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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939870

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite high efficacy, use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains low among young men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW), primarily due to barriers such as stigma and resource awareness. We evaluated a social marketing campaign known as PrEP4Love that works to eliminate PrEP stigma and awareness gaps via targeted advertising. SETTING: Chicago, Illinois. METHODS: Participants were enrolled within a cohort study of young MSM and TW (RADAR). Data were collected between June 2017 and April 2018 from HIV-negative individuals attending a follow-up visit. Surveys assessed demographics, PrEP attitudes and perceptions, and PrEP4Love campaign awareness. Associations between PrEP4Love awareness and PrEP perceptions, uptake, and behaviors were assessed using multiple logistic regression controlling for age, race/ethnicity, gender, sexual identity, and ever having used PrEP. RESULTS: Of 700 participants, the majority (75.9%) indicated seeing PrEP4Love ads in Chicago. Those who had seen ads were more likely to be out to their providers (OR =1.95; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.23) than those who had not, and those who had conversations were significantly more likely to have initiated the conversation themselves. Individuals who had seen ads were more likely to have taken PrEP in the last six months (OR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.16), and more likely to believe their friends and the general public approved of and used PrEP. CONCLUSION: Social marketing campaigns are promising interventions that have the potential to alleviate barriers to HIV prevention, particularly among MSM and TW. Future research should evaluate the impact of these initiatives at multiple time points.

2.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897832

RESUMO

Sexual and gender identity have frequently been assessed in public health research as static states. However, a substantial and growing body of evidence indicates that both identities may have greater potential for change over time than once supposed. Despite this evidence, research into adult identity change remains relatively limited. Using longitudinal data from 1553 Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) aged 18-68 years and recruited from study locations in six major cities across the country, we examined changes in sexual and gender identities over a period of 12 months. The results showed that sexual and gender identity did indeed change among adult BMSM. Additionally, we explored internalized homophobia (IH) as a potential driver of identity change and found that IH significantly impacts the degree and direction of change, with individuals who reported higher baseline IH more likely to demonstrate a shift toward a heterosexual/straight identity at 6 and 12 months. The results are discussed in light of what is known and unknown regarding identity change, and potential avenues for future research are explored.

3.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(6): 760-768, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519427

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Certain groups, particularly sexual minority youth, demonstrate notable disparities in alcohol use risk. Assessing trends in alcohol use behaviors by sexual orientation over time is therefore important to the epidemiologic study of adolescent health equity. METHODS: We analyzed age at first drink, lifetime drinking behavior, current drinking, and binge drinking in a large, national sample of high school youth across six time points, beginning in 2007 and biennially through 2017. We assessed trends by sex, sexual identity, and sexual behavior, controlling for race/ethnicity and age. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that, although overall alcohol use is decreasing among youth, disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority youth remain significant. The largest decreases were seen in current alcohol use among lesbian youth, which fell from a prevalence of 56.1% in 2007 to 38.9% in 2017, and among bisexual females (64.3% in 2007 to 41.1% in 2017). Despite this, alcohol use behaviors were still elevated among lesbian and bisexual female youth compared with heterosexual sex-matched counterparts. Heterosexual-identified male students saw significant decreases in alcohol use, whereas most alcohol use behaviors among sexual minority males decreased but not to a statistically significant degree, with the exception of binge drinking among those who identified as gay (2007: 36.0% to 2017: 12.6%) and bisexual (2007: 24.7% to 2017: 11.6%). Results by sexual behavior are presented within. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority youth continued to demonstrate markedly high prevalence of alcohol use behaviors compared with heterosexual peers across all time points. Downward trends in alcohol use may thus mask serious population health risks if not adequately explored. Research and health promotion efforts must consider sexual minority orientation to avoid incomplete or inaccurate representation of findings.

4.
Arch Sex Behav ; 48(5): 1481, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165291

RESUMO

The following correction should be noted to the caption of Fig. 1 in this article.

5.
AIDS Behav ; 23(10): 2749-2760, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228025

RESUMO

Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the best biomedical HIV prevention tools available. However, uptake, particularly in communities of men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals assigned male at birth (AMAB), remains low. Further, the role of an individual's social support structure on PrEP uptake and adherence remains largely understudied. Understanding MSM and AMAB transgender individuals' perceptions of PrEP use as well as support and patterns of disclosure of (or intent to disclose) their PrEP status may offer key insights into how best to improve uptake in vulnerable communities. Further, the influence of one's social connections on other factors, such as perceptions of and conversations about PrEP deserves attention as well, as these factors may be key to improved knowledge and uptake. Therefore, we assessed perceptions of PrEP use, disclosure of or intent to disclose PrEP status, and social support and associated factors among a cohort of MSM and AMAB transgender individuals in a large Midwestern city. Results demonstrated that, among those not taking PrEP, bisexual participants and those unsure of their sexual identity were less likely to be comfortable with the idea of disclosing PrEP use were they ever to start taking it. Encouragingly however, we found that individuals who reported disclosing their PrEP status had high rates of support among friends and relatives. We also observed that knowing someone else who was on PrEP was associated with increased likelihood of discussing PrEP with one's medical provider, as was increased age. Other findings and implications for research, policy, and practice are discussed within.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Revelação/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Apoio Social , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Chicago/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arch Sex Behav ; 48(5): 1463-1479, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123950

RESUMO

Sexual orientation is a multidimensional construct which is increasingly recognized as an important demographic characteristic in population health research. For this study, weighted Youth Risk Behavior Survey data were pooled across 47 jurisdictions biennially from 2005 to 2015, resulting in a national sample of 98 jurisdiction-years (344,815 students). Respondents were a median of 15.5 years, 49.9% male, and 48.8% White. Sexual identity and behavior trends from 2005 to 2015 were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Overall, 13.9% of females and 7.0% of males identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual (LGB), or not sure, while 9.1% of females and 4.2% of males indicated both same-and-different-sex behavior or same-sex behavior. In total, 17.0% of female and 8.5% of male youth reported non-heterosexual (LGB or not sure) sexual identity, same-sex sexual behavior, or both. LGB youth were approximately twice as likely as other youth to report lifetime sexual behavior. White and Asian youth were less likely to report non-heterosexual identity and/or have engaged in same-sex sexual behaviors than youth of other races/ethnicities. Prevalence of non-heterosexual identities increased over time for both sexes, but only female youth reported significantly more same-sex behavior over time. This is the first study to simultaneously assess adolescent sexual identity and behavior over time within a national dataset. These findings are critical for understanding the sexual health needs of adolescents and for informing sexual health policy and practice.

7.
AIDS Care ; 31(10): 1282-1289, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821480

RESUMO

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender youth assigned male at birth (AMAB) bear a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic, yet are sub optimally engaged by sexual health service providers and HIV prevention services. To increase sexual health and HIV prevention behaviors and address disparities in HIV incidence and outcomes among YMSM and AMAB transgender youth, it is critical to understand patterns of service utilization and avoidance. This study examined how and why YMSM and AMAB transgender youth use or avoid sexual health services and service providers in a large Midwestern city within a survey administered to 890 participants from a longitudinal cohort study (RADAR). Results demonstrate low overall use of sexual health services and minimal interest in seeking pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), consistent with prior research. Low awareness of available services was associated with how and where YMSM and trans youth AMAB seek care, with 76% of our sample reporting this as their primary reason for not seeking specific sexual health services. Additional associations are discussed, and recommendations are made for how to improve available services and access.

8.
Prev Sci ; 20(7): 1089-1097, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712223

RESUMO

Despite demonstrated efficacy, uptake of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) remains low, particularly among high-risk demographics such as transgender women, Black men who have sex with men (BMSM), and young MSM (YMSM). Research thus far has largely focused on individual factors that may impede PrEP uptake in these demographics, leaving social network factors relatively unexplored. The present study used data collected from participants within RADAR, a longitudinal cohort study in Chicago focused on understanding the individual, dyadic, network, social, and biologic factors associated with HIV infection within YMSM. Of the 906 study participants who did not report an HIV diagnosis at baseline, 7.0% reported using PrEP in the prior 6 months. Recent PrEP use was associated with both individual-level (age and gender) and network-level factors (mean relationship strength, sexual network degree, etc.). These findings highlight the need to expand beyond focusing on individual-level drivers of PrEP uptake, as well as changing our understanding of who is most important within a network (centrality vs. strength of weak ties). Future work is needed to determine whether variables associated with PrEP uptake are similarly connected to PrEP adherence.

9.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 19(7): 1137-1146, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006958

RESUMO

Low physical activity (PA), high sedentary behavior (SB), and overweight and obesity have been shown to associate with increased Type 2 diabetes risk among adolescents. We investigated PA, SB, and overweight and obesity among Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) respondents to determine if non-heterosexual youth may be at increased diabetes risk compared to heterosexual youth. Weighted city and state YRBS data were pooled across 44 jurisdictions biennially from 2009 to 2015, resulting in a sample size of 350 673 students. Overall, 88.4% identified as heterosexual, 2.1% as gay or lesbian, 5.7% as bisexual, and 3.7% as unsure. With the exception of lesbian female students, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and survey year, all non-heterosexual youth reported significantly fewer days per week of PA compared to their sex-matched heterosexual counterparts. Similarly, compared to heterosexual female youth, bisexual and not sure female youth reported significantly more hours per day of SB. These PA and SB findings remained significant after adjustment for depressive symptoms and in-school bullying among bisexual female youth only. In fully adjusted models, lesbian students were 1.85 times more likely to be overweight and lesbian, bisexual, and not sure female youth were 1.55 to 2.07 times more likely to be obese than heterosexual female students. No significant differences in SB, overweight, or obesity were found among gay, bisexual, or unsure male youth compared to heterosexual male youth. Non-heterosexual youth may be at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to heterosexual youth. Future studies should characterize diabetes prevalence among non-heterosexual youth.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762520

RESUMO

HIV disproportionately impacts youth, particularly young men who have sex with men (YMSM), a population that includes subgroups of young men who have sex with men only (YMSMO) and young men who have sex with men and women (YMSMW). In 2015, among male youth, 92% of new HIV diagnoses were among YMSM. The reasons why YMSM are disproportionately at risk for HIV acquisition, however, remain incompletely explored. We performed event-level analyses to compare how the frequency of condom use, drug and/or alcohol use at last sex differed among YMSMO and YMSWO (young men who have sex with women only) over a ten-year period from 2005⁻2015 within the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). YMSMO were less likely to use condoms at last sex compared to YMSWO. However, no substance use differences at last sexual encounter were detected. From 2005⁻2015, reported condom use at last sex significantly declined for both YMSMO and YMSWO, though the decline for YMSMO was more notable. While there were no significant differences in alcohol and substance use at last sex over the same ten-year period for YMSMO, YMSWO experienced a slight but significant decrease in reported alcohol and substance use. These event-level analyses provide evidence that YMSMO, similar to adult MSMO, may engage in riskier sexual behaviors compared to YMSWO, findings which may partially explain the increased burden of HIV in this population. Future work should investigate how different patterns of event-level HIV risk behaviors vary over time among YMSMO, YMSWO, and YMSMW, and are tied to HIV incidence among these groups.


Assuntos
Preservativos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Sexo Seguro , Comportamento Sexual , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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