacroiliac joint injections of PRP, (on a scale of Level I through V) using a qualitative modified approach to the grading of evidence based on best evidence synthesis.Regenerative therapy should be provided to patients following diagnostic evidence of a need for biologic therapy, following a thorough discussion of the patient's needs and expectations, after properly educating the patient on the use and administration of biologics and in full light of the patient's medical history. Regenerative therapy may be provided independently or in conjunction with other modalities of treatment including a structured exercise program, physical therapy, behavioral therapy, and along with the appropriate conventional medical therapy as necessary. Appropriate precautions should be taken into consideration and followed prior to performing biologic therapy. Multiple guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), potential limitations in the use of biologic therapy and the appropriate requirements for compliance with the FDA have been detailed in these guidelines. KEY WORDS: Regenerative medicine, platelet-rich plasma, medicinal signaling cells, mesenchymal stem cells, stromal vascular fraction, bone marrow concentrate, chronic low back pain, discogenic pain, facet joint pain, Food and Drug Administration, minimal manipulation, evidence synthesis.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Dor Lombar/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/normas
2.
Pain Physician ; 20(2S): S3-S92, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28226332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid use, abuse, and adverse consequences, including death, have escalated at an alarming rate since the 1990s. In an attempt to control opioid abuse, numerous regulations and guidelines for responsible opioid prescribing have been developed by various organizations. However, the US opioid epidemic is continuing and drug dose deaths tripled during 1999 to 2015. Recent data show a continuing increase in deaths due to natural and semisynthetic opioids, a decline in methadone deaths, and an explosive increase in the rates of deaths involving other opioids, specifically heroin and illicit synthetic fentanyl. Contrary to scientific evidence of efficacy and negative recommendations, a significant proportion of physicians and patients (92%) believe that opioids reduce pain and a smaller proportion (57%) report better quality of life. In preparation of the current guidelines, we have focused on the means to reduce the abuse and diversion of opioids without jeopardizing access for those patients suffering from non-cancer pain who have an appropriate medical indication for opioid use. OBJECTIVES: To provide guidance for the prescription of opioids for the management of chronic non-cancer pain, to develop a consistent philosophy among the many diverse groups with an interest in opioid use as to how appropriately prescribe opioids, to improve the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain and to reduce the likelihood of drug abuse and diversion. These guidelines are intended to provide a systematic and standardized approach to this complex and difficult arena of practice, while recognizing that every clinical situation is unique. METHODS: The methodology utilized included the development of objectives and key questions. The methodology also utilized trustworthy standards, appropriate disclosures of conflicts of interest, as well as a panel of experts from various specialties and groups. The literature pertaining to opioid use, abuse, effectiveness, and adverse consequences was reviewed, with a best evidence synthesis of the available literature, and utilized grading for recommendation as described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).Summary of Recommendations:i. Initial Steps of Opioid Therapy 1. Comprehensive assessment and documentation. (Evidence: Level I; Strength of Recommendation: Strong) 2. Screening for opioid abuse to identify opioid abusers. (Evidence: Level II-III; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 3. Utilization of prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs). (Evidence: Level I-II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate to strong) 4. Utilization of urine drug testing (UDT). (Evidence: Level II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 5. Establish appropriate physical diagnosis and psychological diagnosis if available. (Evidence: Level I; Strength of Recommendation: Strong) 6. Consider appropriate imaging, physical diagnosis, and psychological status to collaborate with subjective complaints. (Evidence: Level III; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 7. Establish medical necessity based on average moderate to severe (≥ 4 on a scale of 0 - 10) pain and/or disability. (Evidence: Level II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 8. Stratify patients based on risk. (Evidence: Level I-II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 9. Establish treatment goals of opioid therapy with regard to pain relief and improvement in function. (Evidence: Level I-II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 10. Obtain a robust opioid agreement, which is followed by all parties. (Evidence: Level III; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate)ii. Assessment of Effectiveness of Long-Term Opioid Therapy 11. Initiate opioid therapy with low dose, short-acting drugs, with appropriate monitoring. (Evidence: Level II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 12. Consider up to 40 morphine milligram equivalent (MME) as low dose, 41 to 90 MME as a moderate dose, and greater than 91 MME as high dose. (Evidence: Level II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 13. Avoid long-acting opioids for the initiation of opioid therapy. (Evidence: Level I; Strength of Recommendation: Strong) 14. Recommend methadone only for use after failure of other opioid therapy and only by clinicians with specific training in its risks and uses, within FDA recommended doses. (Evidence: Level I; Strength of Recommendation: Strong) 15. Understand and educate the patients of the effectiveness and adverse consequences. (Evidence: Level I; Strength of Recommendation: Strong) 16. Similar effectiveness for long-acting and short-acting opioids with increased adverse consequences of long-acting opioids. (Evidence: Level I-II; Strength of recommendation: Moderate to strong) 17. Periodically assess pain relief and/or functional status improvement of ≥ 30% without adverse consequences. (Evidence: Level II; Strength of recommendation: Moderate) 18. Recommend long-acting or high dose opioids only in specific circumstances with severe intractable pain. (Evidence: Level I; Strength of Recommendation: Strong)iii. Monitoring for Adherence and Side Effects 19. Monitor for adherence, abuse, and noncompliance by UDT and PDMPs. (Evidence: Level I-II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate to strong) 20. Monitor patients on methadone with an electrocardiogram periodically. (Evidence: Level I; Strength of Recommendation: Strong). 21. Monitor for side effects including constipation and manage them appropriately, including discontinuation of opioids when indicated. (Evidence: Level I; Strength of Recommendation: Strong)iv. Final Phase 22. May continue with monitoring with continued medical necessity, with appropriate outcomes. (Evidence: Level I-II; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) 23. Discontinue opioid therapy for lack of response, adverse consequences, and abuse with rehabilitation. (Evidence: Level III; Strength of Recommendation: Moderate) CONCLUSIONS: These guidelines were developed based on comprehensive review of the literature, consensus among the panelists, in consonance with patient preferences, shared decision-making, and practice patterns with limited evidence, based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve pain and function in chronic non-cancer pain on a long-term basis. Consequently, chronic opioid therapy should be provided only to patients with proven medical necessity and stability with improvement in pain and function, independently or in conjunction with other modalities of treatments in low doses with appropriate adherence monitoring and understanding of adverse events.Key words: Chronic pain, persistent pain, non-cancer pain, controlled substances, substance abuse, prescription drug abuse, dependency, opioids, prescription monitoring, drug testing, adherence monitoring, diversionDisclaimer: The guidelines are based on the best available evidence and do not constitute inflexible treatment recommendations. Due to the changing body of evidence, this document is not intended to be a "standard of care."


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Humanos , Dor/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Estados Unidos
3.
Pain Physician ; 16(2 Suppl): S49-283, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23615883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for interventional techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of chronic spinal pain. METHODOLOGY: Systematic assessment of the literature. EVIDENCE: I. Lumbar Spine • The evidence for accuracy of diagnostic selective nerve root blocks is limited; whereas for lumbar provocation discography, it is fair. • The evidence for diagnostic lumbar facet joint nerve blocks and diagnostic sacroiliac intraarticular injections is good with 75% to 100% pain relief as criterion standard with controlled local anesthetic or placebo blocks. • The evidence is good in managing disc herniation or radiculitis for caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal epidural injections; fair for axial or discogenic pain without disc herniation, radiculitis or facet joint pain with caudal, and interlaminar epidural injections, and limited for transforaminal epidural injections; fair for spinal stenosis with caudal, interlaminar, and transforaminal epidural injections; and fair for post surgery syndrome with caudal epidural injections and limited with transforaminal epidural injections. • The evidence for therapeutic facet joint interventions is good for conventional radiofrequency, limited for pulsed radiofrequency, fair to good for lumbar facet joint nerve blocks, and limited for intraarticular injections. • For sacroiliac joint interventions, the evidence for cooled radiofrequency neurotomy is fair; limited for intraarticular injections and periarticular injections; and limited for both pulsed radiofrequency and conventional radiofrequency neurotomy. • For lumbar percutaneous adhesiolysis, the evidence is fair in managing chronic low back and lower extremity pain secondary to post surgery syndrome and spinal stenosis. • For intradiscal procedures, the evidence for intradiscal electrothermal therapy (IDET) and biaculoplasty is limited to fair and is limited for discTRODE. • For percutaneous disc decompression, the evidence is limited for automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy (APLD), percutaneous lumbar laser disc decompression, and Dekompressor; and limited to fair for nucleoplasty for which the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has issued a noncoverage decision. II. Cervical Spine • The evidence for cervical provocation discography is limited; whereas the evidence for diagnostic cervical facet joint nerve blocks is good with a criterion standard of 75% or greater relief with controlled diagnostic blocks. • The evidence is good for cervical interlaminar epidural injections for cervical disc herniation or radiculitis; fair for axial or discogenic pain, spinal stenosis, and post cervical surgery syndrome. • The evidence for therapeutic cervical facet joint interventions is fair for conventional cervical radiofrequency neurotomy and cervical medial branch blocks, and limited for cervical intraarticular injections. III. Thoracic Spine • The evidence is limited for thoracic provocation discography and is good for diagnostic accuracy of thoracic facet joint nerve blocks with a criterion standard of at least 75% pain relief with controlled diagnostic blocks. • The evidence is fair for thoracic epidural injections in managing thoracic pain. • The evidence for therapeutic thoracic facet joint nerve blocks is fair, limited for radiofrequency neurotomy, and not available for thoracic intraarticular injections. IV. Implantables • The evidence is fair for spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in managing patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) and limited for implantable intrathecal drug administration systems. V. ANTICOAGULATION • There is good evidence for risk of thromboembolic phenomenon in patients with antithrombotic therapy if discontinued, spontaneous epidural hematomas with or without traumatic injury in patients with or without anticoagulant therapy to discontinue or normalize INR with warfarin therapy, and the lack of necessity of discontinuation of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including low dose aspirin prior to performing interventional techniques. • There is fair evidence with excessive bleeding, including epidural hematoma formation with interventional techniques when antithrombotic therapy is continued, the risk of higher thromboembolic phenomenon than epidural hematomas with discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy prior to interventional techniques and to continue phosphodiesterase inhibitors (dipyridamole, cilostazol, and Aggrenox). • There is limited evidence to discontinue antiplatelet therapy with platelet aggregation inhibitors to avoid bleeding and epidural hematomas and/or to continue antiplatelet therapy (clopidogrel, ticlopidine, prasugrel) during interventional techniques to avoid cerebrovascular and cardiovascular thromboembolic fatalities. • There is limited evidence in reference to newer antithrombotic agents dabigatran (Pradaxa) and rivaroxan (Xarelto) to discontinue to avoid bleeding and epidural hematomas and are continued during interventional techniques to avoid cerebrovascular and cardiovascular thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS: Evidence is fair to good for 62% of diagnostic and 52% of therapeutic interventions assessed. DISCLAIMER: The authors are solely responsible for the content of this article. No statement on this article should be construed as an official position of ASIPP. The guidelines do not represent "standard of care."


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/diagnóstico , Dor Crônica/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Guias como Assunto/normas , Manejo da Dor , Medula Espinal/patologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/métodos , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/instrumentação , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/normas , Estados Unidos
4.
Pain Physician ; 16(1): E1-E13, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23340539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of chronic pain and associated opioid use, abuse, and fatalities continue to increase at an alarming rate, not only in the United States but also across the globe. In light of the many resultant fatalities, multiple authors and authorities have cautioned against the excessive use of opioids. Consequently, the Food and Drug Administration, Drug Enforcement Administration, and multiple state authorities have been proposing and implementing a plethora of regulations to curb opioid overuse and abuse. In the majority of cases, pain physicians have been portrayed as the perpetrators responsible for escalating use and abuse and resultant fatalities. OBJECTIVES: To assess the patterns of psychotherapeutic drug use and illicit drug use at the time of initial evaluation. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective evaluation. SETTING: A private, specialty referral interventional pain management clinic in the United States. METHODS: Participants were all new patients presenting to interventional pain management evaluated by one physician. Inclusion criteria was patients over 18 years of age with chronic spinal pain of at least one year duration. RESULTS: The results of this evaluation indicate that 94% of patients were on long-term opioids prior to presenting to interventional pain management. Illicit drug use is also common, although it has declined significantly. While a large proportion of individuals (45.7%) have used illicit drugs at some point in the past, current illicit drug use is present in only 7.9% of patients, both past and current use are similar to that of the general population. More importantly, a significant proportion of patients have been on opioids (high doses of more than 40 mg equivalents of morphine 48.8%) on a long-term basis, initiated and maintained by primary care physicians, prior to presenting to interventional pain management. Further, 35% were on benzodiazepines, and 9.2% on carisoprodol prior to presenting to interventional pain management. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this evaluation include that it is a prospective, single center evaluation by one physician that is partially dependent on subjective recall of the patient. CONCLUSION: This study shows an overwhelming majority of patients were initiated and maintained with opioids in managing chronic noncancer pain. They were frequently on high doses over a long period of time with multiple drug combinations prescribed by primary care physicians.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Drogas Ilícitas , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Carisoprodol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
Pain Physician ; 15(6): E955-68, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23159981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of antithrombotic therapy is well known for its primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease by decreasing the incidence of acute cerebral, cardiovascular, peripheral vascular, and other thrombotic events. The overwhelming data show that the risk of thrombotic events is significantly higher than that of bleeding during surgery after antiplatelet drug discontinuation. It has been assumed that discontinuing antiplatelet therapy prior to performing interventional pain management techniques is a common practice, even though doing so may potentially increase the risk of acute cerebral and cardiovascular events. There are no data available concerning these events, specifically in relation to the occurrence of thromboembolic events, even though some data are available concerning bleeding complications. Even then, interventionalists seem to routinely discontinue all antithrombotic therapy prior to all interventional pain management techniques. OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative antiplatelet and anticoagulant practice patterns of US interventional pain management physicians as well as adverse events in patients on antithrombotic therapy who undergo interventional pain management techniques when that therapy is continued or stopped. STUDY DESIGN: An online survey of interventional pain management physicians. STUDY SETTING: Interventional pain management practices in the United States. METHODS: An online survey was commissioned among 2,300 members of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians. The survey was designed to assess practice patterns and complications encountered. RESULTS: Of the 2,300 members surveyed, 325 responded. These results showed that all physicians discontinued warfarin therapy; whereas, 97% discontinued clopidogrel; 96% ticlopidine; 95% Aggrastat (tirofiban); 93% cilostazol, 85% dipyridamole, 60% aspirin 350 mg; 39% aspirin 81 mg; and 39% other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prior to performing interventional pain management techniques. The majority of physicians accepted an international normalized ratio of 1.5 or less as a safe level. An assessment of serious complications showed thromboembolic events were 3 times more frequent than bleeding complications: 162 thromboembolic events and 55 serious bleeding complications from epidural hematomas. Thromboembolic complications were severe and higher when antiplatelet therapy was discontinued. Bleeding complications from epidural hematomas were similar whether antiplatelet therapy was continued or discontinued (26 versus 29). LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its being an online survey of the membership of one organization in one country and that there was a 14% response rate. Underreporting in surveys is common. Further, the incidence of thromboembolic events or epidural hematomas may be misrepresented as a percentage since these drugs were continued in a very small percentage of patients. Consequently, the incidences described in this manuscript may not show appropriate percentages. CONCLUSION: The results illustrate an overwhelming pattern of discontinuing antiplatelet and warfarin therapy as well as aspirin and other NSAIDs prior to performing interventional pain management techniques. However, thromboembolism complications may be 3 times more prevalent than epidural hematomas (162 versus 55 events). It is concluded that clinicians must balance the risks of thromboembolism and bleeding in each patient prior to the routine discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Padrões de Prática Médica , Humanos
6.
Pain Physician ; 15(6): E969-82, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23159982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports from the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), the Institute of Medicine (IOM), the Medicare Payment Advisory Commission (MedPAC), and the Office of Inspector General (OIG) continue to express significant concern with the overall fiscal sustainability of Medicare and the exponential increase in costs for chronic pain management. STUDY DESIGN: The study is an analysis of the growth of interventional techniques in managing chronic pain in Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of all interventional techniques in chronic pain management. METHODS: The study was performed utilizing the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Physician Supplier Procedure Summary Master Data from 2000 to 2011. RESULTS: Interventional techniques for chronic pain have increased dramatically from 2000 to 2011. Overall, the increase of interventional pain management (IPM) procedures from 2000 to 2011 went up 228%, with 177% per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries. The increases were highest for facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks with a total increase of 386% and 310% per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries, followed by 168% and 127% for epidural and adhesiolysis procedures, 150% and 111% for other types of nerve blocks and finally, 28% and 8% increases for percutaneous disc procedures. The geometric average of annual increases was 9.7% overall with 13.7% for facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks and 7.7% for epidural and adhesiolysis procedures. LIMITATIONS: The limitations of this study included a lack of inclusion of Medicare participants in Medicare Advantage plans, as well as potential documentation, coding, and billing errors. CONCLUSION: Interventional techniques increased significantly in Medicare beneficiaries from 2000 to 2011. Overall, there was an increase of 177% in the utilization of IPM services per 100,000 Medicare beneficiaries, with an annual geometric average increase of 9.7%. The study also showed an exponential increase in facet joint interventions and sacroiliac joint blocks.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Medicare , Estados Unidos
7.
Pain Physician ; 15(5): 371-84, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22996849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumbar spinal stenosis is one of the most common causes of low back pain among older adults and can cause significant disability. Despite its prevalence, there is a paucity of literature concerning the treatment of spinal stenosis symptoms. Multiple interventions, including surgery and interventional techniques such as epidural injections and adhesiolysis, are commonly utilized in managing pain related to central spinal stenosis. However, there is a paucity of literature from randomized, controlled trials about the effectiveness of epidural injections for lumbar central spinal stenosis. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to assess the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in providing effective and long-lasting pain relief for the management of chronic low back pain related to lumbar central stenosis. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. METHODS: One hundred patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups, with Group I patients receiving caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%), whereas Group II patients received caudal epidural injections with 0.5% lidocaine 9 mL mixed with 1 mL of steroid, 6 mg (non-particulate betamethasone). OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT: Multiple outcome measures, including the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake were utilized. Assessments were carried out at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months posttreatment. The primary outcome was defined as pain relief and improvement in disability scores of 50% or more. Successful treatment was considered as at least 3 weeks of relief following the first 2 injections, categorizing these patients into a successful group, and others into a failed group. RESULTS: Significant pain relief and functional status improvement were seen in 51% in Group I and 57% in Group II at the end of 2 years in the successful group when the participants were separated into successful and failed groups. However, overall, significant pain relief and functional status improvement (≥ 50%) was demonstrated in 38% in Group I and 44% in Group II at the end of 2 years. The overall number of procedures for 2 years were 4 in both groups, with 5 procedures on average in the successful groups, and approximately 60 weeks of relief in Group I and 54 weeks of relief in Group II at 2 years in the successful group. CONCLUSION: Caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids provide relief in a modest proportion of patients undergoing the treatment and may be considered as an effective treatment for a select group of patients who have chronic function-limiting low back and lower extremity pain secondary to central spinal stenosis.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoroscopia , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Dor Lombar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Manejo da Dor , Estenose Espinal/complicações
8.
Anesthesiol Res Pract ; 2012: 585806, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22851967

RESUMO

Study Design. A randomized, double-blind, active-control trial. Objective. To determine the clinical effectiveness of therapeutic thoracic facet joint nerve blocks with or without steroids in managing chronic mid back and upper back pain. Summary of Background Data. The prevalence of thoracic facet joint pain has been established as 34% to 42%. Multiple therapeutic techniques utilized in managing chronic thoracic pain of facet joint origin include medial branch blocks, radiofrequency neurotomy, and intraarticular injections. Methods. This randomized double-blind active controlled trial was performed in 100 patients with 50 patients in each group who received medial branch blocks with local anesthetic alone or local anesthetic and steroids. Outcome measures included the numeric rating scale (NRS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), opioid intake, and work status, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Results. Significant improvement with significant pain relief and functional status improvement of 50% or more were observed in 80% of the patients in Group I and 84% of the patients in Group II at 2-year followup. Conclusions. Therapeutic medial branch blocks of thoracic facets with or without steroids may provide a management option for chronic function-limiting thoracic pain of facet joint origin.

9.
Pain Physician ; 15(3 Suppl): S1-65, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22786448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Opioid abuse has continued to increase at an alarming rate since the 1990 s. As documented by different medical specialties, medical boards, advocacy groups, and the Drug Enforcement Administration, available evidence suggests a wide variance in chronic opioid therapy of 90 days or longer in chronic non-cancer pain. Part 1 describes evidence assessment. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of opioid guidelines as issued by the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) are to provide guidance for the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain, to produce consistency in the application of an opioid philosophy among the many diverse groups involved, to improve the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain, and to reduce the incidence of abuse and drug diversion. The focus of these guidelines is to curtail the abuse of opioids without jeopardizing non-cancer pain management with opioids. RESULTS: 1) There is good evidence that non-medical use of opioids is extensive; one-third of chronic pain patients may not use prescribed opioids as prescribed or may abuse them, and illicit drug use is significantly higher in these patients. 2) There is good evidence that opioid prescriptions are increasing rapidly, as the majority of prescriptions are from non-pain physicians, many patients are on long-acting opioids, and many patients are provided with combinations of long-acting and short-acting opioids. 3) There is good evidence that the increased supply of opioids, use of high dose opioids, doctor shoppers, and patients with multiple comorbid factors contribute to the majority of the fatalities. 4) There is fair evidence that long-acting opioids and a combination of long-acting and short-acting opioids contribute to increasing fatalities and that even low-doses of 40 mg or 50 mg of daily morphine equivalent doses may be responsible for emergency room admissions with overdoses and deaths. 5) There is good evidence that approximately 60% of fatalities originate from opioids prescribed within the guidelines, with approximately 40% of fatalities occurring in 10% of drug abusers. 6) The short-term effectiveness of opioids is fair, whereas the long-term effectiveness of opioids is limited due to a lack of long-term (> 3 months) high quality studies, with fair evidence with no significant difference between long-acting and short-acting opioids. 7) Among the individual drugs, most opioids have fair evidence for short-term and limited evidence for long-term due to a lack of quality studies. 8) The evidence for the effectiveness and safety of chronic opioid therapy in the elderly for chronic non-cancer pain is fair for short-term and limited for long-term due to lack of high quality studies; limited in children and adolescents and patients with comorbid psychological disorders due to lack of quality studies; and the evidence is poor in pregnant women. 9) There is limited evidence for reliability and accuracy of screening tests for opioid abuse due to lack of high quality studies. 10) There is fair evidence to support the identification of patients who are non-compliant or abusing prescription drugs or illicit drugs through urine drug testing and prescription drug monitoring programs, both of which can reduce prescription drug abuse or doctor shopping. DISCLAIMER: The guidelines are based on the best available evidence and do not constitute inflexible treatment recommendations. Due to the changing body of evidence, this document is not intended to be a "standard of care."


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez
10.
Pain Physician ; 15(3 Suppl): S67-116, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22786449

RESUMO

RESULTS: Part 2 of the guidelines on responsible opioid prescribing provides the following recommendations for initiating and maintaining chronic opioid therapy of 90 days or longer. 1. A) Comprehensive assessment and documentation is recommended before initiating opioid therapy, including documentation of comprehensive history, general medical condition, psychosocial history, psychiatric status, and substance use history. ( EVIDENCE: good) B) Despite limited evidence for reliability and accuracy, screening for opioid use is recommended, as it will identify opioid abusers and reduce opioid abuse. ( EVIDENCE: limited) C) Prescription monitoring programs must be implemented, as they provide data on patterns of prescription usage, reduce prescription drug abuse or doctor shopping. ( EVIDENCE: good to fair) D) Urine drug testing (UDT) must be implemented from initiation along with subsequent adherence monitoring to decrease prescription drug abuse or illicit drug use when patients are in chronic pain management therapy. ( EVIDENCE: good) 2. A) Establish appropriate physical diagnosis and psychological diagnosis if available prior to initiating opioid therapy. ( EVIDENCE: good) B) Caution must be exercised in ordering various imaging and other evaluations, interpretation and communication with the patient, to avoid increased fear, activity restriction, requests for increased opioids, and maladaptive behaviors. ( EVIDENCE: good) C) Stratify patients into one of the 3 risk categories - low, medium, or high risk. D) A pain management consultation, may assist non-pain physicians, if high-dose opioid therapy is utilized. ( EVIDENCE: fair) 3. Essential to establish medical necessity prior to initiation or maintenance of opioid therapy. ( EVIDENCE: good) 4. Establish treatment goals of opioid therapy with regard to pain relief and improvement in function. ( EVIDENCE: good) 5. A) Long-acting opioids in high doses are recommended only in specific circumstances with severe intractable pain that is not amenable to short-acting or moderate doses of long-acting opioids, as there is no significant difference between long-acting and short-acting opioids for their effectiveness or adverse effects. ( EVIDENCE: fair) B) The relative and absolute contraindications to opioid use in chronic non-cancer pain must be evaluated including respiratory instability, acute psychiatric instability, uncontrolled suicide risk, active or history of alcohol or substance abuse, confirmed allergy to opioid agents, coadministration of drugs capable of inducing life-limiting drug interaction, concomitant use of benzodiazepines, active diversion of controlled substances, and concomitant use of heavy doses of central nervous system depressants. ( EVIDENCE: fair to limited) 6. A robust agreement which is followed by all parties is essential in initiating and maintaining opioid therapy as such agreements reduce overuse, misuse, abuse, and diversion. ( EVIDENCE: fair) 7. A) Once medical necessity is established, opioid therapy may be initiated with low doses and short-acting drugs with appropriate monitoring to provide effective relief and avoid side effects. ( EVIDENCE: fair for short-term effectiveness, limited for long-term effectiveness) B) Up to 40 mg of morphine equivalent is considered as low dose, 41 to 90 mg of morphine equivalent as a moderate dose, and greater than 91 mg of morphine equivalence as high dose. ( EVIDENCE: fair) C) In reference to long-acting opioids, titration must be carried out with caution and overdose and misuse must be avoided. ( EVIDENCE: good) 8. A) Methadone is recommended for use in late stages after failure of other opioid therapy and only by clinicians with specific training in the risks and uses. ( EVIDENCE: limited) B) Monitoring recommendation for methadone prescription is that an electrocardiogram should be obtained prior to initiation, at 30 days and yearly thereafter. ( EVIDENCE: fair) 9. In order to reduce prescription drug abuse and doctor shopping, adherence monitoring by UDT and PMDPs provide evidence that is essential to the identification of those patients who are non-compliant or abusing prescription drugs or illicit drugs. ( EVIDENCE: fair) 10. Constipation must be closely monitored and a bowel regimen be initiated as soon as deemed necessary. ( EVIDENCE: good) 11. Chronic opioid therapy may be continued, with continuous adherence monitoring, in well-selected populations, in conjunction with or after failure of other modalities of treatments with improvement in physical and functional status and minimal adverse effects. ( EVIDENCE: fair). DISCLAIMER: The guidelines are based on the best available evidence and do not constitute inflexible treatment recommendations. Due to the changing body of evidence, this document is not intended to be a "standard of care."


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez
11.
Pain Physician ; 15(3 Suppl): ES9-38, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22786464

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, as the prevalence of chronic pain and health care costs have exploded, an opioid epidemic with adverse consequences has escalated. Efforts to increase opioid use and a campaign touting the alleged undertreatment of pain continue to be significant factors in the escalation. Many arguments in favor of opioids are based solely on traditions, expert opinion, practical experience and uncontrolled anecdotal observations. Over the past 20 years, the liberalization of laws governing the prescribing of opioids for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain by the state medical boards has led to dramatic increases in opioid use. This has evolved into the present stage, with the introduction of new pain management standards by the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) in 2000, an increased awareness of the right to pain relief, the support of various organizations supporting the use of opioids in large doses, and finally, aggressive marketing by the pharmaceutical industry. These positions are based on unsound science and blatant misinformation, and accompanied by the dangerous assumptions that opioids are highly effective and safe, and devoid of adverse events when prescribed by physicians. Results of the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) showed that an estimated 22.6 million, or 8.9% of Americans, aged 12 or older, were current or past month illicit drug users, The survey showed that just behind the 7 million people who had used marijuana, 5.1 million had used pain relievers. It has also been shown that only one in 6 or 17.3% of users of non-therapeutic opioids indicated that they received the drugs through a prescription from one doctor. The escalating use of therapeutic opioids shows hydrocodone topping all prescriptions with 136.7 million prescriptions in 2011, with all narcotic analgesics exceeding 238 million prescriptions. It has also been illustrated that opioid analgesics are now responsible for more deaths than the number of deaths from both suicide and motor vehicle crashes, or deaths from cocaine and heroin combined. A significant relationship exists between sales of opioid pain relievers and deaths. The majority of deaths (60%) occur in patients when they are given prescriptions based on prescribing guidelines by medical boards, with 20% of deaths in low dose opioid therapy of 100 mg of morphine equivalent dose or less per day and 40% in those receiving morphine of over 100 mg per day. In comparison, 40% of deaths occur in individuals abusing the drugs obtained through multiple prescriptions, doctor shopping, and drug diversion. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to describe various aspects of crisis of opioid use in the United States. The obstacles that must be surmounted are primarily inappropriate prescribing patterns, which are largely based on a lack of knowledge, perceived safety, and inaccurate belief of undertreatment of pain.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Epidemias , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
12.
J Spinal Disord Tech ; 25(4): 226-34, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22652990

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of caudal epidural injections with or without steroids in providing effective and long-lasting pain relief in the management of chronic low back pain related to lumbar spinal stenosis. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Multiple interventions including surgery and interventional techniques such as epidural injections and adhesiolysis are commonly performed in managing pain related to spinal stenosis. There is continuing debate on the effectiveness of all interventions, and a paucity of literature regarding effectiveness. METHODS: One-hundred participants were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups, with Group I participants receiving caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic (lidocaine 0.5%), whereas Group II participants received caudal epidural injections with 0.5% lidocaine 9 mL mixed with 1 mL of steroid (nonparticulate Celestone). OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT: Multiple outcome measures were used, including the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS), the Oswestry Disability Index 2.0 (ODI), employment status, and opioid intake with assessment at 3, 6, and 12 months posttreatment. Significant pain relief and improvement in disability were defined as 50% or more. RESULTS: Overall, significant pain relief and functional status improvement (≥50%) were demonstrated in 48% in Group I and 46% in Group II. However, significant pain relief and functional status improvement were seen in 60% of the participants in both groups in the successful category when the participants were separated into successful and failed categories. The overall number of procedures was 3.1±1.3 or 3.6±1.1 in the successful category in Group I, with overall 2.9±1.4 or 3.5±1.2 in the successful category in Group II. CONCLUSION: Caudal epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be an effective treatment for a select group of patients with chronic function-limiting low back and lower extremity pain secondary to spinal stenosis.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/uso terapêutico , Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Lidocaína/uso terapêutico , Dor Lombar/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor , Estenose Espinal/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Anestesia Epidural , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Epidurais , Dor Lombar/complicações , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Pain Physician ; 15(2): 131-40, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22430650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among the multiple modalities of treatments available in managing chronic spinal pain, including surgery and multiple interventional techniques, epidural injections by various routes, such as interlaminar epidural injections, caudal epidural injections, transforaminal epidural injections, and percutaneous adhesiolysis are common. Even though the complications of fluoroscopically directed epidural injections are fewer than blind epidural injections, and have better effectiveness, multiple complications have been reported in scattered case reports, with only minor complications in randomized or non-randomized studies and systematic reviews. Thus, prospective studies with large patient series are essential to determine the types and incidences of complications. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, non-randomized study of patients undergoing interventional techniques from May 2008 to December 2009. SETTING: A private interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center in the United States. OBJECTIVES: To assess the complication rate of fluoroscopically directed epidural injections. METHODS: This study was carried out over a period of 20 months and included over 10,000 procedures: 39% caudal epidurals, 23% cervical interlaminar epidurals, 14% lumbar interlaminar epidurals, 13% lumbar transforaminal epidurals, 8% percutaneous adhesiolysis, and 3% thoracic interlaminar epidural procedures. All of the interventions were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in an ambulatory surgery center by one of 3 physicians. The complications encountered during the procedure and postoperatively were prospectively evaluated. OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT: Measurable outcomes employed were intravascular entry of the needle, profuse bleeding, local hematoma, bruising, dural puncture and headache, nerve root or spinal cord irritation with resultant injury, infectious complications, vasovagal reactions, and facial flushing. RESULTS: Intravascular entry was higher for adhesiolysis (11.6%) and lumbar transforaminal (7.9%) procedures compared to other epidurals which ranged from 0.5% for lumbar, 3.1% for caudal, 4% for thoracic, and 4.1% for cervical epidurals. Dural puncture was observed in a total of 0.5% of the procedures with 1% in the cervical region, 1.3% in the thoracic region, 0.8% with lumbar interlaminar epidurals, and 1.8% with adhesiolysis. LIMITATIONS: Limitations of this study include a single-center study even though it included a large number of patients. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates that major complications are rare and minor side effects are common.


Assuntos
Injeções Epidurais/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Fluoroscopia , Hematoma/epidemiologia , Hematoma/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Epidurais/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Coluna Vertebral/patologia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Estados Unidos
14.
Pain Physician ; 15(2): E143-50, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22430660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic spinal pain is common along with numerous modalities of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions utilized, creating a health care crisis. Facet joint injections and epidural injections are the 2 most commonly utilized interventions in managing chronic spinal pain. While the literature addressing the effectiveness of facet joint nerve blocks is variable and emerging, there is paucity of literature on adverse effects of facet joint nerve blocks. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, non-randomized study of patients undergoing interventional techniques from May 2008 to December 2009. SETTING: A private interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center in the United States. OBJECTIVES: Investigation of the incidence in characteristics of adverse effects and complications of facet joint nerve blocks. The study was carried out over a period of 20 months including almost 7,500 episodes of 43,000 facet joint nerve blocks with 3,370 episodes in the cervical region, 3,162 in the lumbar region, and 950 in the thoracic region. All facet joint nerve blocks were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in an ambulatory surgery center by 3 physicians. The complications encountered during the procedure and postoperatively were evaluated prospectively. METHODS: This study was carried out over a period of 20 months and included over 7,500 episodes or 43,000 facet joint nerve blocks. All of the interventions were performed under fluoroscopic guidance in an ambulatory surgery center by one of 3 physicians. The complications encountered during the procedure and postoperatively were prospectively evaluated. OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT: Measurable outcomes employed were intravascular entry of the needle, profuse bleeding, local hematoma, dural puncture and headache, nerve root or spinal cord irritation with resultant injury, and infectious complications. RESULTS: There were no major complications. Multiple side effects and complications observed included overall intravascular penetration in 11.4% of episodes with 20% in cervical region, 4% in lumbar region, and 6% in thoracic region; local bleeding in 76.3% of episodes with highest in thoracic region and lowest in cervical region; oozing with 19.6% encounters with highest in cervical region and lowest in lumbar region; with local hematoma seen only in 1.2% of the patients with profuse bleeding, bruising, soreness, nerve root irritation, and all other effects such as vasovagal reactions observed in 1% or less of the episodes. LIMITATIONS: Limitations of this study include lack of contrast injection, use of intermittent fluoroscopy and also an observational nature of the study. CONCLUSION: This study illustrate that major complications are extremely rare and minor side effects are common.


Assuntos
Injeções Espinhais/efeitos adversos , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/epidemiologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/etiologia , Articulação Zigapofisária/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Injeções Espinhais/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor , Medição da Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Estados Unidos
15.
Pain Physician ; 14(5): 425-34, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21927046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, multiple regulations and recommendations for safe infection control practices and safe injection and medication vial utilization have been implemented. These include single dose and multi-dose vials for a single patient and regulations. It is a well known fact that transmission of bloodborne pathogens during health care procedures continues to occur because of the use of unsafe and improper injection, infusion, and medication administration. Multiple case reports have been published illustrating the occurrence of infections in interventional pain management and other minor techniques because of lack of safe injection practices, and noncompliance with other precautions. However, there are no studies or case reports illustrating the transmission of infection due to the use of single dose vials in multiple patients when appropriate precautions are observed. Similarly, the preparation standards for simple procedures such as medial branch blocks or transforaminal epidurals have not been proven to be essential. Further, the effectiveness or necessity of surgical face masks and hats, etc., for interventional techniques has not been proven. OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates of infection in patients undergoing interventional techniques. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, non-randomized study of patients undergoing interventional techniques from May 2008 to December 2009. STUDY SETTING: An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. METHODS: All patients presenting for interventional techniques from May 2008 to December 2009 are included with documentation of various complications related to interventional techniques including infection. RESULTS: May 2008 to December 2009 a total of 3,179 patients underwent 12,000 encounters with 18,472 procedures. A total of 12 patients reported suspicion of infection. All of them were evaluated by a physician and only one of them was a superficial infection due to the patient's poor hygienic practices which required no antibiotic therapy. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the nonrandomized observational nature of the study. CONCLUSION: There were no infections of any significance noted in approximately 3,200 patients with over 18,000 procedures performed during a 20-month period in an ambulatory surgery center utilizing simple precautions for clean procedures with the use of single dose vials for multiple patients and using safe injection practices.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Manejo da Dor/efeitos adversos , Dor , Adulto , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
16.
Pain Physician ; 14(5): 459-67, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21927050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventional pain management is an evolving specialty. Multiple issues including preoperative fasting, sedation, and infection control have not been well investigated and addressed. Based on the necessity for sedation and also the adverse events related to interventional techniques, preoperative fasting is considered practical to avoid postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, there are no guidelines for interventional techniques for sedation or fasting. Most interventional techniques are performed under intravenous or conscious sedation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the need for preoperative fasting and risks without fasting in patients undergoing interventional techniques. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, non-randomized study of patients undergoing interventional techniques from May 2008 to December 2009. STUDY SETTING: An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. METHODS: All patients presenting for interventional techniques from May 2008 to December 2009 are included with documentation of various complications related to interventional techniques including nausea and vomiting. RESULTS: From May 2008 to December 2009 a total of 3,179 patients underwent 12,000 encounters with 18,472 procedures, with patients receiving sedation during 11,856 encounters. Only 189, or 1.6% of the patients complained of nausea and 3 of them, or 0.02%, experienced vomiting. There were no aspirations. Of the 189 patients with nausea, 80 of them improved significantly prior to discharge without further complaints. Overall, 109 patients, or 0.9% were minimally nauseated prior to discharge. The postoperative complaints of continued nausea were reported in only 26 patients for 6 to 72 hours. There were only 2 events of respiratory depression, which were managed with brief oxygenation with mask without any adverse consequence of nausea, vomiting, aspiration, or other adverse effects. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the nonrandomized observational nature of the study. CONCLUSION: This study illustrates that postoperative nausea, vomiting, and respiratory depression are extremely rare and aspiration is almost nonexistent, despite almost all of the patients receiving sedation and without preoperative fasting prior to provision of the interventional techniques.  


Assuntos
Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Jejum , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Adulto , Idoso , Jejum/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Transtornos Respiratórios/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Vômito/prevenção & controle
17.
Pain Physician ; 14(4): 317-29, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21785475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of antithrombotic therapy is well known for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease to decrease the incidence of acute cerebral and cardiovascular events. Data shows that the risk of coronary thrombosis after antiplatelet drug withdrawal is much higher than that of surgical bleeding if the antiplatelet drug therapy were continued. However, it has been a common practice to discontinue antiplatelet therapy prior to performing interventional techniques, which may potentially increase the risk of acute cerebral and cardiovascular events. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 3,179 patients undergoing interventional techniques with 12,000 encounters and 18,472 procedures from May 2008 to December 2009. STUDY SETTING: An interventional pain management practice, a specialty referral center, a private practice setting in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates of adverse events in patients undergoing interventional techniques on antithrombotic therapy with cessation or without cessation and compare them to a group of patients without antithrombotic therapy. METHODS: Measurable outcomes employed were intravascular entry of the needle, bruising, local bleeding, profuse bleeding, local hematoma, oozing, and postoperative soreness.The prospective evaluation was performed utilizing the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement which was developed with recommendations to improve the quality of reporting observational studies. RESULTS: The results of this study illustrated that in one-quarter (3,087) of patient encounters utilizing interventional pain management techniques, antithrombotic therapy was included. Among these, for approximately 55%, or 1,711 encounters, antithrombotic therapy was continued during the interventional techniques, whereas, for 45%, or 1376 encounters, antithrombotic therapy was discontinued. Overall, these results illustrate that while intravascular penetration and oozing were higher in patients with continued antithrombotic therapy, bruising and local bleeding were higher in patients with discontinued antithrombotic therapy without any difference either statistical or clinical in any of the other aspects, either intraoperative, post procedure in the recovery room, or postoperative period. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the nonrandomized observational nature of the study and that antiplatelet therapy was limited to aspirin and clopidogrel (Plavix). CONCLUSION: No significant prevalence of adverse events was observed in those who continued with or ceased antithrombotic therapy.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Dor/cirurgia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Pain Physician ; 14(3): 259-70, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21587329

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eradicating or appreciably limiting controlled prescription drug abuse, such as opioids and benzodiazepines, continues to be a challenge for clinicians, while providing needed, proper treatment. Detection of misuse and abuse is facilitated with urine drug testing (UDT). However, there are those who dispute UDT's diagnostic accuracy when done in the office (immunoassay) and claim that laboratory confirmation using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is required in each and every examination. STUDY DESIGN: A diagnostic accuracy study of UDT. STUDY SETTING: The study was conducted in a tertiary referral center and interventional pain management practice in the United States. OBJECTIVE: Comparing UDT results of in-office immunoassay testing (the index test) with LC/MS/MS (the reference test). METHODS: A total of 1,000 consecutive patients were recruited to be participants. Along with demographic information, a urine sample was obtained from them. A nurse conducted the immunoassay testing at the interventional pain management practice location; a laboratory conducted the LC/MS/MS. All index test results were compared with the reference test results. The index test's efficiency (agreement) was calculated as were calculations for sensitivity, specificity, false-positive, and false-negative rates. RESULTS: Approximately 36% of the specimens required confirmation. The index test's efficiency for prescribed benzodiazepines was 78.4%. Reference testing improved accuracy to 83.2%, a 19.6% increase, and 8.9% of participants were found to be taking non-prescribed benzodiazepines. The index test's false-positive rate for benzodiazepines use was 10.5% in patients receiving benzodiazepines. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its single-site location, its use of a single type of point of care (POC) kit, and reference testing being conducted by a single laboratory, as well as technical sponsorship. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should feel comfortable conducting in-office UDT immunoassay testing. The present study shows that it is reliable, expedient, and fiscally sound for all involved. In-office immunoassay testing compares favorably with laboratory testing for benzodiazepines, offering both high specificity and agreement. However, clinicians should be vigilant and wary when interpreting results, weighing all factors involved in their decision.


Assuntos
Benzodiazepinas/urina , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoensaio/normas , Dor Intratável/tratamento farmacológico , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Urinálise/normas , Adulto , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Pain Physician ; 14(2): 91-121, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21412367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Even though opioids have been used for pain for thousands of years, opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain is controversial due to concerns regarding the long-term effectiveness and safety, particularly the risk of tolerance, dependance, or abuse. While the debate continues, the use of chronic opioid therapy for chronic non-cancer pain has increased exponentially. Even though evidence is limited, multiple expert panels have concluded that chronic opioid therapy can be effective therapy for carefully selected and monitored patients with chronic non-cancer pain. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of randomized trials of opioid management for chronic non-cancer pain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of opioids in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain. METHODS: A comprehensive evaluation of the literature relating to opioids in chronic non-cancer pain was performed. The literature was evaluated according to Cochrane review criteria for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Jadad criteria. A literature search was conducted by using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, ECRI Institute Library, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) website, U.S. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE), clinical trials, systematic reviews and cross references from systematic reviews. The level of evidence was classified as good, fair, or poor based on the quality of evidence developed by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and used by other systematic reviews and guidelines. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain relief was the primary outcome measure. Other outcome measures were functional improvement, withdrawals, and adverse effects. RESULTS: Based on the USPSTF criteria, the indicated level of evidence was fair for Tramadol in managing osteoarthritis. For all the drugs assessed, including Tramadol, for all other conditions, the evidence was poor based on either weak positive evidence, indeterminate evidence, or negative evidence. LIMITATIONS: A paucity of literature, specifically with follow-up beyond 12 weeks for all types of opioids with controlled trials for various chronic non-cancer pain conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review illustrated fair evidence for Tramadol in managing osteoarthritis with poor evidence for all other drugs and conditions. Thus, recommendations must be based on non-randomized studies.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doença Crônica , Humanos
20.
Pain Physician ; 14(2): 175-87, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21412372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The challenge for physicians in treating chronic pain with opioids is to eliminate or significantly curtail abuse of controlled prescription drugs while assuring proper treatment when indicated. Urine drug testing (UDT) has been shown to be a useful approach in identifying patterns of compliance, misuse, and abuse. However, significant controversy surrounds the diagnostic accuracy of UDT performed in the office (immunoassay) and the requirement for laboratory confirmation with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). STUDY DESIGN: A diagnostic accuracy study of urine drug testing. STUDY SETTING: The study was performed in an interventional pain management practice, a tertiary referral center, in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the results of UDT of immunoassay in-office testing (index test) to LC/MS/MS (reference test). METHODS: One-thousand participants were recruited from an interventional pain management program. Urine sample was collected from all the consecutive patients with demographic information. Immunoassay testing was performed by a nurse at the location, laboratory assessment was performed with LC/MS/MS. Results of the index test were compared to the reference test in all patients. The sensitivity, specificity, false-positive, and false-negative rates, and index test efficiency (agreement) were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, results showed that confirmation was required in 32.9% of the specimens. Agreement for prescribed opioids was high with the index test (80.4%). The reference test of opioids improved the accuracy by 8.9% from 80.4% to 89.3%. Non-prescribed opioids were used by 5.3% of patients. The index test provided false-positive results for non-opioid use in 44% or 83 of 120 patients. For illicit drugs, the false-positive rate by index test was 0% for cocaine, whereas it was 2% for marijuana, 0.9% for amphetamines, and 1.2% for methamphetamines. LIMITATIONS: The limitations include a single site study utilizing a single POC kit and a single laboratory, as well as technical sponsorship. CONCLUSION: The UDT with immunoassay in an office setting is appropriate, convenient, and cost-effective. Compared with laboratory testing for opioids and illicit drugs, immunoassay in-office testing had high specificity and agreement, demonstrating the value of immunoassay drug testing. Because of variable sensitivity, clinicians would be well-advised to take a cautious approach when interpreting the results. CLINICAL TRIAL: NCT01052155.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/urina , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
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