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MBio ; 10(4)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289183


Ebola virus (EBOV) causes highly lethal disease outbreaks against which no FDA-approved countermeasures are available. Although many host factors exploited by EBOV for cell entry have been identified, including host cell surface phosphatidylserine receptors, endosomal cysteine proteases, and the lysosomal cholesterol trafficking protein NPC1, key questions remain. Specifically, late entry steps culminating in viral membrane fusion remain enigmatic. Here, we investigated a set of glycoprotein (GP) mutants previously hypothesized to be entry defective and identified one mutation, R64A, that abolished infection with no apparent impact on GP expression, folding, or viral incorporation. R64A profoundly thermostabilized EBOV GP and rendered it highly resistant to proteolysis in vitro Forward-genetics and cell entry studies strongly suggested that R64A's effects on GP thermostability and proteolysis arrest viral entry at least at two distinct steps: the first upstream of NPC1 binding and the second at a late entry step downstream of fusion activation. Concordantly, toremifene, a small-molecule entry inhibitor previously shown to bind and destabilize GP, may selectively enhance the infectivity of viral particles bearing GP(R64A) at subinhibitory concentrations. R64A provides a valuable tool to further define the interplay between GP stability, proteolysis, and viral membrane fusion; to explore the rational design of stability-modulating antivirals; and to spur the development of next-generation Ebola virus vaccines with improved stability.IMPORTANCE Ebola virus is a medically relevant virus responsible for outbreaks of severe disease in western and central Africa, with mortality rates reaching as high as 90%. Despite considerable effort, there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutics or targeted interventions available, highlighting the need of development in this area. Host-cell invasion represents an attractive target for antivirals, and several drug candidates have been identified; however, our limited understanding of the complex viral entry process challenges the development of such entry-targeting drugs. Here, we report on a glycoprotein mutation that abrogates viral entry and provides insights into the final steps of this process. In addition, the hyperstabilized phenotype of this mutant makes it useful as a tool in the discovery and design of stability-modulating antivirals and next-generation vaccines against Ebola virus.

Nature ; 563(7732): 559-563, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464266


The zoonotic transmission of hantaviruses from their rodent hosts to humans in North and South America is associated with a severe and frequently fatal respiratory disease, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)1,2. No specific antiviral treatments for HPS are available, and no molecular determinants of in vivo susceptibility to hantavirus infection and HPS are known. Here we identify the human asthma-associated gene protocadherin-1 (PCDH1)3-6 as an essential determinant of entry and infection in pulmonary endothelial cells by two hantaviruses that cause HPS, Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV). In vitro, we show that the surface glycoproteins of ANDV and SNV directly recognize the outermost extracellular repeat domain of PCDH1-a member of the cadherin superfamily7,8-to exploit PCDH1 for entry. In vivo, genetic ablation of PCDH1 renders Syrian golden hamsters highly resistant to a usually lethal ANDV challenge. Targeting PCDH1 could provide strategies to reduce infection and disease caused by New World hantaviruses.

Cell ; 169(5): 878-890.e15, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525755


Experimental monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies have shown promise for treatment of lethal Ebola virus (EBOV) infections, but their species-specific recognition of the viral glycoprotein (GP) has limited their use against other divergent ebolaviruses associated with human disease. Here, we mined the human immune response to natural EBOV infection and identified mAbs with exceptionally potent pan-ebolavirus neutralizing activity and protective efficacy against three virulent ebolaviruses. These mAbs recognize an inter-protomer epitope in the GP fusion loop, a critical and conserved element of the viral membrane fusion machinery, and neutralize viral entry by targeting a proteolytically primed, fusion-competent GP intermediate (GPCL) generated in host cell endosomes. Only a few somatic hypermutations are required for broad antiviral activity, and germline-approximating variants display enhanced GPCL recognition, suggesting that such antibodies could be elicited more efficiently with suitably optimized GP immunogens. Our findings inform the development of both broadly effective immunotherapeutics and vaccines against filoviruses.

Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sobreviventes , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Cercopithecus aethiops , Reações Cruzadas , Ebolavirus/classificação , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Furões , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Alinhamento de Sequência , Células Vero
Cell ; 169(5): 891-904.e15, 2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28525756


While neutralizing antibodies are highly effective against ebolavirus infections, current experimental ebolavirus vaccines primarily elicit species-specific antibody responses. Here, we describe an immunization-elicited macaque antibody (CA45) that clamps the internal fusion loop with the N terminus of the ebolavirus glycoproteins (GPs) and potently neutralizes Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, and Reston viruses. CA45, alone or in combination with an antibody that blocks receptor binding, provided full protection against all pathogenic ebolaviruses in mice, guinea pigs, and ferrets. Analysis of memory B cells from the immunized macaque suggests that elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for ebolaviruses is possible but difficult, potentially due to the rarity of bNAb clones and their precursors. Unexpectedly, germline-reverted CA45, while exhibiting negligible binding to full-length GP, bound a proteolytically remodeled GP with picomolar affinity, suggesting that engineered ebolavirus vaccines could trigger rare bNAb precursors more robustly. These findings have important implications for developing pan-ebolavirus vaccine and immunotherapeutic cocktails.

Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Vacinas contra Ebola/imunologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Regiões Determinantes de Complementaridade , Reações Cruzadas , Ebolavirus/imunologia , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Feminino , Furões , Cobaias , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/ultraestrutura , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares