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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122810, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028146

RESUMO

A two-stage process consisting of a pre-acidification unit and an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor (UASBT-S) was compared with a one-stage UASB reactor (UASBO-S) to evaluate the treatment stability of starch wastewater (SW). The Two-stage process provided higher treatment stability than UASBO-S. Sludge floatation occurred in the UASBO-S when the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased to 4 g-COD/L/d, beyond which a paste-like membrane structure adhered to the granules was observed. Further analysis suggests that the substrate derived polysaccharide components embedded in the loosely-bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), triggered significant increase in the protein/polysaccharide ratio in the tightly-bound EPS (TB-EPS), and was suggested to result in the granules floatation and disintegration. During the pre-acidification, the starch was mainly converted to acetic and propionic acids. The pre-acidification was beneficial for reducing the EPS content fluctuations in the UASBT-S, which greatly improved settling capability and strength of the granular sludge.

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037739

RESUMO

The CRISPR-Cas technologies derived from bacterial and archaeal adaptive immune systems have emerged as a series of groundbreaking nucleic acid-guided gene editing tools, ultimately standing out among several engineered nucleases because of their high efficiency, sequence-specific targeting, ease of programming and versatility. Facilitated by the advancement across multiple disciplines such as bioinformatics, structural biology and high-throughput sequencing, the discoveries and engineering of various innovative CRISPR-Cas systems are rapidly expanding the CRISPR toolbox. This is revolutionizing not only genome editing but also various other types of nucleic acid-guided manipulations such as transcriptional control and genomic imaging. Meanwhile, the adaptation of various CRISPR strategies in multiple settings has realized numerous previously non-existing applications, ranging from the introduction of sophisticated approaches in basic research to impactful agricultural and therapeutic applications. Here, we summarize the recent advances of CRISPR technologies and strategies, as well as their impactful applications.

3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033499

RESUMO

Wi-Fi based positioning has great potential for use in indoor environments because Wi-Fi signals are near-ubiquitous in many indoor environments. With a Reference Fingerprint Map (RFM), fingerprint matching can be adopted for positioning. Much assisting information can be adopted for increasing the accuracy of Wi-Fi based positioning. One of the most adopted pieces of assisting information is the Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) information derived from inertial measurements. This is widely adopted because the inertial measurements can be acquired through a Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) smartphone. To integrate the information of Wi-Fi fingerprinting and PDR information, many methods have adopted filters, such as Kalman filters and particle filters. A new methodology for integration of Wi-Fi fingerprinting and PDR is proposed using graph optimization in this paper. For the Wi-Fi based fingerprinting part, our method adopts the state-of-art hierarchical structure and the Penalized Logarithmic Gaussian Distance (PLGD) metric. In the integration part, a simple extended Kalman filter (EKF) is first used for integration of Wi-Fi fingerprinting and PDR results. Then, the tracking results are adopted as initial values for the optimization block, where Wi-Fi fingerprinting and PDR results are adopted to form an concentrated cost function (CCF). The CCF can be minimized with the aim of finding the optimal poses of the user with better tracking results. With both real-scenario experiments and simulations, we show that the proposed method performs better than classical Kalman filter based and particle filter based methods with both less average and maximum positioning error. Additionally, the proposed method is more robust to outliers in both Wi-Fi based and PDR based results, which is commonly seen in practical situations.

4.
J Sep Sci ; 43(2): 406-417, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633862

RESUMO

Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction, consisting of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils., and Citrus aurantium L, is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine formula for the treatment of depression. In order to make good and rational use of this formula in the future, a sensitive, selective, and reliable ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous determination of two iridoid glycosides (geniposide and genipin gentiobioside), two lignans (honokiol and magnolol), four flavonoid glycosides (isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin), the major bioactive constituents of Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction, in rat plasma using paeoniflorin as internal standard. Plasma samples were pretreated by a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was performed on a shim-pack XR-ODS C18 column (75 × 3.0 mm, 2.2 µm) using gradient elution with mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Mass spectrometric detection was conducted on a 3200 QTRAP mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionization source in negative ionization mode. Quantification was performed using multiple reactions monitoring mode. Calibration curves exhibited good linearity (r > 0.9947) over a wide concentration range for all analytes, and the lower limits of quantification were 10, 5, 1, 5, 1, 5, 1, and 5 ng/mL for geniposide, genipin gentiobioside, honokiol, magnolol, isonaringin, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin, respectively. The intraday and interday precisions at three quality control levels were less than 12.3% and the accuracies ranged from -11.2 to 10.7%. Extraction recovery, matrix effect, and stability were satisfactory in rat plasma. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the eight analytes after oral administration of Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction to rats.

5.
Diabetes ; 69(1): 48-59, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649162

RESUMO

Statins are cholesterol-lowering agents that increase the incidence of diabetes and impair glucose tolerance via their detrimental effects on nonhepatic tissues, such as pancreatic islets, but the underlying mechanism has not been determined. In atorvastatin (ator)-treated high-fat diet-fed mice, we found reduced pancreatic ß-cell size and ß-cell mass, fewer mature insulin granules, and reduced insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. Transcriptome profiling of primary pancreatic islets showed that ator inhibited the expression of pancreatic transcription factor, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, and small G protein (sGP) genes. Supplementation of the mevalonate pathway intermediate geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), which is produced by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, significantly restored the attenuated mTOR activity, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA) expression, and ß-cell function after ator, lovastatin, rosuvastatin, and fluvastatin treatment; this effect was potentially mediated by sGP prenylation. Rab5a, the sGP in pancreatic islets most affected by ator treatment, was found to positively regulate mTOR signaling and ß-cell function. Rab5a knockdown mimicked the effect of ator treatment on ß-cells. Thus, ator impairs ß-cell function by regulating sGPs, for example, Rab5a, which subsequently attenuates islet mTOR signaling and reduces functional ß-cell mass. GGPP supplementation could constitute a new approach for preventing statin-induced hyperglycemia.

6.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 25(1): 175-186, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473884

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether patients can avoid systematic prostate biopsy (PBx) if their Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADs v2) score is ≤ 3 and how we clinicians make decisions that can maximize benefit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed our prospectively maintained database of consecutive men who received transrectal ultrasound-guided 24-core biopsy as well as pre-biopsy multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI). Of the 1276 men who were performed PBx in our institution from 2012 to July 2018, 491 patients conformed to the criteria. Negative predictive value (NPV) of negative mp-MRI (defined as PI-RADs < 3) combined prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) were calculated. Models based on PI-RADs v2 were developed to predict the absence of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPCa) and prostate cancer (PCa). Nomograms as well as receiver operating curves (ROC) were established to estimate the discrimination. Calibration curves were used to assess the concordance between predictive value and true risk. Decision curves were made to measure the overall net benefit. RESULTS: Prostate cancer and CSPCa detection rates were 21.6%, 7.3% and 36.7%, 23.4% in PIRADs v2 < 3 cohort and PIRADs v2 = 3 cohort, respectively. Men with biopsy-proved CSPCa had higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA), lower prostate volume (PV) and higher PSAD (all p < 0.05 in the two cohorts) than patients with clinically insignificant prostate cancer (CIPCa) or negative results. NPV of negative mp-MRI for detection of PCa was much higher when the PSAD was less than 0.15 (p < 0.001) and 0.2 for CSPCa (p = 0.007). According to multivariate analysis, we developed the model comprising Age, PSAD and PI-RADs v2 to predict the absence of CSPCa and PCa. The area under the curve (AUC) of the model for non-CSPCa was 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.80, PSAD cutoff 0.20), better than 0.71 (95% CI 0.65-0.80, PSAD cutoff 0.15). As for model for non-PCa, the AUC was 0.76 (95% CI 0.70-0.80, PSAD cutoff 0.15), higher than 0.71(95% CI 0.67-0.78, PSAD cutoff 0.20). Internally validated calibration curves showed that the model might overestimated the risk of the absence of CSPCa when the threshold was between 53 and 72%, and if the threshold was between 72 and 87%, it might underestimate the risk. As for the absence of PCa, the model might overestimate the risk between 52 and 76%. Decision curves showed that a better clinical net benefit was met when the threshold was 55% for non-PCa and 70% for non-CSPCa. CONCLUSIONS: NPV of negative mp-MRI for detection of CSPCa and PCa was improved with decreasing PSAD. The nomograms based on PI-RADs v2, age and PSAD showed internally validated high discrimination and calibration for the absence of PCa and CSPCa. When the predictive value was greater than 70% for the absence of CSPCa and 55% for the absence of PCa, we could avoid unnecessary PBx to maximize net benefit.

7.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 1074-1082, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383107

RESUMO

The microcapsule particles were successfully prepared by means of in-situ copolymerization of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the melamine resin monomers, improving the compatibility of inorganic flame retardant LDH with polymer. The electron beam irradiation was introduced into the process to enhance the mechanical properties and thermostability of the flame retardant composite material. The flame-retardant composites were prepared by incorporating the microcapsule LDH into ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA). The compatibility of microcapsule particles with EVA, combustion and thermal behaviors were detected in sequence through SEM, TG analyses, LOI, UL-94 level and mechanical tests. It was shown that the irradiated EVA/LDH@MF composite had showed the best performances of flame retardancy and mechanical properties due to microencapsulation and irradiation processes. The uniform dispersion of microencapsulated LDH in the EVA matrix was due to the good compatibility of MF shell with EVA keeping the mechanical properties of EVA matrix. The irradiated EVA/LDH@MF with 200 kGy dose achieved a limiting oxygen index (LOI) of 25.5% and a UL-94 V-1 rating. When the dose rate was 100 kGy, the EVA/LDH@MF composite had the best mechanical properties of EVA composites. The microencapsulation of LDH with MF shell incorporated into EVA three-dimensioned network through electron beam irradiation induced crosslinking to enhance mechanical properties.

8.
Bioorg Chem ; 95: 103501, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864905

RESUMO

In high fat diet-induced obese mice, the flavonoid derivative of tiliroside, Fla-CN, has antihyperglycemic effects, can improve insulin sensitivity, ameliorate metabolic lipid disorders, and benefits certain disorders characterized by insulin resistance. Fla-CN is a novel lead compound to discovery anti-diabetic and anti-obesity drugs. The present study reported the optimization of Fla-CN to obtain a new derivative, 10b, which has improved glucose consumption at the nanomolar level (EC50 = 0.3 nM) in insulin resistant (IR) HepG2 cells. 10b also increased the glycogen content and glucose uptake, and concurrently inhibited gluconeogenesis in HepG2 cells. Western blotting showed that 10b markedly enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and AS160 (protein kinase B substrate of 160 kDa) and reduced the levels of the gluconeogenesis key enzymes PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and G6P (glucose 6-phosphatase) in HepG2 cells. The potential molecular mechanism of 10b may be activation of the AMPK/AS160 and AMPK/PEPCK/G6P pathways. We concluded that 10b might be a valuable candidate to discover anti-diabetic drugs.

9.
Front Genet ; 10: 1128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824559

RESUMO

The sex of Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) is determined by both genetic sex determination (GSD) and environmental sex determination (ESD), making it an ideal model to study the relationship between sex-determination and temperature. In the present study, transcriptomes of undifferentiated gonads from genetic females and males, as well as differentiated gonads from males, females, and pseudomales under high and normal temperature treatments were generated for comparative transcriptomic analysis. A mean of 68.24 M high-quality clean reads was obtained for each library. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between different sexes and environmental treatments were identified, revealing that the heat shock protein gene family was involved in the high temperature induced sex reversal. The Gene Ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways that were enriched in pseudomale and genetic female comparison included neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, cortisol synthesis and secretion, and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Furthermore, weighted gene co-expression network analyses were conducted on all samples, and two modules were positive correlated with pseudomale under high temperature. An illustrated protein-protein interaction map of the module identified a hub gene, hsc70. These findings provide insights into the genetic network that is involved in sex determination and sexual differentiation, and improve our understanding of genes involved in sex reversal under high temperature.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18321, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31797961

RESUMO

The novel methods for efficient plant regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis (SE) and SE-mediated transformation system under high concentration of NAA in Ranunculus sceleratus were established. On MS media containing a high concentration of NAA (10.0 mg/L) in the dark, all inoculated explants (root, stem and leaf) formed somatic embryos at high frequencies, respectively, 66.03, 126.47 and 213.63 embryoids per explant, and 100% of the embryoids developed into plantlets on 1/2 MS rooting media. Morphological and histological analyses revealed that SE in R. sceleratus followed a classical pattern. All inoculated explants can be used as receptors for genetic transformation in R. sceleratus, through direct SE-mediated method after Agrobacterium infection. RcLEC1-B, as a marker gene, changed the number and morphology of flower organs and the development of cuticle in R. sceleratus, which indicated that the efficient transgenic system of R. sceleratus was established. To our knowledge, this is the first observation that both direct SE and transgenic transformation system, via induction of a single plant growth regulator, have been successfully constructed in R. sceleratus.

11.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 490, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has been shown to play a key role in tumor metastasis. Recent studies demonstrate that NDRG1 can suppress tumor growth and is related to tumor proliferation; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain obscure. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect NDRG1 and p21 protein expression in colorectal cancer tissue, and clinical significance of NDRG1 was also analyzed. CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, and xenograft model were used to assess the effect of NDRG1 on tumor proliferation in vivo and in vitro. The mechanisms underlying the effect of NDRG1 were investigated using western blotting, immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, and ubiquitylation assay. RESULTS: NDRG1 was down-regulated in CRC tissues and correlated with tumor size and patient survival. NDRG1 inhibited tumor proliferation through increasing p21 expression via suppressing p21 ubiquitylation. NDRG1 and p21 had a positive correlation both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, E3 ligase NEDD4 could directly interact with and target p21 for degradation. Moreover, NDRG1 could emulatively antagonize NEDD4-mediated ubiquitylation of p21, increasing p21 expression and inhibit tumor proliferation. CONCLUSION: Our study could fulfill potential mechanisms of the NDRG1 during tumorigenesis and metastasis, which may serve as a tumor suppressor and potential target for new therapies in human colorectal cancer.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847704

RESUMO

Lead (Pb) pollution is getting more and more serious in phosphate mining wastelands recently. However, seldom studies focused on the bioremediation of Pb pollution in phosphate mining wastelands by phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB). In this study, a PSB named LA with high Pb tolerance was isolated from a phosphate mining wasteland. Based on its cell morphology, physiology, and phylogenetic analysis, it was identified as Pseudomonas sp. Its capabilities to solubilize mid-low-grade phosphate rock (PR) and immobilize Pb were assessed in this study. It was found that LA could effectively solubilize PR on PKO culture medium and release soluble phosphate in the culture medium. PR solubilization and Pb immobilization were investigated at different initial Pb concentrations and pH levels. The results showed that soluble phosphate was highly effective in immobilizing Pb and that when the initial concentration of Pb2+ was 100 mg/L, the immobilization rate of Pb was enhanced. Further, the mechanisms underlying solubilization of PR and biomineralization of Pb ions in LA were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that some functional groups on the PR surface and LA were altered, and LA could form hydroxyapatite and pyrophosphate with Pb ions.

13.
Phys Rev E ; 100(4-1): 043202, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770946

RESUMO

We investigate the precession of electron spins during beam-driven plasma-wakefield acceleration based on density down-ramp injection by means of full three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A relativistic electron beam generated via, e.g., laser wakefield acceleration, serves as the driving source. It traverses the prepolarized gas target and accelerates polarized electrons via the excited wakefield. We derive the criteria for the driving beam parameters and the limitation on the injected beam flux to preserve a high degree of polarization for the accelerated electrons, which are confirmed by our 3D PIC simulations and single-particle modeling. The electron-beam driver is free of the prepulse issue associated with a laser driver, thus eliminating possible depolarization of the prepolarized gas due to ionization by the prepulse. These results provide guidance for future experiments towards generating a source of polarized electrons based on wakefield acceleration.

14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 6(22): 1901240, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763143

RESUMO

Tissue engineering produces constructs with defined functions for the targeted treatment of damaged tissue. A complete spinal cord injury (SCI) model is generated in canines to test whether in vitro constructed neural network (NN) tissues can relay the excitatory signal across the lesion gap to the caudal spinal cord. Established protocols are used to construct neural stem cell (NSC)-derived NN tissue characterized by a predominantly neuronal population with robust trans-synaptic activities and myelination. The NN tissue is implanted into the gap immediately following complete transection SCI of canines at the T10 spinal cord segment. The data show significant motor recovery of paralyzed pelvic limbs, as evaluated by Olby scoring and cortical motor evoked potential (CMEP) detection. The NN tissue survives in the lesion area with neuronal phenotype maintenance, improves descending and ascending nerve fiber regeneration, and synaptic integration with host neural circuits that allow it to serve as a neuronal relay to transmit excitatory electrical signal across the injured area to the caudal spinal cord. These results suggest that tissue-engineered NN grafts can relay the excitatory signal in the completely transected canine spinal cord, providing a promising strategy for SCI treatment in large animals, including humans.

15.
Front Genet ; 10: 1012, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681435

RESUMO

The whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data can potentially discover all genetic variants. Studies have shown the power of WGS for genome-wide association study (GWAS) lies in the ability to identify quantitative trait loci and nucleotides (QTNs). However, the resequencing of thousands of target individuals is expensive. Genotype imputation is a powerful approach for WGS and to identify causal mutations. This study aimed to evaluate the imputation accuracy from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to WGS in two pig breeds using a resequencing reference population and to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and candidate genes for farrowing interval (FI) of different parities using the data before and after imputation for GWAS. Six hundred target pigs, 300 Landrace and 300 Large White pigs, were genotyped by GBS, and 60 reference pigs, 20 Landrace and 40 Large White pigs, were sequenced by whole-genome resequencing. Imputation for pigs was conducted using Beagle software. The average imputation accuracy (allelic R 2) from GBS to WGS was 0.42 for Landrace pigs and 0.45 for Large White pigs. For Landrace pigs (Large White pigs), 4,514,934 (5,533,290) SNPs had an accuracy >0.3, resulting an average accuracy of 0.73 (0.72), and 2,093,778 (2,468,645) SNPs had an accuracy >0.8, resulting an average accuracy of 0.94 (0.93). Association studies with data before and after imputation were performed for FI of different parities in two populations. Before imputation, 18 and 128 significant SNPs were detected for FI in Landrace and Large White pigs, respectively. After imputation, 125 and 27 significant SNPs were identified for dataset with an accuracy >0.3 and 0.8 in Large White pigs, and 113 and 18 SNPs were found among imputed sequence variants. Among these significant SNPs, six top SNPs were detected in both GBS data and imputed WGS data, namely, SSC2: 136127645, SSC5: 103426443, SSC6: 27811226, SSC10: 3609429, SSC14: 15199253, and SSC15: 150297519. Overall, many candidate genes could be involved in FI of different parities in pigs. Although imputation from GBS to WGS data resulted in a low imputation accuracy, association analyses with imputed WGS data were optimized to detect QTNs for complex trait. The obtained results provide new insight into genotype imputation, genetic architecture, and candidate genes for FI of different parities in Landrace and Large White pigs.

16.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31741161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a key landmark during laparoscopic right colectomy, the classification and variation of the gastrocolic trunk of Henle (GTH) remains to be clarified. The aim of this nationwide multicenter study was to describe the characteristics of the GTH intra-operatively during laparoscopic right colectomies. METHODS: Three hundred seventy-one patients who underwent laparoscopic right colectomies from January 2018 to March 2019 in 25 hospitals across China were enrolled in the study. The length of the GTH, the classification with a precise description of confluent tributaries, and other variations were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 371 patients, 363 had a GTH. The proportion of type-0, type-I, type-II, and type-III was 15.2% (n = 55), 54.8% (n = 199), 25.3% (n = 92), and 4.7% (n = 17), respectively. The average length of the GTH was 8.5 mm, ranging from 2 to 30 mm. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first multicenter study with a large sample by which the GTH was classified based on laparoscopic intraoperative observation. Variations in the GTH were classified into four types based on the number of colic drainage veins (right colic, superior right colic, middle colic, accessory middle colic, and ileocolic veins), among which the right colic vein was the most common. The length of the GTH was relatively short, and thus might carry a risk of bleeding. Further clinical data should be correlated with the characteristics of the GTH.

17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(21-22): 8863-8874, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659421

RESUMO

Although the potential of heterotrophic microalgae served as a sustainable source for lutein, it was still crucial to formulate a suitable medium to offset the cost involved in algal biomass cultivation while improve inherent lutein productivity. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibilities of waste Monascus fermentation broth medium (MFBM) toward heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides-enriched lutein. The results indicated that C. protothecoides subjected to MFBM batch feeding achieved 7.1 g/L biomass and 7.27 mg/g lutein. The resulting lutein productivity (7.34 mg/L/day) represented 1.54-fold more than that of frequently used Basal medium. Concurrently, the effective metabolism and absorption of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus in MFBM by C. subellipsoidea cultivation make it easily complied with the permissible dischargeable limits for fermentation broth. When response to fed-batch culture mode, the biomass and lutein productivity peaked 20.4 g/L and 9.11 mg/L/day with concentrated MFBM feeding. Transcriptomics data hinted that MFBM feeding manipulated lutein biosynthesis key checkpoints (e.g., lycopene ß-cyclase and lycopene ε-cyclase) while accelerated energy pathways (e.g., glycolysis and TCA cycle) to contribute such high lutein productivity in C. protothecoides. These encouraging findings not only provided indications in applying nutrient-rich fermentation broth for affordable microalgae cultivation but also presented possibilities in linking algal high value-added products like lutein with high-efficient biological nutrition removal from industrial fermentation processing.

18.
Clin Exp Med ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664538

RESUMO

Value of hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (cAg) test has been controversy in patients with low HCV loads for its lower sensitivity. We assessed correlation between HCV-cAg and HCV RNA in serum samples with low viral loads and analyzed the performance of HCV-cAg assay in determining diagnosis and treatment outcomes in chronic hepatitis C patients. Both HCV RNA and HCV-cAg were detected for 2298 serum samples. Correlation analysis was performed between the two tests. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to assess value of HCV-cAg test in determining diagnosis and response outcomes at the different HCV RNA thresholds. The two tests were correlated very well, and moreover, correlation in the low viral load group was higher than that in the high viral load group (r value: 0.901 and 0.517). Positive agreement of HCV-cAg ≥ 3 fmol/L was as high as 97.0% for HCV RNA ≥ 1000 IU/mL, and its negative agreement for HCV RNA < 15 IU/mL was up to 98.9% in all samples. Area under ROCs ranged from 0.939 to 0.992, regardless of HCV RNA thresholds. When lower limit of detection of HCV RNA was 15, 100 or 1000 IU/mL, positive predictive value of HCV-cAg was 96.8%, 98.8% or 92.4%, and its negative predictive value was 87.0%, 89.9% or 98.3%, respectively, on the basis of different cutoff values. High-sensitivity HCV-cAg detection may likely replace HCV RNA to confirm the existence of HCV and to guide the treatment of chronic HCV infection.

19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 728-732, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the situations of dietary microelements intakes among elderly people in different areas of Zhejiang Province, and analyze the food sources of microelements. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2010-2012 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in Zhejiang Province. 832 elderly people( 434 male, 398 female, age was( 68. 02±6. 68) years) were from large cities, small-medium cities and rural counties. The 24-hour dietary recall method for 3 consecutive days was used to collect food intake information to analyze dietary intakes among elderly people of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Se and their sources in different areas. RESULTS: The elderly people'intakes of Mn was 4. 86( 3. 44, 6. 45) mg/d, Cu was 1. 69( 1. 13, 2. 27) mg/d, and Se was36. 85( 21. 32, 54. 21) µg/d, those were generally low. The intake of Zn was 10. 15( 7. 94, 12. 62) mg/d in males, was low as well. Intakes of Mn, Cu, Se were significantly different in different areas, small-medium cities had highest intakes of Mn( 5. 87 mg/d)and Cu( 1. 88 mg/d), large cities had a highest intake of Se( 45. 47 µg/d). The food sources of microelements were slightly variant. Rural counties had less fungi and algae sources of Fe and Mn than large cities and small-medium cities. The Cu from vegetables were higher than dried legumes and the Se from poultry and poultry products were higher than eggs in rural counties. The Zn from fish, shellfish and mollusk were higher than dried legumes in large cities. CONCLUSION: The insufficient status of microelements intakes among elderly people in Zhejiang Province was serious, and there were differences among elderly people from different areas in intakes and food sources of microelements.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/análise , Idoso , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Verduras
20.
Stem Cells Dev ; 28(20): 1365-1375, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580778

RESUMO

Glaucoma is characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. However, current treatments such as eye drop or surgery have limitations and do not target the loss of RGC. Regenerative therapy using embryonic stem cells (ESCs) holds a promising option, but ethical concern hinders clinical applications on human subjects. In this study, we employed spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) as an alternative source of ESCs for cell-based regenerative therapy in mouse glaucoma model. We generated functional RGCs from SSCs with a two-step protocol without applying viral transfection or chemical induction. SSCs were first dedifferentiated to embryonic stem-like cells (SSC-ESCs) that resemble ESCs in morphology, gene expression signatures, and stem cell properties. The SSC-ESCs then differentiated toward retinal lineages. We showed SSC-ESC-derived retinal cells expressed RGC-specific marker Brn3b and functioned as bona fide RGCs. To allow in vivo RGC tracing, Brn3b-EGFP reporter SSC-ESCs were generated and the derived RGCs were subsequently transplanted into the retina of glaucoma mouse models by intravitreal injection. We demonstrated that the transplanted RGCs could survive in host retina for at least 10 days after transplantation. SSC-ESC-derived RGCs can thus potentially be a novel alternative to replace the damaged RGCs in glaucomatous retina.

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