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1.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912911

RESUMO

AIMS: Azacitidine (AZA), a pyrimidine analogue, is validated for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or low-blast acute myeloid leukaemia in unfit patients for more intensive treatment. This study assessed the putative link between cardiac failure (CF) and AZA exposure. METHODS: Cases of CF in patients treated with AZA were retrospectively collected and described from several centres of the Groupe Francophone des Myélodysplasies. A description analysis and a disproportionality analysis using Vigibase®, the WHO Global Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) database, were conducted on ICSRs by the Standardized MedDRA Queries (SMQ broad) "cardiac failure" and by Preferred Terms (PTs) "cardiac failure" and "cardiac failure acute". The ROR and its 95% two-sided confidence interval (CI) was computed by comparing the proportion of cardiac failure reports with the suspected drug (AZA) and the proportion of reports of the same ADR with all other suspected drugs in the database during the same period. RESULTS: In the four case reports, all patients presented a cardiovascular history. In one patient, CF recurred after AZA re-challenge. The pharmacovigilance analysis in Vigibase® retrieved 307 ICSRs of cardiac failure (SMQ) with AZA. Significant disproportionality signals associated with AZA were identified by using the SMQ "cardiac failure" (ROR 1.3) and the PTs "cardiac failure" (ROR 5.1) and "cardiac failure acute" (ROR 23.2). CONCLUSIONS: This study points to the potential role of AZA in the occurrence of CF. Cardiac evaluation before AZA initiation and regular monitoring of cardiac function during AZA treatment should be performed in patients with a history of cardiovascular disease.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 382(2): 140-151, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with anemia and lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes in whom erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy is not effective generally become dependent on red-cell transfusions. Luspatercept, a recombinant fusion protein that binds transforming growth factor ß superfamily ligands to reduce SMAD2 and SMAD3 signaling, showed promising results in a phase 2 study. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with very-low-risk, low-risk, or intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (defined according to the Revised International Prognostic Scoring System) with ring sideroblasts who had been receiving regular red-cell transfusions to receive either luspatercept (at a dose of 1.0 up to 1.75 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo, administered subcutaneously every 3 weeks. The primary end point was transfusion independence for 8 weeks or longer during weeks 1 through 24, and the key secondary end point was transfusion independence for 12 weeks or longer, assessed during both weeks 1 through 24 and weeks 1 through 48. RESULTS: Of the 229 patients enrolled, 153 were randomly assigned to receive luspatercept and 76 to receive placebo; the baseline characteristics of the patients were balanced. Transfusion independence for 8 weeks or longer was observed in 38% of the patients in the luspatercept group, as compared with 13% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001). A higher percentage of patients in the luspatercept group than in the placebo group met the key secondary end point (28% vs. 8% for weeks 1 through 24, and 33% vs. 12% for weeks 1 through 48; P<0.001 for both comparisons). The most common luspatercept-associated adverse events (of any grade) included fatigue, diarrhea, asthenia, nausea, and dizziness. The incidence of adverse events decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: Luspatercept reduced the severity of anemia in patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with ring sideroblasts who had been receiving regular red-cell transfusions and who had disease that was refractory to or unlikely to respond to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or who had discontinued such agents owing to an adverse event. (Funded by Celgene and Acceleron Pharma; MEDALIST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02631070; EudraCT number, 2015-003454-41.).

4.
Autoimmun Rev ; : 102446, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) can be associated with giant cell arteritis (GCA). In this nationwide study by the "French Network of dysimmune disorders associated with hemopathies" (MINHEMON) the objective was to evaluate characteristics, treatment and outcome of GCA MDS-MDS/MPN. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients that presented a MDS or MDS/MPN associated with GCA. Treatment efficiency, relapse-free and overall survival of GCA MDS-MDS/MPN were compared to GCA alone. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients with GCA MDS-MDS/MPN were included with median age 76 [42-92], M/F ratio 2.5, 8 MDS with multilineage dysplasia (38%), 4 chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (19%), at low or intermediate risk according to IPPS and IPSS-R. The prevalence of headaches, jaw claudication and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy was significantly lower in patients with GCA MDS-MDS/MPN compared to idiopathic GCA (14.3%, 0% and 0% versus 30%, 25%, and 25%, respectively; p < .05). Other clinical and histology findings were similar. All GCA patients received steroid therapy as first-line treatment. Complete or partial response was observed in 14 GCA MDS-MDS/MPN patients (66.7%), of whom 6 (28.6%) received combined immunosuppressive therapies (versus 10% of idiopathic GCA; p = .07). Relapse incidence was similar in the two groups. Steroid dependence was more frequent among GCA MDS-MDS/MPN patients (12 (57%) versus 18 (22.5%); p < .05). Relapse-free and steroid-free survivals were significantly decreased in GCA MDS-MDS/MPN patients (log rank 0.002 and 0.049 respectively), but not overall survival. CONCLUSION: Characteristics of GCA MDS-MDS/MPN seem different than idiopathic GCA, with a distinct clinical phenotype and poorer outcome with a higher risk of steroid dependence and relapse.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881723

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) defines a group of heterogeneous hematologic malignancies that often progresses to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The leading treatment for high-risk MDS patients is azacitidine (Aza, Vidaza®), but a significant proportion of patients are refractory and all patients eventually relapse after an undefined time period. Therefore, new therapies for MDS are urgently needed. We present here evidence that acadesine (Aca, Acadra®), a nucleoside analog exerts potent anti-leukemic effects in both Aza-sensitive (OCI-M2S) and resistant (OCI-M2R) MDS/AML cell lines in vitro. Aca also exerts potent anti-leukemic effect on bone marrow cells from MDS/AML patients ex-vivo. The effect of Aca on MDS/AML cell line proliferation does not rely on apoptosis induction. It is also noteworthy that Aca is efficient to kill MDS cells in a co-culture model with human medullary stromal cell lines, that mimics better the interaction occurring in the bone marrow. These initial findings led us to initiate a phase I/II clinical trial using Acadra® in 12 Aza refractory MDS/AML patients. Despite a very good response in one out 4 patients, we stopped this trial because the highest Aca dose (210 mg/kg) caused serious renal side effects in several patients. In conclusion, the side effects of high Aca doses preclude its use in patients with strong comorbidities.

6.
Blood Adv ; 3(22): 3579-3589, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738830

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are hematopoietic stem cell malignancies. Known predisposing factors to adult MDS include rare germline mutations, cytotoxic therapy, age-related clonal hematopoiesis, and autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disorders. To date, no published studies characterizing MDS-associated germline susceptibility polymorphisms exist. We performed a genome-wide association study of 2 sample sets (555 MDS cases vs 2964 control subjects; 352 MDS cases vs 2640 control subjects) in non-del(5q) MDS cases of European genomic ancestry. Meta-analysis identified 8 MDS-associated loci at 1q31.1 (PLA2G4A), 3p14.1 (FAM19A4), 5q21.3 (EFNA5), 6p21.33, 10q23.1 (GRID1), 12q24.32, 15q26.1, and 20q13.12 (EYA2) that approached genome-wide significance. Gene expression for 5 loci that mapped within or near genes was significantly upregulated in MDS bone marrow cells compared with those of control subjects (P < .01). Higher PLA2G4A expression and lower EYA2 expression were associated with poorer overall survival (P = .039 and P = .037, respectively). Higher PLA2G4A expression is associated with mutations in NRAS (P < .001), RUNX1 (P = .012), ASXL1 (P = .007), and EZH2 (P = .038), all of which are known to contribute to MDS development. EYA2 expression was an independently favorable risk factor irrespective of age, sex, and Revised International Scoring System score (relative risk, 0.67; P = .048). Notably, these genes have regulatory roles in innate immunity, a critical driver of MDS pathogenesis. EYA2 overexpression induced innate immune activation, whereas EYA2 inhibition restored colony-forming potential in primary MDS cells indicative of hematopoietic restoration and possible clinical relevance. In conclusion, among 8 suggestive MDS-associated loci, 5 map to genes upregulated in MDS with functional roles in innate immunity and potential biological relevance to MDS.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568568

RESUMO

The prognosis in Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), although recently refined by molecular studies, remains largely based on conventional prognostic scores [International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS), revised IPSS], classifying patients into "lower risk" MDS (LR-MDS) and "higher risk" MDS (HR-MDS). In LR-MDS, treatment mainly aims at improving cytopenias, principally anaemia, while in HR-MDS it aims at delaying disease progression and prolonging survival. In LR-MDS without deletion 5q, anaemia is generally treated first by erythropoietic stimulating factors, while second line treatments are currently not approved [lenalidomide, hypomethylating agents (HMA), luspatercept] or rarely indicated (antithymocyte globulin). Lenalidomide has major efficacy in LR-MDS with deletion 5q. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is sometimes considered in LR-MDS, and iron chelation can be considered when multiple red blood cell transfusions are required. Allo-SCT is the only potentially curative treatment for HR-MDS; however, it is rarely applicable. It is generally preceded by intensive chemotherapy (IC) or HMA in patients with excess of marrow blasts (especially if >10%). In other patients, HMA can improve survival. The role of new drugs, including venetoclax or, in case of specific mutations, IDH1 or IDH2 inhibitors, is investigated. IC is mainly indicated as a bridge to allo-SCT, in the absence of unfavourable karyotype.

8.
Blood ; 134(17): 1441-1444, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484648

RESUMO

Germline DDX41 mutations are involved in familial myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). We analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies in an unselected cohort of 1385 patients with MDS or AML. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified 28 different germline DDX41 variants in 43 unrelated patients, which we classified as causal (n = 21) or unknown significance (n = 7) variants. We focused on the 33 patients having causal variants, representing 2.4% of our cohort. The median age was 69 years; most patients were men (79%). Only 9 patients (27%) had a family history of hematological malignancy, and 15 (46%) had a personal history of cytopenia years before MDS/AML diagnosis. Most patients had a normal karyotype (85%), and the most frequent somatic alteration was a second DDX41 mutation (79%). High-risk DDX41 MDS/AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy (n = 9) or azacitidine (n = 11) had an overall response rate of 100% or 73%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 5.2 years. Our study highlights that germline DDX41 mutations are relatively common in adult MDS/AML, often without known family history, arguing for systematic screening. Salient features of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies include male preponderance, frequent preexisting cytopenia, additional somatic DDX41 mutation, and relatively good outcome.

9.
Haematologica ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488557

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia with TP53 mutations are characterized by frequent relapses, poor or short responses, and poor survival with the currently available therapies including chemotherapy and 5-azacitidine. PRIMA-1Met (APR-246, APR) is a methylated derivative of PRIMA-1, which induces apoptosis in human tumor cells through restoration of the transcriptional transactivation function of mutant p53. We show here that low doses of APR on its own or in combination with 5-azacitidine reactivate the p53 pathway and induce an apoptosis program. Functionally, we demonstrate that APR exerts these activities on its own and that it synergizes with 5-azacitidine in TP53-mutated Myelodysplastic syndromes / acute myeloid leukemia cell lines and in TP53-mutated primary cells from Myelodysplastic syndromes / acute myeloid leukemia patients. Low doses of APR on its own or in combination with 5-azacitidine also show significant efficacy in vivo. Lastly, using transcriptomic analysis, we found that the APR + 5-azacitidine synergy was mediated by downregulation of the FLT3 pathway in drug-treated cells. Activation of the FLT3 pathway by FLT3 ligand reversed the inhibition of cell proliferation by APR + 5-azacitidine. These data suggest that TP53-mutated Myelodysplastic syndromes / acute myeloid leukemia may be better targeted by the addition of APR-246 to conventional treatments.

12.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278207

RESUMO

Iron overload due to red blood cell transfusions is associated with morbidity and mortality in lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients. Many studies suggested improved survival after iron chelation therapy, but valid data are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of iron chelation on overall survival and hematological improvement in lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients in the European MDS registry. We compared chelated patients with a contemporary, non-chelated control group within the European MDS registry, that met the eligibility criteria for starting iron chelation. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess overall survival, treating receipt of chelation as a time-varying variable. Additionally, chelated and non-chelated patients were compared using a propensity-score matched model. Of 2200 patients, 224 received iron chelation. The hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for overall survival for chelated patients, adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, performance status, cumulative red blood cell transfusions, IPSS-R, and presence of ringed sideroblasts was 0.50 (0.34-0.74). The propensity-score analysis, matched for age, sex, country, red blood cell transfusion intensity, ferritin level, comorbidity, performance status, and IPSS-R and additionally corrected for cumulative red blood cell transfusions and presence of ringed sideroblasts, demonstrated a significantly improved overall survival for chelated patients with a hazard ratio of 0.42 (0.27-0.63) compared to non-chelated patients. Up to 39% of chelated patients reached an erythroid response. In conclusion, our results suggest that iron chelation may improve overall survival and hematopoiesis in transfused lower-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00600860.

14.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171638

RESUMO

Progression-free survival of lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes patients treated with red blood cell transfusions is usually reduced, but it is unclear whether transfusion dose density is an independent prognostic factor. The European MDS Registry collects prospective data at 6-monthly intervals of newly diagnosed lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes patients from 16 European countries and Israel. Data on the transfusion dose density - the cumulative dose received at the end of each interval divided by the time since the beginning of the interval in which the first transfusion was received - were analyzed using proportional hazards regression with time-varying co-variates, with death and progression to higher-risk myelodysplastic syndromes /acute myeloid leukemia as events. Of the 1267 patients included in the analyses, 317 patients died without progression, in 162 patients the disease had progressed. Progression-free survival was significantly associated with age, EQ-5D index, baseline WHO classification, bone marrow blast count, cytogenetic risk category, number of cytopenias, and country. Transfusion dose density was inversely associated with progression-free survival (p<1x10-4): dose density had an increasing effect on hazard until a dose density of 3 units/16 weeks. The transfusion dose density effect continued to increase beyond 8 units/16 weeks after correction for the impact of treatment with erythropoietin agents, lenalidomide and/or iron chelators. Conclusion: the negative effect of transfusion treatment on progression-free survival already occurs at transfusion densities below 3 units/16 weeks. This indicates that transfusion dependency, even at relatively low dose densities, may be considered as an indicator of inferior progression-free survival. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00600860.

17.
Leukemia ; 33(10): 2466-2480, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894665

RESUMO

Islands of CD123high cells have been commonly described in the bone marrow of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Using a multiparameter flow cytometry assay, we detected an excess of CD123+ mononucleated cells that are lineage-negative, CD45+, CD11c-, CD33-, HLA-DR+, BDCA-2+, BDCA-4+ in the bone marrow of 32/159 (20%) patients. Conventional and electron microscopy, flow cytometry detection of cell surface markers, gene expression analyses, and the ability to synthesize interferon alpha in response to Toll-like receptor agonists identified these cells as bona fide plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Whole-exome sequencing of sorted monocytes and pDCs identified somatic mutations in genes of the oncogenic RAS pathway in the two cell types of every patient. CD34+ cells could generate high amount of pDCs in the absence of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-ligand (FLT3L). Finally, an excess of pDCs correlates with regulatory T cell accumulation and an increased risk of acute leukemia transformation. These results demonstrate the FLT3L-independent accumulation of clonal pDCs in the bone marrow of CMML patients with mutations affecting the RAS pathway, which is associated with a higher risk of disease progression.

18.
Haematologica ; 104(8): 1565-1571, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733271

RESUMO

High-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia patients have a very poor survival after azacitidine failure. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) is a novel subcutaneous hypomethylating agent which results in extended decitabine exposure. This multicenter phase II study evaluated the efficacy and safety of guadecitabine in high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome and low blast count acute myeloid leukemia patients refractory or relapsing after azacitidine. We included 56 patients with a median age of 75 years [Interquartile Range (IQR) 69-76]. Fifty-five patients received at least one cycle of guadecitabine (60 mg/m2/d subcutaneously days 1-5 per 28-day treatment cycles), with a median of 3 cycles (range, 0-27). Eight (14.3%) patients responded, including two complete responses; median response duration was 11.5 months. Having no or few identified somatic mutations was the only factor predicting response (P=0.035). None of the 11 patients with TP53 mutation responded. Median overall survival was 7.1 months, and 17.9 months in responders (3 of whom had overall survival >2 years). In multivariate analysis, IPSS-R (revised International Prognostic Scoring System) score other than very high (P=0.03) primary versus secondary azacitidine failure (P=0.01) and a high rate of demethylation in blood during the first cycle of treatment (P=0.03) were associated with longer survival. Thus, guadecitabine can be effective, sometimes yielding relatively prolonged survival, in a small proportion of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome/low blast count acute myeloid leukemia patients who failed azacitidine. (Trial registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifier: 02197676).

19.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(4): 213-219.e4, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the phase III MDS-005 study of patients with lower-risk, non-del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes, lenalidomide was associated with a higher rate of ≥ 8 weeks red blood cell transfusion independence (RBC-TI) compared with placebo, but also with a higher risk of hematologic adverse events (AEs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This analysis evaluated the ratio of clinical benefit-risk in patients treated with lenalidomide or placebo, and assessed the effect of lenalidomide dose reductions on response. Clinical benefit was a composite endpoint defined as RBC-TI, transfusion reduction ≥ 4 units packed red blood cells, hemoglobin increase ≥ 1.5 g/dL, or cytogenetic response. RESULTS: The rate of clinical benefit was higher with lenalidomide than with placebo (31.9% vs. 3.8%). The ratio of response (RBC-TI and clinical benefit) to risk (hematologic AEs) favored lenalidomide over placebo. Patients who underwent ≥ 1 lenalidomide dose reduction had a longer duration of treatment, received a higher cumulative dose, and were more likely to experience clinical benefit versus patients without dose reductions. CONCLUSION: Despite the occurrence of hematologic AEs, the overall benefit-risk profile supported lenalidomide treatment. Appropriate management of hematologic AEs by dose reductions may help patients with myelodysplastic syndromes to remain on treatment and achieve clinical benefit.

20.
Blood ; 133(15): 1630-1643, 2019 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30803991

RESUMO

Since the comprehensive recommendations for the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) reported in 2009, several studies have provided important insights, particularly regarding the role of arsenic trioxide (ATO) in frontline therapy. Ten years later, a European LeukemiaNet expert panel has reviewed the recent advances in the management of APL in both frontline and relapse settings in order to develop updated evidence- and expert opinion-based recommendations on the management of this disease. Together with providing current indications on genetic diagnosis, modern risk-adapted frontline therapy, and salvage treatment, the review contains specific recommendations for the identification and management of the most important complications such as the bleeding disorder APL differentiation syndrome, QT prolongation, and other all-trans retinoic acid- and ATO-related toxicities, as well as recommendations for molecular assessment of the response to treatment. Finally, the approach to special situations is also discussed, including management of APL in children, elderly patients, and pregnant women. The most important challenges remaining in APL include early death, which still occurs before and during induction therapy, and optimizing treatment in patients with high-risk disease.

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