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1.
Semin Diagn Pathol ; 37(1): 32-46, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889602

RESUMO

The spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T and NK-cell lymphoproliferations is broad and ranges from reactive self-limited disorders to neoplastic processes with a fulminant clinical course. EBV plays an important role promoting lymphomagenesis, although the precise mechanisms remain elusive. EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) are more common in East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan), and Latin America suggesting a strong genetic predisposition. The revised 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) lymphoma classification recognizes the following malignant NK- and T-cell lymphomas; extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTCL), aggressive NK-cell leukemia (ANKL), and the provisional entity within the group of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL, NOS) "primary EBV-positive nodal T or NK cell lymphoma". Disorders presenting mainly in children and young adults include chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) - systemic and cutaneous forms - which are not considered malignant disorders but were included in the WHO classification for the first time because of the differential diagnosis with other T- or NK-cell lymphomas. CAEBV, cutaneous form, includes hydroa vacciniforme-like LPD (HV-LPD) and severe mosquito bite allergy (SMBA). Finally, systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood was recognized as lymphoma because of its fulminant clinical course. Given the shared pathogenesis of these disorders, overlapping features are common demanding a close clinical, morphological and molecular correlation for an accurate diagnosis. This review summarizes the clinical, histopathological and molecular features of EBV-associated T and NK-cell LPD, highlighting the main features that might aid in the differential diagnosis.

2.
Lung Cancer ; 141: 56-63, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Detection of activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is crucial for individualized treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However little is known about how biopsy technique affects the detection rate of EGFR mutations. This retrospective, single center study evaluated the detection rate of EGFR mutations in tissue obtained by bronchoscopic cryobiopsy and compared this to other standard tissue sampling techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 414 patients with histologically confirmed NSCLC and known EGFR mutation status between 3/2008-7/2014. Tumor specimens obtained by tissue preserving bronchoscopic cryobiopsy were compared to those obtained by other techniques. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Analysis of bronchoscopic cryobiopsy tissue detected 29 activating EGFR mutations in 27 (21.6 %) out of 125 patients, while analysis of tissue obtained by non-cryobiopsy techniques (bronchoscopic forceps biopsies, fine needle aspiration, imaging guided transthoracical and surgical procedures) detected 42 EGFR mutations in 40 (13.8 %) out of 298 patients (p < 0.05). Cryobiopsy increased detection rate of EGFR mutations in central tumors compared with forceps biopsy (19.6 % versus 6.5 %, p < 0.05), while an insignificant trend was detected also for peripheral tumors (33.3 % versus 26.9 %). Bronchosopic cryobiopsy increases the detection rate of activating EGFR mutations in NSCLC in comparison to other tissue sampling techniques. This will help to optimize individualized treatment of patients with advanced tumors. Because of the retrospective nature of this analysis, a prospective trial is mandatory for final assessment.

3.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31822801

RESUMO

Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated lymphoma, prevalent in Asia and Latin America. Studies in Asian cohorts have identified some recurrent gene mutations in ENKTL; however, the mutational landscape of ENKTL in Latin America is unknown. In this study, we investigated the mutational profile and EBV strains of 71 ENKTL cases from Latin America (42 from Mexico, 17 from Peru, and 12 from Argentina) and compared it with Asian cohorts. The mutational analysis was performed by next generation sequencing (NGS) using an Ion AmpliSeq™ custom panel covering for the most frequently mutated genes identified in ENKTL. STAT3 was the most frequent mutated gene (16 cases: 23%), followed by MSN (10 cases; 14%), BCOR (9 cases; 13%), DDX3X (6 cases; 8%), TP53 (6 cases; 8%), MGA (3 cases; 4%), JAK3 (2 cases; 3%), and STAT5B (1 case; 1%). Mutations in STAT3, BCOR, and DDX3X were nearly mutually exclusive, suggesting different molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of ENKTL; whereas mutations in MGA, MSN, and TP53 were concomitant with other mutations. Most cases (75%) carried Type A EBV without the 30-bp LMP1 gene deletion. The overall survival was significantly associated with serum LDH level, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, International Prognostic Index (IPI) score, and therapy (p < 0.05), but not associated with any mutation, EBV strain or deletion in EBV LMP1 gene. In conclusion, mutational analysis of ENKTL from Latin America reveals frequent gene mutations leading to activation of the JAK-STAT pathway (25%), mostly STAT3. Compared to Asian cohorts, BCOR, DDX3X and TP53 mutations were also identified but with different frequencies. None of these mutations were associated with prognosis.

4.
Virchows Arch ; 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31848687

RESUMO

Recent research has dramatically advanced our understanding of the genetic basis of multiple myeloma (MM). MM displays enormous inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity, and underlies a clonal evolutionary process driven and shaped by diverse factors such as clonal competition, tumor microenvironment, host immunity, and therapy. Two main cytogenetic groups are distinguished: MM with recurrent translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus and MM with hyperdiploidy involving the odd chromosomes. The disease virtually always starts with a preneoplastic prodromal phase-monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance-that variably progresses to symptomatic MM within a few months or many years. Tumor heterogeneity and its evolution in space and time have important consequences for the clinical management and outcome of MM patients. At diagnosis, spatial intratumoral heterogeneity poses a challenge for classification and risk stratification. During maintenance therapy, clonal evolution may complicate disease monitoring and promote drug resistance. Upon progression or transformation, identifying the dominant disease-driving neoplastic clones and elucidating their properties are key to tailor personalized therapy. In this review, we discuss tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in MM, integrating pathological, radiological, molecular genetics, and clinical data. Current and prospective classification schemes and prognostic parameters, incorporating new genetic and proteomic discoveries and advances in imaging, are highlighted. In addition, the roles of the tumor microenvironment, host immunity, and resistance mutations, and their effects on therapy, are discussed. An improved understanding of high-risk disease, tumor heterogeneity, and clonal evolution will guide future therapies and may ultimately lead towards a cure for MM.

5.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754210

RESUMO

Targeted expression of transgenes is essential for the accurate representation of human disease in in vivo models. Current approaches to generate conditional transgenic mouse models are cumbersome and not amenable to high-throughput analysis since they require de novo generation and characterization of genetically modified mice. Here we describe a new system for lineage-restricted expression of transgenes based on a retroviral vector incorporating a translational stop cassette flanked by loxP recombination sites. Conditional transgene expression in chimeric mice is achieved by retroviral infection and transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase from a lineage-specific promoter. For validation, we directed expression of NPM-ALK, the fusion oncogene driving a subset of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), to T-cells by infecting hematopoietic stem cells from Lck-Cre-transgenic mice with a retroviral construct containing the NPM-ALK cDNA preceded by a translational stop cassette. These mice developed T-cell lymphomas within 12-16 weeks, featuring increased expression of the ALCL hallmark antigen CD30 as well as other cytotoxic T-cell markers, similar to the human disease. The new model represents a versatile tool for the rapid analysis of gene function in a defined lineage or in a developmental stage in vivo.

6.
Am J Hematol ; 94(11): 1208-1213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396979

RESUMO

Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) can present with different histopathological growth patterns. The impact of these histopathological growth patterns on relapse characteristics is unknown. We therefore analyzed paired biopsies obtained at initial diagnosis and relapse from 33 NLPHL patients who had received first-line treatment within German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) trial protocols, and from a second cohort of 41 relapsed NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies. Among the 33 GHSG patients, 21 patients presented with a typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis, whereas 12 patients had a variant histology. The histopathological growth patterns at initial diagnosis and at relapse were consistent in 67% of cases. A variant histology at initial diagnosis was associated with a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence (2.8 vs 5.2 years; P = .0219). A similar tendency towards a shorter median time to lymphoma recurrence was observed for patients presenting with a variant histology at relapse, irrespective of the growth pattern at initial diagnosis. Results obtained from the 41 NLPHL patients who had been treated outside GHSG studies were comparable (median time to lymphoma recurrence for variant histology vs typical growth pattern at initial diagnosis: 1.5 vs 7.0 years). In conclusion, the histopathological growth pattern remains consistent at relapse in the majority of NLPHL cases, and has major impact on the time of relapse.

8.
Oncogene ; 38(46): 7181-7195, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31417187

RESUMO

MLL rearrangements play a crucial role in leukemogenesis and comprise a poor prognosis. Therefore, new treatment strategies are urgently needed. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate an innovative leukemia model based on 100% pure MLL-AF4 or -AF9 rearranged cells derived from umbilical cord blood with indefinite growth in cell culture systems. Our model shared phenotypical, morphological and molecular features of patient cells faithfully mimicking the nature of the disease. Thus, it serves as a fundamental basis for pharmacological studies: inhibition of histone methyltransferase disruptor of telomeric silencing 1-like (DOT1L) is one specific therapeutic approach currently tested in clinical trials. However, success was limited by restricted response warranting further investigation of drug combinations. Recently, it has been shown that the inhibition of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) exhibits anti-tumoral activity against human cell lines and in MLL mouse models. Here, we used DOT1L and PRMT5 inhibitors in our human MLL-rearranged model demonstrating dose-dependent reduced proliferation, impairment of cell cycle, increasing differentiation, apoptosis, downregulation of target genes and sensitization to chemotherapy. Strikingly, the combination of both compounds led to synergistic anti-tumoral effects. Our study provides a strong rationale for novel targeted combination therapies to improve the outcome of MLL-rearranged leukemias.

9.
Virchows Arch ; 475(4): 479-488, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451895

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that re-expression of stem cell factors contribute to pathogenesis, therapy resistance, and recurrent disease in ovarian carcinomas. In this study, we compare the expression and co-expression of stem cell markers ALDH1 and SOX2 in different types of serous ovarian tumors. A total of 215 serous ovarian tumors (161 high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC), 17 low-grade serous carcinomas (LGSC), 37 atypical proliferative serous tumors (APST)), and 10 cases of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) were analyzed. Double immunostaining experiments addressed the association of cell proliferation (Ki67) with ALDH1 and the potential co-expression of SOX2 and ALDH1. The prognostic effect was analyzed in the cohort of HGSC. Expression of ALDH1and/or SOX2 was detected with increased frequency in HGSC (88.8%), compared with LGSC (70.5%) and APST (36.4%), while ALDH1 alone was significantly more frequently expressed in LGSC. The majority of all tumor types showed expression of ALDH1 and SOX2 in different cells. Only a minority of HGSC (4.6%) and STIC (20%) showed SOX2/ALDH1 co-expression in > 10% of tumor cells. Double staining also revealed that ALDH1 is associated with the non-proliferating Ki67-negative fraction consistent with a stem cell phenotype. Co-expression of ALDH1 and SOX2 or ALDH1 and Ki67 has no effect on survival. Expression of stem cell factors ALDH1 and/or SOX2 shows increased frequency in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas compared to low-grade carcinomas and borderline tumors, supporting the concept that stem cell markers play different biological roles in low-grade versus high-grade serous neoplasia of the ovary.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Isoenzimas/análise , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Retinal Desidrogenase/análise , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Isoenzimas/biossíntese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Retinal Desidrogenase/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/biossíntese
10.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296581

RESUMO

SOX11 is a valuable marker to identify biologically and clinically relevant groups of mantle cell lymphoma such as cyclin D1 negative and leukemic non-nodal mantle cell lymphoma. We aimed to establish a sensitive in situ hybridization analysis of SOX11 mRNA allowing its quantification within the histopathological context and compare it with immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR. Furthermore, TP53 status was correlated with SOX11 mRNA levels. Sixty-six cases were investigated; 58 conventional mantle cell lymphomas, including 6 cyclin D1 negative (46 classic, 12 blastoid) and 8 leukemic non-nodal mantle cell lymphomas. RNAscope was used for the in situ hybridization and the results scored as 0 to 4. Mantle cell lymphoma cases with SOX11 positivity by immunohistochemistry were positive by RNAscope but with different scores. RT-qPCR showed a good correlation with the median of the grouped scores but had a wide variation in individual cases. The SOX11 negative leukemic non-nodal mantle cell lymphomas were also negative by RNAscope. TP53 was mutated in 13/63 (21%) cases, including 5/7 (71%) leukemic non-nodal and 8/56 (14%) conventional mantle cell lymphoma. Interestingly, of the TP53 mutated cases, 9 were in the RNAscope negative/low SOX11 group (9/15; 60%) and 4 in the high SOX11 group (4/36; 11%) (p=.0007). In conclusion, RNAscope is a reliable method to evaluate SOX11 mRNA levels. This study demonstrates the broad range of SOX11 mRNA levels in mantle cell lymphoma. An important finding is the significant correlation of TP53 mutations with negative/low SOX11 mRNA level both in leukemic non-nodal and conventional mantle cell lymphoma.

11.
Virchows Arch ; 475(6): 795-798, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317311

RESUMO

The traditional concept of unidirectional maturation of hematopoietic cells has been called into question due to the recognition of lineage plasticity, which is increasingly found also in the clonal evolution of hematopoietic and lymphoid malignancies. Here we present an unusual case of a patient with TP53-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treated with a PI3Kδ inhibitor evolving to clonally related Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) with acquired BRAF V600E and STK11 mutations and loss of expression of PAX-5 and other examined B cell markers. In indolent B cell lymphoma, transformation to a more aggressive high-grade lymphoma occurs frequently during the course of disease and is thought to be caused by clonal evolution. Our case further supports the concept of significant lineage plasticity in lymphomas and raises the question of a potential role of novel pharmacologic agents in clonal evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Clonal , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/patologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/patologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Feminino , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 152(3): 302-321, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The 2017 Workshop of the Society for Hematopathology/European Association for Haematopathology reviewed the role of genetic testing in the diagnosis of hematopoietic neoplasms, including non-acute leukemia myeloid malignancies. METHODS: The workshop panel assigned 98 submitted cases to the category of non-acute leukemia myeloid neoplasms, of which 13 were selected for oral presentation. RESULTS: Data from both conventional karyotyping and genetic sequencing had important impact on diagnosis, classification, and prognostication. However, some cases had genetic results that appeared discordant from the morphology and/or clinical features. Thus, the workshop underscored the need for careful management of genetic data by the pathologist and clinician, in the context of other findings. CONCLUSIONS: The workshop cases highlighted the significance of genetic aberrations in the diagnosis and treatment of non-acute leukemia myeloid neoplasms. Many genetic data have already been incorporated in the most recent World Health Organization classification, and undoubtedly they will factor increasingly in future classifications.

14.
Leukemia ; 33(9): 2227-2240, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197258

RESUMO

One of the hallmarks of B lymphoid malignancies is a B cell clone characterized by a unique footprint of clonal immunoglobulin (IG) gene rearrangements that serves as a diagnostic marker for clonality assessment. The EuroClonality/BIOMED-2 assay is currently the gold standard for analyzing IG heavy chain (IGH) and κ light chain (IGK) gene rearrangements of suspected B cell lymphomas. Here, the EuroClonality-NGS Working Group presents a multicentre technical feasibility study of a novel approach involving next-generation sequencing (NGS) of IGH and IGK loci rearrangements that is highly suitable for detecting IG gene rearrangements in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. By employing gene-specific primers for IGH and IGK amplifying smaller amplicon sizes in combination with deep sequencing technology, this NGS-based IG clonality analysis showed robust performance, even in DNA samples of suboptimal DNA integrity, and a high clinical sensitivity for the detection of clonal rearrangements. Bioinformatics analyses of the high-throughput sequencing data with ARResT/Interrogate, a platform developed within the EuroClonality-NGS Working Group, allowed accurate identification of clonotypes in both polyclonal cell populations and monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorders. This multicentre feasibility study is an important step towards implementation of NGS-based clonality assessment in clinical practice, which will eventually improve lymphoma diagnostics.

16.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 45(11): 2037-2044, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239157

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although carcinomas of the rectosigmoid junction are frequent, specific data on these tumors are sparse because assignment either to the colon or rectum is common. The objective of this study is to determine whether carcinomas of the rectosigmoid junction can be assigned to the sigmoid colon or to the upper rectum in terms of tumor characteristics and oncological outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 337 consecutive patients undergoing resection of carcinomas in the sigmoid colon, the rectosigmoid junction and the upper third of the rectum were analyzed retrospectively and additionally followed-up for oncological outcome. RESULTS: 185 patients (54.9%) showed carcinoma in the sigmoid colon, 41 (12.2%) in the rectosigmoid junction and 111 (32.9%) in the upper rectum. Synchronous liver metastases (rectosigmoid junction 31.7%, sigmoid colon 16.2%, upper rectum 11.7%; P = 0.01), lymphovascular invasion (rectosigmoid junction 46.3%, sigmoid colon 25.4%, upper rectum 32.4%; P = 0.03) and pN2 (rectosigmoid junction 31.7%, sigmoid colon 10.3%, upper rectum 13.5%; P = 0.002) were more common in carcinomas of the rectosigmoid junction. The median follow-up period was 44 (22-75.5) months. Five-year overall survival was 44.6% in patients with carcinomas in the rectosigmoid junction, 70.9% in the sigmoid colon, and 70.2% in the upper rectum. CONCLUSION: Carcinomas of the rectosigmoid junction reveal a deviant behavioral pattern compared to its adjacent bowel segments.

17.
Genome Med ; 11(1): 28, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although mutated HLA ligands are considered ideal cancer-specific immunotherapy targets, evidence for their presentation is lacking in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Employing a unique multi-omics approach comprising a neoepitope identification pipeline, we assessed exome-derived mutations naturally presented as HLA class I ligands in HCCs. METHODS: In-depth multi-omics analyses included whole exome and transcriptome sequencing to define individual patient-specific search spaces of neoepitope candidates. Evidence for the natural presentation of mutated HLA ligands was investigated through an in silico pipeline integrating proteome and HLA ligandome profiling data. RESULTS: The approach was successfully validated in a state-of-the-art dataset from malignant melanoma, and despite multi-omics evidence for somatic mutations, mutated naturally presented HLA ligands remained elusive in HCCs. An analysis of extensive cancer datasets confirmed fundamental differences of tumor mutational burden in HCC and malignant melanoma, challenging the notion that exome-derived mutations contribute relevantly to the expectable neoepitope pool in malignancies with only few mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that exome-derived mutated HLA ligands appear to be rarely presented in HCCs, inter alia resulting from a low mutational burden as compared to other malignancies such as malignant melanoma. Our results therefore demand widening the target scope for personalized immunotherapy beyond this limited range of mutated neoepitopes, particularly for malignancies with similar or lower mutational burden.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Transcriptoma , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Exoma , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Mutação
18.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(7): 1835-1843, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006846

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Based on the observation of beneficial effects on cancer metabolism, microenvironment, or VEGF-signaling, several non-anticancer drugs have been discussed as useful in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In the present study, we investigated the prognostic impact of concomitant medication in RCC and correlated comedication with cell-cycle and proliferation activity in corresponding surgical specimen. METHODS: A total of 388 patients who underwent surgery for localized RCC were included. The individual medication was evaluated according to substance classes. Tissue microarrays from corresponding tumor specimen were immunohistochemically (IHC) stained for Cyclin D1 and Ki67 and semi-quantitatively evaluated. Uni- and multivariate analyses were used to compare survival outcomes. For the comparison of IHC expression according to medication subgroups, Kruskal-Wallis analysis was performed. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 57.93 months (95% CI 53.27-69.43) and median OS accounted for 181.12 months (129.72-237.17). Univariate analysis identified pathological standard variables (T-stage > T2, Grading > G2, L1, N1, M1, sarcomatoid subtype, necrosis) as significant determinants of OS. Moreover, statin use (p = 0.009) and sartan use (p = 0.032) were significantly associated with improved OS. Multivariate analysis identified M1-stage (p < 0.001), statin and sartan use (p = 0.003 and p = 0.033, respectively) as independent prognosticators of survival. Expression of Ki67 was significantly reduced in patients with statin use (p = 0.013), while Cyclin D1 expression showed no correlation with comedication. CONCLUSIONS: Concomitant intake of statins and sartans identifies as an independent predictor of OS in RCC, and reduced Ki67 expression was significantly associated with statin use. Further evaluation of drug repurposing approaches with these substances in RCC appear warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diuréticos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
19.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 2996-3010, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008532

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing has become a cornerstone of therapy guidance in cancer precision medicine and an indispensable research tool in translational oncology. Its rapidly increasing use during the last decade has expanded the options for targeted tumor therapies, and molecular tumor boards have grown accordingly. However, with increasing detection of genetic alterations, their interpretation has become more complex and error-prone, potentially introducing biases and reducing benefits in clinical practice. To facilitate interdisciplinary discussions of genetic alterations for treatment stratification between pathologists, oncologists, bioinformaticians, genetic counselors and medical scientists in specialized molecular tumor boards, several systems for the classification of variants detected by large-scale sequencing have been proposed. We review three recent and commonly applied classifications and discuss their individual strengths and weaknesses. Comparison of the classifications underlines the need for a clinically useful and universally applicable variant reporting system, which will be instrumental for efficient decision making based on sequencing analysis in oncology. Integrating these data, we propose a generalizable classification concept featuring a conservative and a more progressive scheme, which can be readily applied in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina de Precisão , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Front Pediatr ; 7: 71, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30931288

RESUMO

EBV-associated T and NK-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (EBV-T/NK LPDs) are characterized by the transformation and proliferation of EBV-infected T or NK cells. The 2016 revised World Health Organization classification recognizes the following EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD): chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) of T- and NK-cell type (cutaneous and systemic forms), systemic EBV-positive T-cell lymphoma of childhood, aggressive NK-cell leukemia, extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, and the new provisional entity primary EBV-positive nodal T/NK-cell lymphoma. EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), although not included in the WHO classification because it is a reactive, inflammatory disease, is included in this review because it can be life-threatening and may have overlapping features with other EBV+ T/NK LPDs. EBV+ T/NK LPDs are rare diseases difficult to diagnose and manage properly, because some LPDs have unusual presentations, and discrepancies between clinical and histological findings might be encountered. Furthermore, EBV+ T/NK disorders share some clinico-pathological features, and may evolve into other categories during the clinical course, including malignant transformation of CAEBV. Here, we review the EBV+ T/NK LPDs in terms of their definitions, clinical features, histology, immunophenotype, molecular findings, and pathogenesis. This review aims to increase our understanding and awareness of the differential diagnosis among the different EBV+ T/NK LPDs. New insights into the genetic characteristics of these disorders will also be discussed.

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