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1.
Subst Use Misuse ; 55(8): 1320-1326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32186420

RESUMO

Background: Research has demonstrated consistent associations between anxiety and illicit drug use. However, few studies to date have examined the shared risk factors that may contribute to this common comorbidity. Therefore, the current investigation tested the indirect effect of trait anxiety on drug use disorder symptoms via emotion dysregulation, a widely recognized transdiagnostic risk factor found to be relevant across both anxiety and illicit drug use. Method: The sample was comprised of 241 adults (Mage = 50.56, SDage = 5.90; 76.8% Black) recruited from a community center serving low-income and homeless individuals. Results: Consistent with our hypothesis, structural equation modeling demonstrated an indirect effect of trait anxiety on drug use disorder symptoms through emotion dysregulation. Conclusions: The current findings show initial support for emotion dysregulation as an explanatory vulnerability factor indirectly underlying the relationship between anxiety and drug use.

2.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 18, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Equitable access to services that promote health and wellbeing is an important component of social justice. A community-engaged participatory qualitative study was conducted in Flint, Michigan, USA, to understand the needs of special populations (young women, perinatal women and new mothers, older women, women with disabilities, and LGBTQIA women) and elicit their ideas about solutions. METHODS: In-depth interviews (n = 100) were conducted. Participants were either women living in the Flint area, human service providers in the area, or both. A team of community and academic coders analyzed the data using an a priori framework. RESULTS: Participants identified needs of different groups of women and suggested ways to address them. Access to healthy food, reducing healthcare costs, and improving transportation, job opportunities and affordable quality housing were crosscutting themes across all groups of women. Mentoring support was said to protect vulnerable young women from the risk of human trafficking. Older women were said to gain a sense of purpose, build their social support and reduce their loneliness by engaging in mentoring younger women. Women with disabilities were reported to benefit from infrastructure accessibility and authentic inclusion in all areas of life. Providing help that considers their dignity, pride and self-worth were suggested. LGBTQIA women were reported to have housing needs due to discrimination; mostly turned down as renters and can be rejected from faith-based homeless shelters. LGBTQIA women would also benefit from increased sensitivity among healthcare providers. For all groups of women, streamlining access to social services and other resources, building social support networks and increasing awareness about existing resources were recommended. CONCLUSION: Efforts directed towards improving women's health and wellbeing should include perspectives and suggestions of diverse groups of women from the community. Acting on suggestions that emanate from the community's lived experiences may reduce inequalities in health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Grupos Populacionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Participação da Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004328

RESUMO

Low-income, racial/ethnic minority groups have disproportionately high rates of problematic substance use yet face barriers in accessing evidence-based interventions (EBIs). Peer recovery coaches (PRCs), individuals with lived experience with problematic substance use, may provide an effective approach to reaching these individuals. Traditionally PRCs have focused on bridging to other types of care rather than delivering EBIs themselves. The aim of this study was to assess perceptions of the appropriateness of a PRC-delivered adapted behavioral activation (BA) intervention to reduce problematic substance use for individuals not engaged in care. This study was conducted at a community resource center in Baltimore, Maryland serving low-income and homeless clients who have high rates of problematic substance use yet also face barriers to accessing care. Guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework, we conducted semi-structured key informant interviews with clients (n = 30) with past or present problematic substance use, and a focus group with community providers, including staff at the community resource center (n = 5) and PRCs (n = 6) from the community. Thirty percent (n = 9) of clients interviewed reported past problematic substance use and 70% (n = 21) met criteria for current use, most commonly cocaine and opioids. Clients, center staff, and PRCs shared that PRC-delivered BA could be acceptable and appropriate with suggested adaptations, including adding peer-delivered case-management and linkage to care alongside BA, and tailoring BA to include activities that are accessible and feasible in the community. These findings will inform the adaptation of PRC-delivered BA to address problematic substance use in this setting.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Medicina Comunitária/métodos , Área Carente de Assistência Médica , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Baltimore , Administração de Caso , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Pobreza
4.
Health Psychol ; 39(5): 413-420, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher rates of delay discounting have been consistently linked to maladaptive health behaviors, including substance use and overeating, among adults. Despite adolescence representing a critical period for the escalation of these risky health behaviors, little is known about the developmental course of delay discounting or how this construct relates to important health outcomes in youth. The current study examined change in delay discounting over time using a latent growth curve approach and the relation between growth in this construct and changes in substance use and body-mass index over a 6-year period. METHOD: Participants included 247 adolescents (44% female) with a mean age of 13 at the initial assessment. RESULTS: Findings suggest that, on average, rates of delay discounting are stable across adolescence; however, there are significant individual differences around this trajectory. Moreover, youth who demonstrate significant increases in delay discounting over time are also more likely to experience more rapid escalations of both substance use and Body Mass Index across adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that delay discounting is an important trans-disease process among adolescents. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Psychother Res ; 30(2): 239-250, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857489

RESUMO

AbstractObjective: Incarcerated individuals have high rates of trauma exposure. IPT reduces posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in non-incarcerated adults, but has not been examined in prison populations. Moreover, little is known about the mechanisms through which IPT reduces PTSD symptoms. The current study investigated the direct and indirect effects of IPT on PTSD symptoms. We hypothesized that IPT would decrease PTSD symptoms by enhancing social support and decreasing loneliness (theorized IPT mechanisms). Method: A sub-sample of trauma-exposed participants (n = 168) were drawn from a larger randomized trial (n = 181) of IPT for major depressive disorder among prisoners. We examined a series of mediation models using non-parametric bootstrapping procedures to evaluate the indirect effect of IPT on PTSD symptoms. Results: Contrary to hypotheses, the relation between IPT and PTSD symptoms was significantly mediated through improvements in hopelessness and depressive symptoms (mechanisms of cognitive behavioral interventions), rather than through social support and loneliness. Increased social support and decreased loneliness were associated with decreased PTSD symptoms, but IPT did not predict changes in social support or loneliness. Conclusions: IPT may reduce PTSD symptoms in depressed prisoners by reducing hopelessness and depression. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01685294).

6.
J Am Coll Health ; : 1-5, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532333

RESUMO

Objective: Amid growing concern about internalizing disorders on college campuses, few researchers have examined the ways emotional awareness deficits may contribute to risk. We examined the effect of the interaction between daily hassles, emotional awareness, and sex on depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants: Data were collected from 196 college students (Mage = 19.6, SDage = 2.26) at a large university in June 2016. Methods: Participants completed online surveys to assess daily hassles, emotional awareness, and internalizing symptoms. Results: Daily hassles were significantly associated with internalizing symptoms, p < .01. For women, daily hassles were significantly associated with internalizing symptoms at all levels of emotional awareness, ps < .05. For men, daily hassles were significantly associated with internalizing symptoms only at high levels of emotional awareness, ps < .05. Conclusion: Future researchers could examine the context in which emotional awareness may be most beneficial to college students.

7.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054719864660, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416370

RESUMO

Objective: ADHD and depression co-occur at higher than chance levels in adolescence, but moderators of this association are not well understood. Consistent with a developmental-transactional framework, one such moderator may be maternal emotion regulation (ER) difficulties. Using latent growth curve modeling, the current study examined the independent and interactive effects of adolescent ADHD symptoms and maternal ER difficulties on the trajectory of depressive symptoms across adolescence. Method: This study included a community sample of 247 adolescents (Mage = 13.06 years) assessed annually over a 6-year period. Results: Findings suggested that youth with greater ADHD symptoms whose mothers evidenced more ER difficulties demonstrated steeper increases in depressive symptoms over time relative to their peers with lower ADHD symptoms or whose mothers reported fewer ER difficulties. Conclusion: This work highlights the importance of maternal ER difficulties in predicting the trajectory of depressive symptoms among adolescents with ADHD symptomatology.

8.
Behav Ther ; 50(4): 817-827, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208690

RESUMO

Mobile technologies can be leveraged to meet the need for evidence-based psychological depression treatment via primary care. The purpose of the present study was to preliminarily examine the feasibility and efficacy of a self-help brief behavioral activation mobile application (app; "Moodivate") for depressive symptoms among adults treated via primary care. Participants (N = 52) were recruited from primary care practices between January and December 2017 and were randomized 2:2:1 to receive (a) Moodivate, (b) an active control cognitive-behavioral therapy-based mobile app ("MoodKit"), or (c) treatment as usual (TAU; no app). Participants completed assessments of depressive symptoms weekly for 8 weeks. App analytics data were captured to examine Moodivate feasibility (analytics unavailable for control app). Moodivate participants on average had 46.76 (SD = 30.10) app sessions throughout the trial duration, spent 3.50 (2.76) minutes using the app per session, and spent 120.76 (101.02) minutes using the app in total throughout the trial. Nearly 70% of Moodivate participants continued to use the app 1 month after trial enrollment and 50% at the end of the 8-week follow-up period. A generalized estimating equation model examining change in depressive symptoms over time by treatment condition indicated a significant interaction between time and treatment condition (χ2 = 42.21, df = 14, p < .001). As compared to TAU, participants in both app conditions evidenced significant decreases in depressive symptoms over time, and these treatment gains were sustained across the trial period. These results preliminarily indicate feasibility of Moodivate as well as efficacy of both Moodivate and MoodKit for the treatment of depression among adults recruited via primary care. Future studies should focus on larger-scale examinations of treatment efficacy and effectiveness across primary care settings.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/terapia , Aplicativos Móveis , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Atenção Primária à Saúde
9.
Addict Behav ; 98: 106017, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Alcohol use during adolescence is a significant public health concern with serious implications. Both early initiation and rate of escalation of alcohol use during adolescence forecast long-term alcohol-related difficulties and alcohol use disorders (AUDs), underscoring the need to understand psychological factors that contribute to these risk behaviors. One factor that contributes to alcohol use during adolescence is trait impulsivity. The purpose of the present prospective study was to examine associations between trait impulsivity and changes in alcohol use from early adolescence through late adolescence. METHODS: Two hundred forty-six participants (45% female; M age = 13.06; 52.5% Caucasian ethnicity) were drawn from a larger study. Levels of impulsivity and alcohol use were measured at every assessment using self-report questionnaires. Data were analyzed using a latent growth modeling approach (LGM) and fit was examined across four indices. RESULTS: Consistent with previous studies, our findings indicate that trait impulsivity decreased and alcohol use increased during adolescence, and initial levels of impulsivity were associated with concurrent levels of alcohol use. Further, level of trait impulsivity during early adolescence predicted the rate of escalation of alcohol use during adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: In the present research, trait impulsivity assessed during early adolescence predicted the steepness of alcohol use escalation during adolescence, a variable with significant prognostic value for long-term AUDs and behavioral problems. This research underscores the importance of understanding trait impulsivity during early adolescence, and suggests that early trait impulsivity may have predictive value with respect to later alcohol abuse and behavioral problems.

10.
Ann Behav Med ; 53(11): 988-998, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delay discounting, or the tendency to devalue rewards as a function of their delayed receipt, is associated with myriad negative health behaviors. Individuals from medically underserved areas are disproportionately at risk for chronic health problems. The higher rates of delay discounting and consequent adverse outcomes evidenced among low-resource and unstable environments suggest this may be an important pathway to explain health disparities among this population. PURPOSE: The current study examined the effectiveness of a computerized working memory training program to decrease rates of delay discounting among residents of a traditionally underserved region. METHODS: Participants (N = 123) were recruited from a community center serving low income and homeless individuals. Subjects completed measures of delay discounting and working memory and then took part in either an active or control working memory training. RESULTS: Analyses indicated that participants in the active condition demonstrated significant improvement in working memory and that this improvement mediated the relation between treatment condition and reductions in delay discounting. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that a computerized intervention targeting working memory may be effective in decreasing rates of delay discounting in adults from medically underserved areas (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT03501706).

11.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054719832656, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine recurrence and timing of maternal depression as predictors of depressive and conduct symptoms in children with and without ADHD. METHOD: Children aged 4 to 6 years (125 ADHD, 122 comparison) were followed over 8 years. Maternal depression was assessed annually. Youth depressive and conduct symptoms were assessed at ages 12 to 14. RESULTS: Recurrence of maternal depression predicted youth depressive and conduct symptoms at ages 12 to 14; child ADHD moderated relations between recurrence of maternal depression and youth depressive (but not conduct) symptoms. Early adolescent exposure to maternal depression predicted age 12 to 14 depressive symptoms for all children. Exposure to maternal depression during early childhood, childhood, and early adolescence each independently predicted youth conduct symptoms. CONCLUSION: Recurrence and timing of maternal depression predict comorbid symptoms in early adolescents, particularly for youth with ADHD. Findings inform the prevention of comorbidities in children with ADHD where maternal depression is present. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX).

12.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; : 1-13, 2019 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30645150

RESUMO

Adolescence is characterized by significant increases in substance use problems. Although early depressive symptoms have been linked to adolescent substance use, recent literature reviews highlight important inconsistencies in these relations that may be accounted for by behavioral disinhibition factors. The current study aims to examine impulsivity as a specific moderator of the relation between early depressive symptoms and trajectories of substance use using a 6-year, prospective longitudinal design. Participants included 247 male and female adolescents (52.5% White, 45% female) who were, on average, 13 years of age at baseline (SDage = 0.90). They completed self-report inventories of depressive symptoms, impulsivity, substance use, and externalizing symptoms. Using a latent growth modeling approach, we found main effects for depressive symptoms and impulsivity, such that youth with lower initial levels of depressive symptoms and higher levels of impulsivity at baseline evidenced greater increases in substance use. Moreover, the interaction between impulsivity and depressive symptoms significantly predicted substance use, indicating that depressive symptoms were more positively related to substance use for youth reporting higher levels of impulsivity. Findings suggest that impulsivity is an important moderator of the relation between depressive symptoms and the development of substance use during adolescence and highlight the need for interventions focusing on both impulsivity and depression in minimizing risk of substance use.

13.
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 28(9): 1193-1202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30693374

RESUMO

Eating disorders (EDs) are associated with significant psychological and physical comorbidities, and adolescence is a particularly high-risk time for the development of EDs. Impulsivity (i.e., acting with little conscious judgment or forethought) and affect reactivity (i.e., changes in negative affect in response to a stressor) are hypothesized to contribute to the development of binge/purge ED pathology. The current study is the first to examine the prospective relationships between impulsivity and affect reactivity as predictors of the development of ED attitudes in adolescents over time. Two hundred six adolescents participated in a longitudinal study examining the development of psychopathology. ED attitudes were assessed via the College Eating Disorders Screen annually for 6 years. Baseline impulsivity and affect reactivity were also assessed. Affect reactivity, impulsivity, and their interaction were examined as baseline predictors of changes in ED attitudes over time using latent growth modeling. Results of latent growth modeling indicated that ED attitudes increased over time. The interaction between impulsivity and affect reactivity significantly predicted the slope of ED attitudes, such that the relationship between impulsivity and ED attitudes was strongest for those with elevated levels of affect reactivity. Findings suggest that greater levels of affect reactivity and impulsivity are key risk factors for the development of ED attitudes in adolescents. Subsequent research should examine the relation between affect reactivity and impulsivity in predicting objectively measured ED behaviors, in addition to ED attitudes. Further investigation may implicate affect reactivity and impulsivity as important targets for early intervention to prevent onset of ED symptoms in adolescents.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Psicopatologia/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Child Abuse Negl ; 88: 152-158, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508683

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking represents the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the US and understanding its risk factors remains a critical public health endeavor. Low-income individuals and individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment are at heightened risk for cigarette smoking, yet the underlying factors between this association are understudied. Conscientiousness is one construct with potential explanatory relevance to both smoking and childhood neglect. The current investigation examined the association between childhood physical and emotional neglect with smoking (i.e., self-reported cigarette smoking and breath carbon monoxide levels) via conscientiousness. The sample was comprised of 115 adults (Mage = 50.46, SDage = 5.86; 76.4% Black) recruited from a community center serving low-income and homeless individuals. Mediation analyses showed the indirect effect of childhood emotional neglect on cigarette smoking through conscientiousness; for physical neglect, this relationship was only present among males. The current study provides preliminary evidence that conscientiousness may be a particularly important vulnerability factor when examining the association between childhood neglect and smoking.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Personalidade , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza , Teoria Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Autocontrole , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(4): 731-743, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298225

RESUMO

Girls are more likely to engage in rumination, associated with the development of mental health problems, as well as report higher levels of friendship quality, hypothesized to protect against these disorders. The current study examined whether co-rumination may drive simultaneous increases in rumination and changes in friendship quality among adolescents. The project included 360 participants (43% boys), ages 9.8 to 15.8 years, and analyses revealed that co-rumination mediated the link between female sex and both rumination and negative friendship quality. There was also a bidirectional relation between co-rumination and positive friendship quality. These findings highlight several pathways by which co-rumination mediates the relation between sex and both maladaptive (i.e. rumination, negative friendship quality) and adaptive (i.e. positive friendship quality) outcomes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Amigos/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Psicometria/métodos , Ruminação Cognitiva , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 48(4): 633-642, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29364742

RESUMO

Adolescence is a vulnerable period for the development of depressive disorders. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of distress tolerance in the onset and maintenance of depression during adulthood; however, little is known about its role in predicting depressive symptoms among adolescents. The current study examines the effect of distress tolerance and co-occurring negative life events on the developmental trajectory of depressive symptoms from middle to late adolescence. Our sample included 117 adolescent boys and girls (44.4% female, 54.6% White). Participants were, on average, 16 years old at baseline (SD = 0.90) and completed self-report inventories of negative life events and depressive symptoms; distress tolerance was assessed using a behavioral measure. Utilizing a latent growth curve approach, we found a significant interaction between distress tolerance and negative life events in predicting increases in depressive symptoms over time. Follow-up analyses suggest that negative life events were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms over time for adolescents with lower levels of distress tolerance only. The study highlights the moderating role of distress intolerance in the relation between negative life events and depressive symptoms, and underscores the importance of targeting distress tolerance for treating depression among youth.

17.
Transl Issues Psychol Sci ; 4(1): 85-98, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930974

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit substance among youth, with rates of cannabis use escalating across adolescence. One potential factor predicting cannabis use among youth is childhood emotional abuse (CEA), which has been associated with substance use behaviors more broadly. Although CEA may be associated with increased cannabis use in general, it is likely that sex may have an impact on these relations, given that girls are more likely to use substances following abuse experiences than boys. The purpose of the current study as to examine longitudinal relations between CEA and gender on cannabis use during adolescence. The current study included a sample of 206 9th grade community youth (120 boys; Mage = 14.10, 55% European-American) followed annually through the 12th grade. CEA was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and cannabis use was assessed with the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. A latent growth model was utilized to examine cannabis use trajectories from grades 9-12. Within our initial model, elevated baseline use was associated with male gender and more severe CEA. Significant predictors of increases in cannabis use over time included elevated baseline alcohol use and the interaction between gender and CEA, such that girls with the most severe CEA had the greatest increases in cannabis use over time. These results suggest the importance of addressing CEA among adolescent girls. Given that cannabis use during adolescence is associated with a host of negative outcomes, targeted efforts to reduce use, through prevention and intervention efforts, is critical.

18.
Psychol Assess ; 30(8): 1065-1081, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29683689

RESUMO

Understanding parenting from both parent and child perspectives is critical to child clinical and developmental research. Similarities and differences between parents' and children's reports can be highly informative, but only if they derive from psychometrically sound measures that assess the same parenting constructs. We examined the psychometric properties of the child and parent forms of the Parenting Perception Inventory (Bruce et al., 2006), which measures perceptions of two higher-order dimensions: positive, warm, supportive parenting; and negative, harsh, critical parenting. Data from a four-wave, longitudinal study of community children and adolescents (n = 876, Mage = 9.5 at the beginning), and data from a study of children (n = 131, Mage = 9.35) of depressed and nondepressed mothers provided psychometric support for both measures. Factor analyses revealed the existence of two factors in both the child and parent forms, and showed strong congruence across the two forms. Other analyses examined longitudinal structure, item difficulty, item discriminations, and scale coverage of the child form. Parents' and children's perceptions of parenting were related to children's affect, emotionality, and depressive symptoms. Parents' perceptions of parenting were related to parents' depressive symptoms and to parenting self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Depressão , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Percepção , Psicometria
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 187: 179-184, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677626

RESUMO

Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or the fear of anxious symptoms and the belief that these symptoms may have negative physical, social, and cognitive consequences, is one personality trait that emerges in early adolescence and may be linked to alcohol use. However, findings are equivocal as to whether elevated AS during adolescence directly predicts alcohol use. Adolescents do report increases in positive alcohol use expectancies during this developmental period, and these expectancies have been found to be significantly associated with alcohol use. The current study examined whether positive alcohol use expectancies and AS in early adolescence predicted changes in alcohol use throughout adolescence. This aim was examined via secondary data analyses from a longitudinal study examining the development of risk behaviors in adolescents. Results of univariate latent growth curve modeling suggest that AS alone was not a significant predictor of baseline alcohol use or change in use over time after controlling for gender, age, and self-reported anxiety. However, AS in early adolescence was found to be a significant predictor of increases in alcohol use across adolescence for youth who reported greater positive alcohol use expectancies. These results indicate that beliefs regarding the positive effects of alcohol use are an important moderator in the relation between AS and change in alcohol use during adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
20.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 52(2): 160-175, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28792292

RESUMO

Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent and are associated with considerable functional impairment, significant public health costs, and heightened mortality risk. Individuals experiencing impairment due to depressive symptomatology are most likely to report their symptoms to a primary care provider. As such, national guidelines highlight the need to assess and effectively treat depression via primary care. Despite these guidelines, the dissemination of evidence-based psychotherapy via primary care is limited, likely due to both provider- and patient-level treatment barriers. Mobile health (mHealth) technologies are promising for addressing these barriers and for promoting uptake of evidence-based depression treatment. Among evidence-based psychotherapies for depression, brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD) has shown great promise and is particularly amenable to mHealth delivery. Herein, we discuss the development of a BATD mobile application, Moodivate, that was developed in order to disseminate BATD via primary care. This paper focuses on description of (1) rationale for Moodivate treatment development, (2) Moodivate treatment components, (3) ongoing clinical trial evaluation of Moodivate, and (4) clinical considerations for incorporating Moodivate into clinical practice.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Depressão/terapia , Aplicativos Móveis , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Psicoterapia/métodos , Telemedicina , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos
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