Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 398
Filtrar
2.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 598, 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a myeloid neoplasm accounts for 7.6% of hematopoietic malignancies. AML is a complex disease, and understanding its pathophysiology is contributing to the improvement in the treatment and prognosis of AML. In this study, we assessed the expression profile and molecular functions of CCAAT enhancer binding protein gamma (CEBPG), a gene implicated in myeloid differentiation and AML progression. METHODS: shRNA mediated gene interference was used to down-regulate the expression of CEBPG in AML cell lines, and knockdown efficiency was detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting. The effect of knockdown on the growth of AML cell lines was evaluated by CCK-8. Western blotting was used to detect PARP cleavage, and flow cytometry were used to determine the effect of knockdown on apoptosis of AML cells. Genes and pathways affected by knockdown of CEBPG were identified by gene expression analysis using RNA-seq. One of the genes affected by knockdown of CEBPG was Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4EBP1), a known repressor of translation. Knockdown of EIF4EBP1 was used to assess its potential role in AML progression downstream of CEBPG. RESULTS: We explored the ChIP-Seq data of AML cell lines and non-AML hematopoietic cells, and found CEBPG was activated through its distal enhancer in AML cell lines. Using the public transcriptomic dataset, the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE) and western blotting, we also found CEBPG was overexpressed in AML. Moreover, we observed that CEBPG promotes AML cell proliferation by activating EIF4EBP1, thus contributing to the progression of AML. These findings indicate that CEBPG could act as a potential therapeutic target for AML patients. CONCLUSION: In summary, we systematically explored the molecular characteristics of CEBPG in AML and identified CEBPG as a potential therapeutic target for AML patients. Our findings provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of AML and indicate a key role for CEBPG in promoting AML progression.

3.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 128: 104314, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785271

RESUMO

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) can act extracellularly as a mediator of inflammation or intracellularly as a rate-limiting enzyme, regulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis in the NAD salvage pathway. Nampt exerts important immunological functions during infection in mammals. However, the in vivo function of fish Nampt in immune regulation and inflammation is essentially unknown. With an aim to elucidate the antimicrobial mechanism of Nampt in fish, we in this study examined the function of Nampt from hybrid crucian carp. Hybrid crucian carp Nampt (WR-Nampt) possesses the conserved nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase domain and shows high similarity to that of mammalian Nampt. WR-Nampt is expressed in multiple tissues and is upregulated by bacterial infection. Overexpression of WR-Nampt significantly increased the number of goblet cells of distal intestine. In addition, WR-Nampt induced significant inductions in the expression of the antimicrobial molecules (IL-22, Hepcidin-1, LEAP-2 and MUC2) and tight junctions (ZO-1 and Occludin). Consistent with this, fish administered with WR-Nampt significantly alleviated the intestinal permeability and apoptosis, thereby enhancing host's resistance against bacterial infection. Together these results revealed the potential effect of WR-Nampt in intestinal barrier and immune defense against bacterial infection.

4.
Front Psychol ; 12: 769795, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803854

RESUMO

The fiscal imbalance between the central and local governments under fiscal centralization may motivate local governments to pass tax burdens on firms. The causal identification of the tax system reform and the sustainable export innovation behavior of firms are of great significance. This study uses the income tax sharing policy of China to examine the impact of fiscal centralization on the sustainable export innovation behavior of firms. We find that this tax reform has significantly inhibited the increase of the export value-added rate of firms, and has an increasing trend with the share ratio between the Central Government and the local government. Moreover, this effect mainly comes from the crowding-out effect of imported intermediate goods on domestic intermediate goods. The tests show that the above conclusions are consistent with the general logic of local governments. When they face greater downward fiscal pressure, they will further pass the tax burden on local firms and force the firms to promote their export performance to expand the tax base. This short-sighted behavior of replacing "quality improvement" with "quantity increase" is an important factor that affects the sustainable export innovation behavior of firms and the climb in the global value chain.

5.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 114839, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774846

RESUMO

Autophagy is being increasingly recognized as an important regulator of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion(I/R)injury, but its exact role is still debated. Emerging evidence suggests that miR-146a-5p is involved in the initiation and development of I/R injury, but its role in intestinal I/R injury remains unclear. The present study generated an intestinal I/R mouse model and an oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) Caco-2 cell model and found that autophagy was increased and contributed to the intestinal injury and cell death induced by I/R and OGD/R. In addition, in both I/R and OGD/R models, the miR-146a-5p expression level was decreased and accompanied by an increase in TXNIP expression. By transfecting cells with an miR-146a-5p inhibitor or mimic, we observed that miR-146a-5p inhibits autophagy during OGD/R by targeting TXNIP; this was confirmed by the dual luciferase reporter gene assay. Additionally, through overexpression and knockdown cell lines, we established that TXNIP regulates autophagy during intestinal I/R via the PRKAA/mTOR pathway. The interaction between TXNIP and p-PRKAA was verified by immunofluorescence co-localization and immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, we confirmed that TXNIP is indispensable for miR-146a-5p-mediated cell protection. Finally, we observed that miR-146a-5p overexpression inhibits autophagy and attenuates intestinal I/R injury via the PRKAA/mTOR pathway by targeting TXNIP in vivo. In conclusion, this study highlights the role of miR-146a-5p in regulating autophagy by targeting TXNIP, suggesting that miR-146a-5p may be a novel drug target for intestinal I/R therapy.

6.
PeerJ ; 9: e12348, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760371

RESUMO

The WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) gene family is a class of plant-specific transcriptional factors and plays a crucial role in forming the shoot apical meristem and embryonic development, stem cell maintenance, and various other developmental processes. However, systematic identification and characterization of the kiwifruit WOX gene family have not been studied. This study identified 17 and 10 WOX genes in A. chinensis (Ac) and A. eriantha (Ae) genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis classified kiwifruit WOX genes from two species into three clades. Analysis of phylogenetics, synteny patterns, and selection pressure inferred that WOX gene families in Ac and Ae had undergone different evolutionary patterns after whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, causing differences in WOX gene number and distribution. Ten conserved motifs were identified in the kiwifruit WOX genes, and motif architectures of WOXs belonging to different clades highly diverged. The cis-element analysis and expression profiles investigation indicated the functional differentiation of WOX genes and identified the potential WOXs in response to stresses. Our results provided insight into general characters, evolutionary patterns, and functional diversity of kiwifruit WOXs.

7.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766661

RESUMO

Patients with COVID-19 may be recurrence positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA after being cured and discharged from the hospital. The aim of this study was to explore independent influencing factors as markers for predicting positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence. The study included 601 COVID-19 patients who were cured and discharged from the Public and Health Clinic Centre of Chengdu from January 2020 to March 2021, and the recurrence positive of patients within 6 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 RNA turned negative was followed up. We used propensity score matching to eliminate the influence of confounding factors, and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent influencing factors for positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence. Multivariate Logistic regression showed that the elevated serum potassium (odds ratio [OR] = 6.537, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.864-22.931, p = 0.003), elevated blood chlorine (OR = 1.169, 95% CI: 1.032-1.324, p = 0.014) and elevated CD3+ CD4+ count (OR = 1.003, 95% CI: 1.001-1.004, p < 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for positive SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence (p < 0.05). The difference in virus shedding duration (OR = 1.049, 95% CI: 1.000-1.100, p = 0.05) was borderline statistically significant. For sensitivity analysis, we included virus shedding duration as a categorical variable in the model again and found that the OR value related to recurrence positively increased with delayed virus shedding duration, and the trend test showed a statistical difference (P trend = 0.03). Meanwhile, shortening of activated partial prothrombinase time (OR = 0.908, 95% CI: 0.824-1.000, p = 0.049) was identified as an independent protection factor for SARS-CoV-2 RNA recurrence positive. We have identified independent factors that affect the recurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive. It is recommended that doctors pay attention to these indicators when first admitted to the hospital.

8.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) or microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) status serves as a predictor of a poor response to adjuvant chemotherapy among stage 2 colon cancer patients. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy in dMMR/MSI-H gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: Clinical studies comparing adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery alone in dMMR/MSI-H GCs through June 2021 were retrieved to assess the survival of patients managed with both treatments. Two approaches were used to pool the hazard ratio (HR) of survival: (1) if Kaplan-Meier curves and number of patients at risk were provided, individual patient data were extracted. Cox models were used to calculate the HR with its 95% confidence interval (CI); (2) for study-level data, pooled HR was estimated using fixed/random-effects models. RESULTS: Seven clinical studies were assessed. For dMMR/MSI-H versus mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR)/microsatellite stable (MSS)/microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L) status, the estimated 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 74.2% versus 51.5% (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.62; P < 0.001) and the estimated 5-year OS rate was 60.5% versus 49.1% (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.60-0.85; P < 0.001). The study-level data showed pooled HRs of 0.42 for DFS (95% CI, 0.31-0.57; P < 0.001) and 0.65 for OS (95% CI, 0.38-1.11; P = 0.114). For adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation of dMMR/MSI-H, the estimated 5-year DFS rate was 76.1% versus 73.3% (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.45-1.15; P = 0.171) and the estimated 5-year OS rate was 73.5% versus 59.7% (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.46-0.83; P = 0.001). Significant survival differences also were observed at study level. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings confirm the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy for dMMR/MSI-H GC patients.

9.
Oncol Lett ; 22(6): 838, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712362

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common pediatric malignancy associated with poor outcomes. Recent studies have shown that murine double minute2 homolog (MDM2) protein inhibitors are promising anticancer agents. MI-773 is a novel and specific antagonist of MDM2, however, the molecular mechanism of its anti-NB activity remains unclear. NB cell viability was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay following MI-773 treatment. Cell cycle progression was analyzed using PI staining and apoptosis was assessed using Annexin V/PI staining. The molecular mechanisms by which MI-773 exerted its effects were investigated using a microarray. The results showed that disturbance of the MDM2/p53 axis by MI-773 resulted in potent suppression of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in NB cells. In addition, microarray analysis showed that MI-773 led to significant downregulation of genes involved in the G2/M phase checkpoint and upregulation of hallmark gene associated with the p53 pathway. Meanwhile, knockdown of insulinoma-associated 1 decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of NB cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that MI-773 exhibited high selectivity and blockade affinity for the interaction between MDM2 and TP53 and may serve as a novel strategy for the treatment of NB.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt B): 108176, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655851

RESUMO

15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH; encoded by HPGD) is ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues and catalyzes the degradation of prostaglandins (PGs; mainly PGE2, PGD2, and PGF2α) in a process mediated by solute carrier organic anion transport protein family member 2A1 (SLCO2A1; also known as PGT, OATP2A1, PHOAR2, or SLC21A2). As a key enzyme, 15-PGDH catalyzes the rapid oxidation of 15-hydroxy-PGs into 15-keto-PGs with lower biological activity. Increasing evidence suggests that 15-PGDH plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes in mammals and is considered a potential pharmacological target for preventing organ damage, promoting bone marrow graft recovery, and enhancing tissue regeneration. Additionally, results of whole-exome analyses suggest that recessive inheritance of an HPGD mutation is associated with idiopathic hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Interestingly, as a tumor suppressor, 15-PGDH inhibits proliferation and induces the differentiation of cancer cells (including those associated with colorectal, lung, and breast cancers). Furthermore, a recent study identified 15-PGDH as a marker of aging tissue and a potential novel therapeutic target for resisting the complex pathology of aging-associated diseases. Here, we review and summarise recent information on the molecular functions of 15-PGDH and discuss its pathophysiological implications.

11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 727047, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568265

RESUMO

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 dramatically influences the world economic landscape. In this paper, we have quantitatively investigated the time-frequency co-movement impact of COVID-19 on U.S. and China stock market since early 2020 in terms of daily observation from National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations Index (NDX), Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), Standard & Poor's 500 Index (SPX), Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSEC), Shenzhen Securities Component Index (SZI), in favor of spatiotemporal interactions over investor sentiment index, and propose to explore the divisibility and the predictability to the volatility of stock market during the development of COVID-19. We integrate evidence yielded from wavelet coherence and phase difference to suggest the responses of stock market indexes to the COVID-19 epidemic in a long-term band, which could be roughly divided into three distinguished phases, namely, 30-75, 110-150, and 220-280 business days for China, and 80-125 and 160-175 after 290 business days for the U.S. At the first phase, the reason for the extreme volatility of stock market mainly attributed to the sudden emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic due to the pessimistic expectations from investors; China and U.S. stock market shared strongly negative correlation with the growing number of COVID-19 cases. At the second phase, the revitalization of stock market shared strong simultaneous moves but exhibited opposite responses to the COVID-19 impact on China and U.S. stock market; the former retained a significant negative correlation, while the latter turned to positively correlated throughout the period. At the third phase, the progress in vaccine development and economic stimulus began to impose forces to stock market; the vulnerability to COVID-19 diminished to some extent as the investor sentiment indexes rebounded. Finally, we attempted to initially establish a coarse-grained representation to stock market indexes and investor sentiment indexes, which demonstrated the homogenous spacial distribution in the vectorgraph after normalization and quantization, implying the strong consistency when filtering the frequent small fluctuations during the evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic, which might help insights into the prediction of possible status transition in stock market performance under the public health issues, potentially performing as the quantitative references in reasonably deducing the economic influences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China , Humanos , Investimentos em Saúde , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Plant Physiol ; 266: 153529, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583134

RESUMO

Potassium is a major cationic nutrient involved in numerous physiological processes in plants. The uptake of K+ is mediated by K+ channels and transporters, and the Shaker K+ channel gene family plays an essential role in K+ uptake and stress resistance in plants. However, little is known regarding this family in soybean. In this study, 14 members of the Shaker K+ channel gene family were identified in soybean and were classified into five groups. Protein domain analysis revealed that Shaker K+ channel gene members have an ion transport domain (ion trans), a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain, ankyrin repeat domains, and a dimerization domain in the potassium ion channel. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the expression of eight genes (notably GmAKT1) in soybean leaves and roots was significantly increased in response to salt and drought stress. Furthermore, the overexpression of GmAKT1 in Arabidopsis enhanced root length, K+ concentration, and fresh/dry weight ratio compared with wild-type plants subjected to salt and drought stress; this suggests that GmAKT1 improves the tolerance of soybean to abiotic stress. Our results provide important insight into the characterization of Shaker K+ channel gene family members in soybean and highlight the function of GmAKT1 in soybean plants under salt and drought stress.

13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575941

RESUMO

Drought is the main environmental factor that limits the yield and quality of apples (Malus × domestica) grown in arid and semi-arid regions. Nuclear factor Ys (NF-Ys) are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of plant growth, development, and various stress responses. However, the function of NF-Y genes is poorly understood in apples. Here, we identified 43 NF-Y genes in the genome of apples and conducted an initial functional characterization of the apple NF-Y. Expression analysis of NF-Y members in M. sieversii revealed that a large number of NF-Ys were highly expressed in the roots compared with the leaves, and a large proportion of NF-Y genes responded to drought treatment. Furthermore, heterologous expression of MsNF-YB21, which was significantly upregulated by drought, led to a longer root length and, thus, conferred improved osmotic and salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Moreover, the physiological analysis of MsNF-YB21 overexpression revealed enhanced antioxidant systems, including antioxidant enzymes and compatible solutes. In addition, genes encoding catalase (AtCAT2, AtCAT3), superoxide dismutase (AtFSD1, AtFSD3, AtCSD1), and peroxidase (AtPER12, AtPER42, AtPER47, AtPER51) showed upregulated expression in the MsNF-YB21 overexpression lines. These results for the MsNF-Y gene family provide useful information for future studies on NF-Ys in apples, and the functional analysis of MsNF-YB21 supports it as a potential target in the improvement of apple drought tolerance via biotechnological strategies.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Malus/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Pressão Osmótica , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 410, 2021 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While great attention has been paid to motor and cognitive impairments in children with neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE), sleep related circadian rhythm problems, although commonly present, are often neglected. Subsequently, no early clinical indicators have been reported to correlate with sleep-related circadian dysfunction during development. METHODS: In this study, we first analyzed patterns of the amplitude integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) in a cohort of newborns with various degrees of HIE. Next, during follow-ups, we collected information of sleep and circadian related problems in these patients and performed correlation analysis between aEEG parameters and different sleep/circadian disorders. RESULTS: A total of 101 neonates were included. Our results demonstrated that abnormal aEEG background pattern is significantly correlated with circadian rhythmic (r = 0.289, P = 0.01) and breathing issues during sleep (r = 0.237, P = 0.037). In contrast, the establishment of sleep-wake cycle (SWC) showed no correlation with sleep/circadian problems. Detailed analysis showed that summation of aEEG score, along with low base voltage (r = 0.272, P = 0.017 and r = -0.228, P = 0.048, respectively), correlates with sleep circadian problems. In contrast, background pattern (BP) score highly correlates with sleep breathing problem (r = 0.319, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Abnormal neonatal aEEG pattern is correlated with circadian related sleep problems. Our study thus provides novel insights into predictive values of aEEG in sleep-related circadian problems in children with HIE.


Assuntos
Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Recém-Nascido , Isquemia , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia
15.
Preprint em Inglês | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21263348

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic sparked rapid development of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics. However, emerging variants pose the risk for target dropout and false-negative results secondary to primer/probe binding site (PBS) mismatches. The Agena MassARRAY(R) SARS-CoV-2 Panel combines RT-PCR and MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry to probe for five targets across N and ORF1ab genes, which provides a robust platform to accommodate PBS mismatches in divergent viruses. Herein, we utilize a deidentified dataset of 1,262 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens from Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) from December 2020 through April 2021 to evaluate target results and corresponding sequencing data. Overall, the level of PBS mismatches was greater in specimens with target dropout. Of specimens with N3 target dropout, 57% harbored an A28095T substitution that is highly-specific for the alpha (B.1.1.7) variant of concern. These data highlight the benefit of redundancy in target design and the potential for target performance to illuminate the dynamics of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.

17.
Toxicon ; 201: 21-26, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391786

RESUMO

Aristolactam I (AL-I) is the main active ingredient in the Aristolochia plant species, which have been associated with severe nephrotoxicity. In order to investigate the mechanism of AL-I induced renal epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we established an AL-I induced EMT model in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). Biochemical analysis experiment including Morphological examination, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and Western blot analysis were performed. The results showed that AL-I accumulates in the cytosol causing cytotoxicity and inhibition of proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Morphological examination showed that with the increasing concentration of AL-I, the tendency of HK-2 cells transform form epithelial cell to fibroblast cells was stronger. In the Western blot analysis, the expression of α-Smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Transforming Growth Factor ß1 (TGF-ß1) were significantly up-regulated, the expression of E-cadherin was significantly down-regulated after administrating. The ratio of the expression of P-Smad2/3 and Smad2/3 was significantly up-regulated, suggested that TGF-ß/Smad-dependent signaling pathway was activated in this process. With presence of TGF-ß receptor inhibitor (LY364947), we found that the expressions of three EMT related proteins (E-cadherin, α-SMA and TGF-ß1) were obviously reversed. In conclusion, we acknowledge that AL-I can induce renal EMT process in HK-2 cell, which is triggered by the activation of TGF-ß/Smad-dependent signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ácidos Aristolóquicos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Ácidos Aristolóquicos/toxicidade , Células Epiteliais , Humanos , Rim , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1
18.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34442563

RESUMO

Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in micromanipulation and miniature robots due to their rapid response and high repeatability. The piezoelectric actuators often have undesired hysteresis. The Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis model is one of the most popular models for modeling and compensating the hysteresis behaviour. This paper presents an alternative digitized representation of the modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii with the dead-zone operators (MPI) hysteresis model to describe the asymmetric hysteresis behavior of piezoelectric actuators. Using a binary number with n digits to represent the classical Prandtl-Ishlinskii hysteresis model with n elementary operators, the inverse model can be easily constructed. A similar representation of the dead-zone operators is also described. With the proposed digitized representation, the model is more intuitive and the inversion calculation is avoided. An experiment with a piezoelectric stacked linear actuator is conducted to validate the proposed digitized MPI hysteresis model and it is shown that it has almost the same performance as compared to the classical representation.

19.
Transl Neurodegener ; 10(1): 27, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372927

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that currently cannot be cured by any drug or intervention, due to its complicated pathogenesis. Current animal and cellular models of AD are unable to meet research needs for AD. However, recent three-dimensional (3D) cerebral organoid models derived from human stem cells have provided a new tool to study molecular mechanisms and pharmaceutical developments of AD. In this review, we discuss the advantages and key limitations of the AD cerebral organoid system in comparison to the commonly used AD models, and propose possible solutions, in order to improve their application in AD research. Ethical concerns associated with human cerebral organoids are also discussed. We also summarize future directions of studies that will improve the cerebral organoid system to better model the pathological events observed in AD brains.

20.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 149032, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280627

RESUMO

In the process of rapid urbanization, the decline in ecosystems' physical supply value is a direct result of the increasing demands of human development. The ecosystem services value combined with supply and demand factors can be used to obtain the ecosystem services scarcity value (ESSV). These ecosystems with larger ESSVs warrant increased protection, or at the very least a development plan to ensure a balance between their continued existence and human usage. However, urbanization and other developmental effects have often caused the ESSV of those regions to be disregarded, which produces an imbalance in the ecosystem. This paper evaluated the spatial differentiation of ESSV based on heterogeneous units in the Yuebei region, China. Then, a spatial response analysis of the ESSV to urbanization according to the spatial correlation model and Getis-Ord Gi* was conducted. The results showed that the ecosystem service physical supply value declined due to urban sprawl in 1990-2015, but the ESSV increased sharply during the same time with its acceleration being particularly strong after 2000. Areas with higher ESSV were concentrated in the northern region due to a higher prevalence of woodland. Urbanization accelerated significantly after 2000, and it is found that similar tendencies of ESSV and urbanization occurred over the same period. Surprisingly, the ESSV was negatively correlated with urbanization in local regions, and their interaction continued to increase over time. The spatial hotspot map of the ESSV and urbanization also formed an opposite pattern. In addition, the grid number of High-Low and Low-High types is more than half of the total number of aggregated grids. According to the results, understanding the variation in the ESSV clearly due to urbanization and identifying their interaction in local regions can provide a more specific direction for future resource adjustment and ecosystem service improvements.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Urbanização , China , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Humanos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...