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1.
Neuron ; 104(3): 488-500.e11, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648899

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with noise hypersensitivity, the suboptimal extraction of meaningful signals in noisy environments. Because sensory filtering can involve distinct automatic and executive circuit mechanisms, however, developing circuit-specific therapeutic strategies for ASD noise hypersensitivity can be challenging. Here, we find that both of these processes are individually perturbed in one monogenic form of ASD, Ptchd1 deletion. Although Ptchd1 is preferentially expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus during development, pharmacological rescue of thalamic perturbations in knockout (KO) mice only normalized automatic sensory filtering. By discovering a separate prefrontal perturbation in these animals and adopting a combinatorial pharmacological approach that also rescued its associated goal-directed noise filtering deficit, we achieved full normalization of noise hypersensitivity in this model. Overall, our work highlights the importance of identifying large-scale functional circuit architectures and utilizing them as access points for behavioral disease correction.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12719, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481684

RESUMO

Genetically modified nonhuman primates (NHP) are useful models for biomedical research. Gene editing technologies have enabled production of target-gene knock-out (KO) NHP models. Target-gene-KO/knock-in (KI) efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 has not been extensively investigated in marmosets. In this study, optimum conditions for target gene modification efficacies of CRISPR/mRNA and CRISPR/nuclease in marmoset embryos were examined. CRISPR/nuclease was more effective than CRISPR/mRNA in avoiding mosaic genetic alteration. Furthermore, optimal conditions to generate KI marmoset embryos were investigated using CRISPR/Cas9 and 2 different lengths (36 nt and 100 nt) each of a sense or anti-sense single-strand oligonucleotide (ssODN). KIs were observed when CRISPR/nuclease and 36 nt sense or anti-sense ssODNs were injected into embryos. All embryos exhibited mosaic mutations with KI and KO, or imprecise KI, of c-kit. Although further improvement of KI strategies is required, these results indicated that CRISPR/Cas9 may be utilized to produce KO/KI marmosets via gene editing.

3.
Nat Med ; 25(10): 1477-1487, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548702

RESUMO

De novo and inherited rare genetic disorders (RGDs) are a major cause of human morbidity, frequently involving neuropsychiatric symptoms. Recent advances in genomic technologies and data sharing have revolutionized the identification and diagnosis of RGDs, presenting an opportunity to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders by investigating the pathophysiology of high-penetrance genetic risk factors. Here we seek out the best path forward for achieving these goals. We think future research will require consistent approaches across multiple RGDs and developmental stages, involving both the characterization of shared neuropsychiatric dimensions in humans and the identification of neurobiological commonalities in model systems. A coordinated and concerted effort across patients, families, researchers, clinicians and institutions, including rapid and broad sharing of data, is now needed to translate these discoveries into urgently needed therapies.

4.
Cell ; 178(4): 867-886.e24, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398341

RESUMO

Somatosensory over-reactivity is common among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and is hypothesized to contribute to core ASD behaviors. However, effective treatments for sensory over-reactivity and ASDs are lacking. We found distinct somatosensory neuron pathophysiological mechanisms underlie tactile abnormalities in different ASD mouse models and contribute to some ASD-related behaviors. Developmental loss of ASD-associated genes Shank3 or Mecp2 in peripheral mechanosensory neurons leads to region-specific brain abnormalities, revealing links between developmental somatosensory over-reactivity and the genesis of aberrant behaviors. Moreover, acute treatment with a peripherally restricted GABAA receptor agonist that acts directly on mechanosensory neurons reduced tactile over-reactivity in six distinct ASD models. Chronic treatment of Mecp2 and Shank3 mutant mice improved body condition, some brain abnormalities, anxiety-like behaviors, and some social impairments but not memory impairments, motor deficits, or overgrooming. Our findings reveal a potential therapeutic strategy targeting peripheral mechanosensory neurons to treat tactile over-reactivity and select ASD-related behaviors.

5.
eNeuro ; 6(4)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371457

RESUMO

Microglia are specialized brain-resident macrophages with important functions in health and disease. To improve our understanding of these cells, the research community needs genetic tools to identify and control them in a manner that distinguishes them from closely related cell types. We have targeted the recently discovered microglia-specific Tmem119 gene to generate knock-in mice expressing EGFP (JAX#031823) or CreERT2 (JAX#031820) for the identification and manipulation of microglia, respectively. Genetic characterization of the locus and qPCR-based analysis demonstrate correct positioning of the transgenes and intact expression of endogenous Tmem119 in the knock-in mouse models. Immunofluorescence analysis further shows that parenchymal microglia, but not other brain macrophages, are completely and faithfully labeled in the EGFP-line at different time points of development. Flow cytometry indicates highly selective expression of EGFP in CD11b+CD45lo microglia. Similarly, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry analyses using a Cre-dependent reporter mouse line demonstrate activity of CreERT2 primarily in microglia upon tamoxifen administration with the caveat of activity in leptomeningeal cells. Finally, flow cytometric analyses reveal absence of EGFP expression and minimal activity of CreERT2 in blood monocytes of the Tmem119-EGFP and Tmem119-CreERT2 lines, respectively. These new transgenic lines extend the microglia toolbox by providing the currently most specific genetic labeling and control over these cells in the myeloid compartment of mice.

6.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 14(10): 967-973, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427746

RESUMO

Connecting neural circuit output to behaviour can be facilitated by the precise chemical manipulation of specific cell populations1,2. Engineered receptors exclusively activated by designer small molecules enable manipulation of specific neural pathways3,4. However, their application to studies of behaviour has thus far been hampered by a trade-off between the low temporal resolution of systemic injection versus the invasiveness of implanted cannulae or infusion pumps2. Here, we developed a remotely controlled chemomagnetic modulation-a nanomaterials-based technique that permits the pharmacological interrogation of targeted neural populations in freely moving subjects. The heat dissipated by magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in the presence of alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) triggers small-molecule release from thermally sensitive lipid vesicles with a 20 s latency. Coupled with the chemogenetic activation of engineered receptors, this technique permits the control of specific neurons with temporal and spatial precision. The delivery of chemomagnetic particles to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) allows the remote modulation of motivated behaviour in mice. Furthermore, this chemomagnetic approach activates endogenous circuits by enabling the regulated release of receptor ligands. Applied to an endogenous dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) agonist in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain area involved in mediating social interactions, chemomagnetic modulation increases sociability in mice. By offering a temporally precise control of specified ligand-receptor interactions in neurons, this approach may facilitate molecular neuroscience studies in behaving organisms.

7.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(8): 1223-1234, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332372

RESUMO

Social deficit is a core clinical feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unclear. We demonstrate that structural and functional impairments occur in glutamatergic synapses in the pyramidal neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in mice with a mutation in Shank3, a high-confidence candidate ASD gene. Conditional knockout of Shank3 in the ACC was sufficient to generate excitatory synaptic dysfunction and social interaction deficits, whereas selective enhancement of ACC activity, restoration of SHANK3 expression in the ACC, or systemic administration of an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor-positive modulator improved social behavior in Shank3 mutant mice. Our findings provide direct evidence for the notion that the ACC has a role in the regulation of social behavior in mice and indicate that ACC dysfunction may be involved in social impairments in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Comportamento Social , Animais , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácido Glutâmico , Asseio Animal , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Relações Interpessoais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mutação/genética , Optogenética , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Células Piramidais/patologia , Receptores de AMPA/agonistas , Sinapses/patologia
8.
Nature ; 570(7761): 326-331, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189958

RESUMO

Mutation or disruption of the SH3 and ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) gene represents a highly penetrant, monogenic risk factor for autism spectrum disorder, and is a cause of Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Recent advances in gene editing have enabled the creation of genetically engineered non-human-primate models, which might better approximate the behavioural and neural phenotypes of autism spectrum disorder than do rodent models, and may lead to more effective treatments. Here we report CRISPR-Cas9-mediated generation of germline-transmissible mutations of SHANK3 in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and their F1 offspring. Genotyping of somatic cells as well as brain biopsies confirmed mutations in the SHANK3 gene and reduced levels of SHANK3 protein in these macaques. Analysis of data from functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed altered local and global connectivity patterns that were indicative of circuit abnormalities. The founder mutants exhibited sleep disturbances, motor deficits and increased repetitive behaviours, as well as social and learning impairments. Together, these results parallel some aspects of the dysfunctions in the SHANK3 gene and circuits, as well as the behavioural phenotypes, that characterize autism spectrum disorder and Phelan-McDermid syndrome.

9.
Neuron ; 103(3): 473-488.e6, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202540

RESUMO

Innate defensive responses are essential for animal survival and are conserved across species. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays important roles in learned appetitive and aversive behaviors, but whether it plays a role in mediating or modulating innate defensive responses is currently unknown. We report that VTAGABA+ neurons respond to a looming stimulus. Inhibition of VTAGABA+ neurons reduced looming-evoked defensive flight behavior, and photoactivation of these neurons resulted in defense-like flight behavior. Using viral tracing and electrophysiological recordings, we show that VTAGABA+ neurons receive direct excitatory inputs from the superior colliculus (SC). Furthermore, we show that glutamatergic SC-VTA projections synapse onto VTAGABA+ neurons that project to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and that the CeA is involved in mediating the defensive behavior. Our findings demonstrate that aerial threat-related visual information is relayed to VTAGABA+ neurons mediating innate behavioral responses, suggesting a more general role of the VTA.


Assuntos
Reação de Fuga/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Vias Aferentes/fisiologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/fisiologia , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/fisiologia , Genes Reporter , Ácido Glutâmico/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Optogenética , Estimulação Luminosa , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/análise , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia
12.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(5): 700-708, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011227

RESUMO

Williams syndrome (WS), caused by a heterozygous microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypersociability and neurocognitive abnormalities. Of the deleted genes, general transcription factor IIi (Gtf2i) has been linked to hypersociability in WS, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We show that selective deletion of Gtf2i in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain caused neuroanatomical defects, fine motor deficits, increased sociability and anxiety. Unexpectedly, 70% of the genes with significantly decreased messenger RNA levels in the mutant mouse cortex are involved in myelination, and mutant mice had reduced mature oligodendrocyte cell numbers, reduced myelin thickness and impaired axonal conductivity. Restoring myelination properties with clemastine or increasing axonal conductivity rescued the behavioral deficits. The frontal cortex from patients with WS similarly showed reduced myelin thickness, mature oligodendrocyte cell numbers and mRNA levels of myelination-related genes. Our study provides molecular and cellular evidence for myelination deficits in WS linked to neuronal deletion of Gtf2i.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Remielinização/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição TFII/genética , Síndrome de Williams/genética , Animais , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Clemastina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Destreza Motora , Bainha de Mielina/ultraestrutura , Comportamento Social , Transcriptoma
13.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 145(2): 654, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823820

RESUMO

This paper introduces an end-to-end feedforward convolutional neural network that is able to reliably classify the source and type of animal calls in a noisy environment using two streams of audio data after being trained on a dataset of modest size and imperfect labels. The data consists of audio recordings from captive marmoset monkeys housed in pairs, with several other cages nearby. The network in this paper can classify both the call type and which animal made it with a single pass through a single network using raw spectrogram images as input. The network vastly increases data analysis capacity for researchers interested in studying marmoset vocalizations, and allows data collection in the home cage, in group housed animals.

14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1431, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926797

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by dysfunction in social interactions, stereotypical behaviours and high co-morbidity with intellectual disability. A variety of syndromic and non-syndromic neurodevelopmental disorders have been connected to alterations in metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) signalling. These receptors contribute to synaptic plasticity, spine maturation and circuit development. Here, we investigate the physiological role of Gprasp2, a gene linked to neurodevelopmental disabilities and involved in the postendocytic sorting of G-protein-coupled receptors. We show that Gprasp2 deletion leads to ASD-like behaviour in mice and alterations in synaptic communication. Manipulating the levels of Gprasp2 bidirectionally modulates the surface availability of mGluR5 and produces alterations in dendritic complexity, spine density and synaptic maturation. Loss of Gprasp2 leads to enhanced hippocampal long-term depression, consistent with facilitated mGluR-dependent activation. These findings demonstrate a role for Gprasp2 in glutamatergic synapses and suggest a possible mechanism by which this gene is linked to neurodevelopmental diseases.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Receptor de Glutamato Metabotrópico 5/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Espinhas Dendríticas/patologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/ultraestrutura , Deleção de Genes , Hipocampo/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Memória , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Mutantes , Transmissão Sináptica
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774584

RESUMO

Dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons modulate and control processes ranging from reward signaling to regulation of motor outputs. Further, dysfunction of these neurons is involved in both degenerative and psychiatric disorders. Elucidating the roles of these neurons has been greatly facilitated by bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic mouse lines expressing channelrhodopsin to readily enable cell-type specific activation. However, corresponding lines to silence these monoaminergic neurons have been lacking. We have generated two BAC transgenic mouse lines expressing the outward proton pump, enhanced ArchT3.0 (eArchT3.0), and GFP under control of the regulatory elements of either the dopamine transporter (DAT; Jax# 031663) or the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2; Jax# 031662) gene locus. We demonstrate highly faithful and specific expression of these lines in dopaminergic and serotonergic neurons respectively. Additionally we validate effective and sensitive eArchT3.0-mediated silencing of these neurons using slice electrophysiology as well as with a well-established behavioral assay. These new transgenic tools will help expedite the study of dopaminergic and serotonergic system function in normal behavior and disease.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Optogenética , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Channelrhodopsins/genética , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Estimulação Elétrica , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transfecção , Triptofano Hidroxilase/genética , Triptofano Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
16.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 44(1)2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403026

RESUMO

Background: Obsessive­compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric disorder that affects about 2% of the population, but the underlying neuropathophysiology of OCD is not well understood. Although increasing lines of evidence implicate dysfunction of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in OCD, a detailed understanding of the functional alterations in different neuronal types in the OFC is still elusive. Methods: We investigated detailed activity pattern changes in putative pyramidal neurons and interneurons, as well as local field potential oscillations, in the lateral OFC underlying OCD-relevant phenotypes. We applied in vivo multichannel recording in an awake OCD mouse model that carried a deletion of the Sapap3 gene, and in wildtype littermates. Results: Compared with wildtype mice, the lateral OFC of Sapap3 knockout mice exhibited network dysfunction, demonstrated by decreased power of local field potential oscillations. The activity of inhibitory and excitatory neurons in the lateral OFC showed distinct perturbations in Sapap3 knockout mice: putative interneurons exhibited increased activity; putative pyramidal neurons exhibited enhanced bursting activity; and both putative pyramidal neurons and interneurons exhibited enhanced discharge variability and altered synchronization. Limitations: To exclude motor activity confounders, this study examined functional alterations in lateral OFC neurons only when the mice were stationary. Conclusion: We provide, to our knowledge, the first direct in vivo electrophysiological evidence of detailed functional alterations in different neuronal types in the lateral OFC of an OCD mouse model. These findings may help in understanding the underlying neuropathophysiology and circuitry mechanisms for phenotypes relevant to OCD, and may help generate and refine hypotheses about potential biomarkers for further investigation.

17.
Front Neuroanat ; 12: 87, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429777

RESUMO

The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is the main source of inhibition to the somatosensory thalamus (ventrobasal nucleus, VB) in mice. However, the functional topography and development of these projections with respect to the VB barreloids has been largely unexplored. In this respect, to assist in the study of these projections, we have utilized a vesicular gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic mouse line to develop a brain slice preparation that enables the rapid identification of inhibitory neurons and projections. We demonstrate the utility of our in vitro brain slice preparation for physiologically mapping inhibitory reticulothalamic (RT) topography, using laser-scanning photostimulation via glutamate uncaging. Furthermore, we utilized this slice preparation to compare the development of excitatory and inhibitory projections to VB. We found that excitatory projections to the barreloids, created by ascending projections from the brain stem, develop by postnatal day 2-3 (P2-P3). By contrast, inhibitory projections to the barreloids lag ~5 days behind excitatory projections to the barreloids, developing by P7-P8. We probed this lag in inhibitory projection development through early postnatal whisker lesions. We found that in whisker-lesioned animals, the development of inhibitory projections to the barreloids closed by P4, in register with that of the excitatory projections to the barreloids. Our findings demonstrate both developmental and topographic organizational features of the RT projection to the VB barreloids, whose mechanisms can now be further examined utilizing the VGAT-Venus mouse slice preparation that we have characterized.

18.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988084

RESUMO

Mutation in the SHANK3 human gene leads to different neuropsychiatric diseases including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), intellectual disabilities and Phelan-McDermid syndrome. Shank3 disruption in mice leads to dysfunction of synaptic transmission, behavior, and development. Protein S-nitrosylation, the nitric oxide (NO•)-mediated posttranslational modification (PTM) of cysteine thiols (SNO), modulates the activity of proteins that regulate key signaling pathways. We tested the hypothesis that Shank3 mutation would generate downstream effects on PTM of critical proteins that lead to modification of synaptic functions. SNO-proteins in two ASD-related brain regions, cortex and striatum of young and adult InsG3680(+/+) mice (a human mutation-based Shank3 mouse model), were identified by an innovative mass spectrometric method, SNOTRAP. We found changes of the SNO-proteome in the mutant compared to WT in both ages. Pathway analysis showed enrichment of processes affected in ASD. SNO-Calcineurin in mutant led to a significant increase of phosphorylated Synapsin1 and CREB, which affect synaptic vesicle mobilization and gene transcription, respectively. A significant increase of 3-nitrotyrosine was found in the cortical regions of the adult mutant, signaling both oxidative and nitrosative stress. Neuronal NO• Synthase (nNOS) was examined for levels and localization in neurons and no significant difference was found in WT vs. mutant. S-nitrosoglutathione concentrations were higher in mutant mice compared to WT. This is the first study on NO•-related molecular changes and SNO-signaling in the brain of an ASD mouse model that allows the characterization and identification of key proteins, cellular pathways, and neurobiological mechanisms that might be affected in ASD.

19.
J Cell Biol ; 217(10): 3747-3765, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054448

RESUMO

Astrocytes control excitatory synaptogenesis by secreting thrombospondins (TSPs), which function via their neuronal receptor, the calcium channel subunit α2δ-1. α2δ-1 is a drug target for epilepsy and neuropathic pain; thus the TSP-α2δ-1 interaction is implicated in both synaptic development and disease pathogenesis. However, the mechanism by which this interaction promotes synaptogenesis and the requirement for α2δ-1 for connectivity of the developing mammalian brain are unknown. In this study, we show that global or cell-specific loss of α2δ-1 yields profound deficits in excitatory synapse numbers, ultrastructure, and activity and severely stunts spinogenesis in the mouse cortex. Postsynaptic but not presynaptic α2δ-1 is required and sufficient for TSP-induced synaptogenesis in vitro and spine formation in vivo, but an α2δ-1 mutant linked to autism cannot rescue these synaptogenesis defects. Finally, we reveal that TSP-α2δ-1 interactions control synaptogenesis postsynaptically via Rac1, suggesting potential molecular mechanisms that underlie both synaptic development and pathology.

20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 84(12): 917-925, 2018 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) that do not respond to conventional therapies. Although the precise mechanism of action of DBS remains unknown, modulation of activity in corticofugal fibers originating in the prefrontal cortex is thought to underlie its beneficial effects in OCD. METHODS: To gain more mechanistic insight into DBS in OCD, we used Sapap3 mutant mice. These mice display excessive self-grooming and increased anxiety, both of which are responsive to therapeutic drugs used in OCD patients. We selected two clinically relevant DBS targets through which activity in prefronto-corticofugal fibers may be modulated: the internal capsule (IC) and the dorsal part of the ventral striatum (dVS). RESULTS: IC-DBS robustly decreased excessive grooming, whereas dVS-DBS was on average less effective. Grooming was reduced rapidly after IC-DBS onset and reinstated upon DBS offset. Only IC-DBS was associated with increased locomotion. DBS in both targets induced c-Fos expression around the electrode tip and in different regions of the prefrontal cortex. This prefronto-cortical activation was more extensive after IC-DBS, but not associated with behavioral effects. Furthermore, we found that the decline in grooming cannot be attributed to altered locomotor activity and that anxiety, measured on the elevated plus maze, was not affected by DBS. CONCLUSIONS: DBS in both the IC and dVS reduces compulsive grooming in Sapap3 mutant mice. However, IC stimulation was more effective, but also produced motor activation, even though both DBS targets modulated activity in a similar set of prefrontal cortical fibers.

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