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1.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 13(1): 121, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organic selenium supplementation during gestation improves the antioxidant status and reproductive performance of sows and increases the antioxidative capacity of the intestines of their offspring. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal basel diet (control) supplemented with an organic Se, 2-hydroxy-4-methylselenobutanoic acid (HMSeBA), or inorganic sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) during gestation on the antioxidant status and development of muscle in newborn and weaned piglets. Newborn piglets before colostrum intake and weaned piglets were selected for longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle collection and analysis. RESULTS: The results showed that maternal HMSeBA supplementation increased the muscle area and content of Se in the LD muscle of newborn piglets, improved gene expression of selenoproteins, and decreased oxidative status in the LD muscle of both newborn and weaned piglets compared with the control. The expression of muscle development-related genes of newborn piglets in the HMSeBA group was lower than in the control group, whereas the expression of MRF4 in weaned piglets was higher in the HMSeBA group than in the control and Na2SeO3 groups. In addition, HMSeBA supplementation decreased the mRNA expressions of myosin heavy chains (MyHC) IIx and MyHC IIb and the percentage of MyHC IIb; increased the expression of PGC-1α in the LD muscle of newborn piglets; increased the gene expression of MyHC IIa; and decreased the protein expression of slow MyHC and the activity of malate dehydrogenase in the LD muscle of weaned piglets compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal HMSeBA supplementation during gestation can improve the antioxidative capacity of the muscle of their offspring and promote the maturity of muscle fibres in weaned offspring.

2.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 1023623, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36338075

RESUMO

Abnormally raised circulating bile acids (BA) during pregnancy threat fetal and offspring health. Our previous study has identified sulfated progesterone metabolites (PMSs) in part account for dysregulation of maternal BA homeostasis during pregnancy, however, limited intervention strategies to remedy increased serum BA through PMSs during pregnancy are available. The purpose of this study is to test the feasibility of manipulating BA homeostasis and progesterone metabolism through steering gut microbiota. A total of 19 pregnant sows were randomly treated with standard diet or vancomycin-supplemented diet, to investigate the intercorrelation of PMSs, intestinal microbiota, and maternal BA metabolism from day 60 of gestation (G60) until farrowing (L0). Pregnant mice orally gavaged with epiallopregnanolone sulfate (PM5S) or vehicle and nonpregnant mice were sampled and further analyzed to verify the effect of PM5S on maternal BA metabolism. The present study revealed that oral vancomycin reduced maternal fasting serum total BA (TBA) levels and postprandial serum TBA levels at day 90 of gestation (G90). BA profile analysis showed the decreased TBA after vancomycin treatment was attributed to the decrease of primary BA and secondary BA, especially hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA). By using newly developed UPLC-MS/MS methods, we found vancomycin increased fecal excretion of allopregnanolone sulfate (PM4S) and PM5S during late gestation and thus maintaining the relative stability of serum PM4S and PM5S, which play an important role in BA metabolism. Further study in mice showed that pregnant mice have higher serum and liver TBA levels compared with nonpregnant mice, and PM5S administration induced higher gallbladder TBA levels and TBA pool in pregnant mice. In addition, after oral vancomycin, the continuously decreased Parabacteroides genus, potentially enriched with genes encoding steroids sulfatase, may explain the increased fecal PMSs excretion in pregnant sows. Taken together, our study provides the evidence that pregnancy-induced elevation of BA levels in sow is likely regulated by manipulation of gut microbiota, which offer new insights into the prevention and treatment of disrupted BA homeostasis during pregnancy by targeting specific microbiota.

3.
Am J Transl Res ; 14(10): 7350-7361, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398258

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway remodeling and inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple autophagy-related genes are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. However, the roles of many of these autophagy-related genes in asthma remain unclear, particularly with regard to the diagnosis of asthma. METHODS: In this study, autophagy-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in asthma were identified by bioinformatics analysis of the GSE76262 datasets. Hub genes were screened by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and module analyses. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses were used to explore potential signaling pathways. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of autophagy-related biomarkers in asthma. RESULTS: A total of 17 autophagy-related DEGs were identified, most of which were involved in autophagy and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum signaling pathway. ROC curve analysis demonstrated that the hub genes (HIF1A, ERN1, and DNAJB1) identified from the PPI network exhibited good performance in the diagnosis of asthma. The GSE137268 and GSE43696 databases were used to verify the expression of 17 autophagy-related DEGs in asthma. Interestingly, ERN1 was an overlapping gene defined by the intersection of hub autophagy-related DEGs and key modules (including HIF1A, ERN1, and DNAJB1). We also analyzed the interaction between miRNAs and mRNAs for 14 autophagy-related DEGs with an area under the curve > 0.7. The identified genes were involved in the glypican, interferon-gamma, and plasma membrane estrogen receptor signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that specific signaling pathways and autophagy-related DEGs are potential diagnostic biomarkers related to the inception and progression of asthma.

4.
Mater Horiz ; 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426652

RESUMO

The integration of 2D materials with other dimensional materials opens up rich possibilities for both fundamental physics and exotic nanodevices. However, current mixed-dimensional heterostructures often suffer from interfacial contact issues and environment-induced degradation, which severely limits their performance in electronics/optoelectronics. Herein, we demonstrate a novel BN-encapsulated CuO/MoS2 2D-1D van der Waals heterostructure photodetector with an ultrahigh photoresponsivity which is 10-fold higher than its previous 2D-1D counterparts. The interfacial contact state and photodetection capabilities of 2D-1D heterojunctions are significantly improved via femtosecond laser irradiation induced MoS2 wrapping and contamination removal. These h-BN protected devices show highly sensitive, gate-tunable and robust photoelectronic properties. By controlling the gate and bias voltages, the device can achieve a photoresponsivity as high as 2500 A W-1 in the forward bias mode, or achieve a high detectivity of 6.5 × 1011 Jones and a typical rise time of 2.5 ms at reverse bias. Moreover, h-BN encapsulation effectively protects the mixed-dimensional photodetector from electrical depletion by gas molecules such as O2 and H2O during fs laser treatment or the operation process, thus greatly improving the stability and service life in harsh environments. This work provides a new way for the further development of high performance, low cost, and robust mixed-dimensional heterostructure photodetectors by femtosecond laser contact engineering.

5.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 15: 1030639, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36438186

RESUMO

Cyclin-dependent kinases 5 (Cdk5) is a special member of proline-directed serine threonine kinase family. Unlike other Cdks, Cdk5 is not directly involved in cell cycle regulation but plays important roles in nervous system functions. Under physiological conditions, the activity of Cdk5 is tightly controlled by p35 or p39, which are specific activators of Cdk5 and highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. However, they will be cleaved into the corresponding truncated forms namely p25 and p29 under pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases and neurotoxic insults. The binding to truncated co-activators results in aberrant Cdk5 activity and contributes to the initiation and progression of multiple neurological disorders through affecting the down-stream targets. Although Cdk5 kinase activity is mainly regulated through combining with co-activators, it is not the only way. Post-translational modifications of Cdk5 including phosphorylation, S-nitrosylation, sumoylation, and acetylation can also affect its kinase activity and then participate in physiological and pathological processes of nervous system. In this review, we focus on the regulatory mechanisms of Cdk5 and its roles in a series of common neurological disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, anxiety/depression, pathological pain and epilepsy.

6.
Chem Asian J ; 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36445801

RESUMO

The ligand field greatly affects the redox properties of cerium. Imidazolin-2-iminato ligands were introduced into cerium chemistry, cerium(III) and cerium(IV) complexes supported by imidazolin-2-iminato ligands were synthesized and structurally characterized, and their electrochemical properties were investigated. Silylamine elimination of cerium(III) amide Ce{N(SiMe3)2}3 with imidazolin-2-imine ImRNH (R = Mes, tBu, iPr) provided imidazolin-2-iminato cerium(III) complexes, [(ImMesN)(ImMesNH)Ce{N(SiMe3)2}2] (1), [(Im t BuN)2(Im t BuNH)Ce{N(SiMe3)2}] (2) and [(Im i PrN)2(Im i PrNH)Ce(µ-Im i PrN)]2 (4) in 71%~85% yields. These cerium(III) complexes were successfully oxidized by Ph3CCl or C2Cl6 to afford imidazolin-2-iminato cerium(IV) chlorides, [(ImMesN)2Ce{N(SiMe3)2}Cl] (5), [(Im t BuN)3CeCl] (6) and [(Im i PrN)2Ce(µ-Im i PrN)Cl]2 (7) in 70%~76% yields. All complexes were characterized by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which showed that 1, 2, 5 and 6 are monomers while 4 and 7 are dimers. The electrochemical studies indicated that the Ce(III/IV) couples for 5 and 6 are more negative than those of silylamido cerium(IV) complexes, and the Ce(III/IV) couples for 1 and 2 have a similar trend.

7.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 1026088, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36213410

RESUMO

The dietary inclusion of phytogenic feed additives to improve the performance and health of sows is considered to be safe, effective and environmentally friendly, thus gaining growing popularity among new strategies. This study was designed with three trials aimed to determine the effective supplemental levels of Scutellaria baicalensis and Lonicera japonica mixed extracts (SLE) in sow diets based on production performance and explore its related mechanisms of action based on serum metabolites, antioxidant capacity, and immune profile of sows and nursing piglets. Trials 1 and 2 were conducted to determine the effective dose and ratio of SLE by supplementation of various proportions and doses of SLE to sows diets from the late pregnancy to weaning, with litter performance at farrowing and weaning and disease conditions being evaluated. Trial 3 was conducted to further explore the mechanisms of action of SLE as evaluated by serum immunity and antioxidants indices in late gestation and lactation sows. The results of trials 1 and 2 showed that dietary supplementation of 1.0 g/kg SLE (50% S. baicalensis extract, 30% L. japonica extract, and 20% wheat bran fiber as carrier) enhanced the number of piglets born alive, litter birth weight, litter weight gain, and average daily feed intake of sows during lactation, while decreased diarrhea of suckling piglets. In Trial 3, compared with the control group, dietary SLE supplementation increased (P < 0.05) sow serum glucose (GLU), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), prolactin (PRL) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) concentrations, and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities at the farrowing, and increased (P < 0.05) sow serum prolactin, leptin, and insulin concentrations at d 14 of lactation. Fat concentrations in sow colostrum and in milk on day 14 of lactation, both IgA and IgG concentrations in colostrum, and both IL-10 and IgA concentrations in piglet serum at d 14 of lactation were all increased (P < 0.05) following dietary SLE supplementation. Altogether, dietary supplementation with the appropriate levels of SLE promoted health and growth of suckling piglets, which was associated with the improvement of maternal metabolism and transmission of antibodies.

8.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234789

RESUMO

Porous aromatic framework materials with high stability, sensitivity, and selectivity have great potential to provide new sensors for optoelectronic/fluorescent probe devices. In this work, a luminescent porous aromatic framework material (LNU-23) was synthesized via the palladium-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of tetrabromopyrene and 1,2-bisphenyldiborate pinacol ester. The resulting PAF solid exhibited strong fluorescence emission with a quantum yield of 18.31%, showing excellent light and heat stability. Because the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of LNU-23 was higher than that of the nitro compounds, there was an energy transfer from the excited LNU-23 to the analyte, leading to the selective fluorescence quenching with a limit of detection (LOD) ≈ 1.47 × 10-5 M. After integrating the luminescent PAF powder on the paper by a simple dipping method, the indicator papers revealed a fast fluorescence response to gaseous nitrobenzene within 10 s, which shows great potential in outdoor fluorescence detection of nitro compounds.


Assuntos
Nitrocompostos , Paládio , Ésteres , Corantes Fluorescentes , Nitrobenzenos , Porosidade , Pós
9.
Front Nutr ; 9: 992102, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36204377

RESUMO

One purified neutral polysaccharide fraction was obtained from the rhizome of Polygonatum sibiricum by DEAE ion exchange and gel chromatography. Structure elucidation was performed by methanolysis, methylation, FT-IR, and NMR. The results indicated that PSP-NP was composed of 1,4-ß-D-Gal,1, 4, 6-ß-D-Gal, T-α-D-Man,1, 4-α-D-Glc, and T-α-D-Glc with a molecular weight of 43.0 kDa. We supplied this polysaccharide to aged mice and found it is of benefits to intestinal functions, as indicated by better tissue integrity and motility, improved oxidative stress and inflammation, reduced intestinal permeability and serum LPS level, as well as balanced gut microbial composition and short-chain fatty acids production. These results display a novel Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharide to improve the intestinal function of aged mice, which provides pieces of evidence for its further development and utilization.

10.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296015

RESUMO

In this paper, a sub-arc-second macro/micro dual-drive rotary system is designed, and the continuous compensation of the system error and its experimental research are completed. First, the macro-drive system is driven by a direct-drive motor, and the micro-drive system uses a piezoelectric ceramic to drive the micro-drive rotary mechanism; the system uses a micro-drive system to compensate the motion error of the macro-drive system, and uses circular grating to feedback the displacement of the macro/micro total output turntable to form a macro/micro dual-drive closed-loop control system. Second, based on the establishment of the system error model, the design of the system's continuous error compensation scheme is completed. Finally, the positioning accuracy testing of the system, direct error compensation of the macro-drive, manual error compensation of the macro-drive, error compensation performance of the micro-drive part and macro/micro compensation of the system are carried out in the study. The results show that the repeated positioning error and the positioning error of the system are reduced by 78.8% and 95.2%, respectively, after macro/micro compensation. The correctness and effectiveness of the designed system design, error compensation and control method are verified through performance tests, and its positioning accuracy is verified to the sub-arc-second (0.1 arcsecond) level. The research in this paper has important reference value for the development of ultra-precision macro/micro dual-drive technology.

11.
Phys Med Biol ; 67(22)2022 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220015

RESUMO

Objective.Adaptive radiation therapy (ART) could protect organs at risk (OARs) while maintain high dose coverage to targets. However, there is still a lack of efficient online patient quality assurance (QA) methods, which is an obstacle to large-scale adoption of ART. We aim to develop a clinically relevant online patient QA solution for ART using daily CT scans and EPID-basedin vivodosimetry.Approach.Ten patients with rectal cancer at our center were included. Patients' daily CT scans and portal images were collected to generate reconstructed 3D dose distributions. Contours of targets and OARs were recontoured on these daily CT scans by a clinician or an auto-segmentation algorithm, then dose-volume indices were calculated, and the percent deviation of these indices to their original plans were determined. This deviation was regarded as the metric for clinically relevant patient QA. The tolerance level was obtained using a 95% confidence interval of the QA metric distribution. These deviations could be further divided into anatomically relevant or delivery relevant indicators for error source analysis. Finally, our QA solution was validated on an additional six clinical patients.Main results.In rectal cancer, the 95% confidence intervals of the QA metric for PTV ΔD95(%) were [-3.11%, 2.35%], and for PTV ΔD2(%) were [-0.78%, 3.23%]. In validation, 68% for PTV ΔD95(%), and 79% for PTV ΔD2(%) of the 28 fractions are within tolerances of the QA metrics. one patient's dosimetric impact of anatomical variations during treatment were observed through the source of error analysis.Significance.The online patient QA solution using daily CT scans and EPID-basedin vivodosimetry is clinically feasible. Source of error analysis has the potential for distinguishing sources of error and guiding ART for future treatments.


Assuntos
Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Neoplasias Retais , Humanos , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 944620, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36311584

RESUMO

Purpose: The association between overall physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction has been confirmed in adolescents. However, the associations between different forms of PA at various intensities and life satisfaction are under-studied. This study aimed to explore the association between vigorous PA (VPA) and life satisfaction, and whether the associations vary by gender and age. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) investigation, the research samples of 11- to 15-year-old adolescents were included for further. The information on VPA was collected via two self-reported questions, including frequency per week and hours per week. Life satisfaction was assessed by a ladder of 0-10 scores, with being higher indicating better life satisfaction. Logistic models were carried out to analyse the association between VPA and life satisfaction among adolescents, and results were presented with odd ratio (OR) and associated 95% confidence interval. Results: Among the 214,080 (49.2% male) adolescents studied, both boy and girl participants reporting higher frequency of VPA per week were more likely to be associated with higher life satisfaction (e.g., in boys, VPA for every day: OR = 1.054; in girls: VPA for every day: OR = 1.047). More hours of VPA was also associated with better life satisfaction in adolescents (in overall sample, 7 h or more: OR = 1.178). Conclusions: In conclusion, this research provided evidence on the roles of VPA on life satisfaction among adolescents aged 11-15. Considering life satisfaction is regarded as an indicator of adolescents' psychological health development, our study supports and extends the evidence for the importance of VPA in adolescence.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Satisfação Pessoal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Masculino , Autorrelato , Instituições Acadêmicas , Saúde Mental
13.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235710

RESUMO

A maternal low-protein (LP) diet during gestation and/or lactation results in metabolic syndrome in their offspring. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal LP diet during puberty and adulthood on the metabolic homeostasis of glucose and lipids in offspring. Female mice were fed with normal-protein (NP) diet or a LP diet for 11 weeks. Male offspring were then fed with a high-fat diet (NP-HFD and LP-HFD groups) or standard chow diet (NP-Chow and LP-Chow groups) for 4 months. Results showed that maternal LP diet during puberty and adulthood did not alter the insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid homeostasis of their offspring under chow diet, but aggravated insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and hypercholesterolemia of offspring in response to a post-weaning HFD. Accordingly, transcriptomics study with offspring's liver indicated that several genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, including lipoprotein lipase (Lpl), long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (Acsl1), Apoprotein A1 (Apoa1), major urinary protein 19 (Mup19), cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) and fibroblast growth factor 1 (Fgf1), were changed by maternal LP diet. Taken together, maternal LP diet during puberty and adulthood could disarrange the expression of metabolic genes in the liver of offspring and aggravate insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in offspring fed a HFD.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso , Resistência à Insulina , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Apoproteínas/metabolismo , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Coenzima A/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Ligases/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Lipídeos , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Maturidade Sexual
15.
J Neurol ; 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066625

RESUMO

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a relapsing autoimmune disease that can cause permanent neurological disabilities. However, the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling pathway is a promising therapeutic target for relapse prevention. Therefore, this study evaluated the long-term effectiveness of tocilizumab, a humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, for NMOSD. We enrolled 65 patients with NMOSD who received regular intravenous administration of tocilizumab (8 mg/kg) between October 2017 and January 2022. Then, we retrospectively collected data on the clinical characteristics and baseline glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament light chain levels. The primary outcome was the annualized relapse rate (ARR). Risk factors were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model. During the median follow-up of 34.1 (interquartile range: 25.5-39.3) months, 23% (15/65) of patients relapsed during tocilizumab treatment, but the median ARR decreased from 1.9 (range 0.12-6.29) to 0.1 (range 0-1.43, p < 0.0001). A prolonged infusion interval (> 4 weeks, odds ratio [OR]: 10.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-71.4, p = 0.014) and a baseline plasma GFAP level of > 220 pg/mL (OR: 20.6, 95% CI 3.3-129.4, p = 0.001) were risk factors for future relapses. During treatment, the median Expanded Disability Status Scale score significantly decreased in aquaporin-4 antibody-positive and -negative patients, but the pain did not considerably improve. There were no severe safety concerns. Tocilizumab treatment significantly reduced the relapse rate in patients with NMOSD. However, prolonged infusion intervals and high baseline plasma GFAP levels may increase the relapse risk during tocilizumab therapy.

16.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36144848

RESUMO

Due to the frequent oil/organic solvent leakage, efficient oil/water separation has attracted extensive concern. However, conventional porous materials possess nonpolar building units, which reveal relatively weak affinity for polar organic molecules. Here, two different polarities of superhydrophobic porous aromatic frameworks (PAFs) were synthesized with respective orthoposition and paraposition C=O groups in the PAF linkers. The conjugated structure formed by a large number of alkynyl and benzene ring structures enabled porous and superhydrophobic quality of PAFs. After the successful preparation of the PAF solids, PAF powders were coated on polyester fabrics by a simple dip-coating method, which endowed the resulting polyester fabrics with superhydrophobicity, porosity, and excellent stability. Based on the unique structure, the oil/water separation efficiency of two superhydrophobic flexible fabrics was more than 90% for various organic solvents. Polar LNU-26 PAF showed better separation performance for the polar oils. This work takes the lead in adopting the polar groups as building units for the preparation of porous networks, which has great guiding significance for the construction of advanced oil/water separation materials.

17.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 964531, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118236

RESUMO

The effects of Rhodotorula benthica culture (RBC) and antibiotics (AB) on the growth performance, nutrients digestibility, morphological indicators, and colonic microbiota of weaning piglets were explored. Ninety-six (Duroc × Landrace × Large) weaned piglets (21-day-old) weighing 7.7 ± 0.83 kg, were randomly allocated to 4 dietary treatments. They were fed with basal diet (CON), basal diet + 25 mg/kg bacitracin zinc + 5 mg/kg colistin sulfate (AB), 5 g/kg reduction in soybean meal of basal diet + 5 g/kg RBC (RBC1), or 10 g/kg reduction in soybean meal of basal diet + 10 g/kg RBC (RBC2). The results showed that dietary RBC1 improved the body gain/feed intake (G/F) of weaned piglets than the CON diet, and the RBC2 diet improved the average daily gain and G/F than CON and AB diets from days 15 to 28 (P < 0.05). Supplementation of RBC2 improved the apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, and gross energy in weaned piglets compared to controls from days 15 to 28 (P < 0.05). Dietary AB, RBC1, and RBC2 enhanced the ileal villus height (VH) and VH/crypt depth (CD), and these two indicators were greater in the RBC2-treated piglets than in the AB- and RBC1-treated piglets (P < 0.05). The activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) was enhanced by dietary AB, RBC1, and RBC2 (P < 0.05). Serum glutathione (GSH) concentration was elevated by dietary RBC1 and RBC2 (P < 0.05). According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis, AB- and RBC2-treated piglets had a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and Lachnospiraceae in the colon digesta, and more abundant Lactobacillus was found in RBC1-treated piglets, as compared to the CON group. Additionally, RBC2 supplementation increased the α diversity [Chao1, PD-whole-tree, and observed operational taxonomic units (OTUs)] compared to the CON group. Taken together, the dietary RBC improved the growth performance of weaned piglets. In addition, 10 g/kg of RBC2 in the diet achieved better effects on higher ADG, ileal villi morphology, and stronger antioxidant capacity than dietary AB and RBC1 in weaning piglets.

18.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 937581, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091763

RESUMO

In this study, three acidic polysaccharides from different plant parts of Codonopsis pilosula var. Modesta (Nannf.) L. T. Shen were obtained by ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography, and the yields of these three polysaccharides were different. According to the preliminary experimental results, the antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides from rhizomes and fibrous roots (CLFP-1) were poor, and was thus not studied further. Due to this the structural features of polysaccharides from roots (CLRP-1) and aerial parts (CLSP-1) were the object for this study and were structurally characterized, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated. As revealed by the results, the molecular weight of CLRP-1and CLSP-1 were 15.9 kDa and 26.4 kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition of CLRP-1 was Ara, Rha, Fuc, Xyl, Man, Gal, GlcA, GalA in a ratio of 3.8: 8.4: 1.0: 0.8: 2.4: 7.4: 7.5: 2.0: 66.7, and Ara, Rha, Gal, GalA in a ratio of 5.8: 8.9: 8.0: 77.0 in for CLSP-1. The results of structural elucidation indicated that both CLRP-1 and CLSP-1 were pectic polysaccharides, mainly composed of 1, 4-linked galacturonic acid with long homogalacturonan regions. Arabinogalactan type I and arabinogalactan type II were presented as side chains. The antioxidant assay in IPEC-J2 cells showed that both CLRP-1 and CLSP-1 promoted cell viability and antioxidant activity, which significantly increase the level of total antioxidant capacity and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and decrease the content of malondialdehyde. Moreover, CLRP-1 and CLSP-1 also showed powerful antioxidant abilities in Caenorhabditis elegans and might regulate the nuclear localization of DAF-16 transcription factor, induced antioxidant enzymes activities, and further reduced reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde contents to increase the antioxidant ability of Caenorhabditis elegans. Thus, these finding suggest that CLRP-1 and CLSP-1 could be used as potential antioxidants.

19.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077898

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on the growth performance, meat quality, gut health, and microbiota community of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 45 growing-finishing pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments: a corn-soybean-based diet (CON, n = 15), a wheat-rice-based diet (GRA, n = 15), and GRA supplemented with 500 mg/kg yeast culture (YC, n = 15). The results show that compared to the CON group, the GRA group exhibited no significant differences in feed intake, daily gain, or feed conversion ratio, but had significantly reduced feed cost per kilogram BW gain of the finishing pigs (p < 0.05). Compared to that of the CON group, the GRA and YC groups showed an increase in the dressing percentage (p < 0.1). The meat color redness of the YC group increased (p < 0.1), whereas the b* value at 24 h decreased (p < 0.1). Meanwhile, the addition of YC significantly increased total superoxide dismutase activity on day 30 and catalase activity on day 60 (p < 0.05), and decreased serum urea nitrogen content on day 60 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, YC supplementation increased the gene expression of the duodenal anti-inflammatory factor IL-10 (p < 0.05), while it significantly decreased the gene expression of the ileal pro-inflammatory factor IL-8 (p < 0.05). The intestinal microbial identification results show that compared to the CON group, the YC group showed an increase in the relative abundances of Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium in the colon, and a decrease in the relative abundances of Bacteroidea, Clostridae, and Prevotella in the cecum. In conclusion, the growth performance of pigs on a wheat-rice-based diet was similar to that of pigs on a corn-soybean-based diet. Supplementation of 0.5% YC in the wheat-rice-based diet could improve the dressing percentage and meat color of growing-finishing pigs, which might be due to the increase in nitrogen utility and antioxidant capacity, and the improvement of the immune system and changes in microbiota communities.

20.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077922

RESUMO

Inflammatory responses reduce milk production in lactating sows. Silymarin may modulate inflammatory reactions. Here, we aimed to verify whether dietary silymarin supplementation could alleviate inflammatory responses in lactating sows through microbiota change in the gut. We also investigated how silymarin impacts inflammatory response in lactating sows. One hundred and ten sows were randomly assigned to a control diet (basal diet) or treatment diet (basal diet and 40 g/d silymarin) from the 108th day of gestation to weaning. Blood, milk, and feces from sows were collected for analysis. It was shown in the results that dietary silymarin supplementation decreased the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1ß (p < 0.05) on the 18th day of lactation in the blood of the sows. Dietary silymarin supplementation tended to decrease (p = 0.06) somatic cell count in the colostrum of sows. Dietary silymarin supplementation reduced the gut bacterial community and the richness of the gut microbial community (p < 0.01) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The fecal microbes varied at different taxonomic levels in the lactating sows with silymarin supplementation. The most representative changes included an increase in the relative abundance of Fibrobacteres and Actinobacteria (p < 0.05) and tended to reduce the relative abundance of Spirochaetaes and Tenericutes (p = 0.09, 0.06) at the phylum level. It is suggested that dietary silymarin supplementation in late gestation until lactation has anti-inflammatory effects in lactation sow, which could be associated with the modulation of gut microbiota.

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